Arthropology; paleontologists Discovery


Arthropology; paleontologists Discovery

Work type: Coursework
Academic level: College (3-4 years: Junior, Senior)
Subject or discipline: Anthropology
Title: Writer’s choice
Number of sources: 3
Provide digital sources used: No
Paper format: MLA
# of pages: 3
Spacing: Double spaced
# of words: 825
# of slides: ppt icon 0
# of charts: 0
Paper details:
2. Develop a detailed, illustrated or illuminated overview of what paleontologists have discovered regarding the origin and evolutionary history of the mammalian order Cetacea (whales and dolphins). Include a phylogeny with Indohyus, Pakicetus. Ambulocetus, Rhodocetus, Durodon, and the modern Odontocetes (toothed whales and dolphins) and Mysticetes (baleen whales). Discuss evidence from the double pulley astragaus found in Indohyus and Pakicetus, that whales are descended from ancient artiodactyls (even toed ungulates) and therefore belong to the artiodactyl clade. Explain the significance of the thick, dense involucrum found in Pakicetus (a synapomorphy found in all whales). Finally, discuss the fossil evidence for the progressive reduction nd eventual loss of hind legs by ancestral whales, as well as the isotopic evidence for the timing of the adaptive shift by ancestral whales from fresh water to marine habitats.
3. In the “Your Inner Fish” video series, Neil Shubin shows that “we humans are all, every one of us, just jury-rigged fish”. Consider what scientists have discovered regarding the great transformations in vertebrate evolution and explain why the statement: whales are all, every one of them, just jury-rigged fish” is equally valid. Consider the following steps in whale evolutionary history: Tiktaalik (the flat headed traditional fish/ tetrapod found in 375 My old deposits on Ellsmere Island), Early Tetrapods (Paleozoic amphibians like Eryops), Late Permian Gorgonopsids (≈265-252 Mya), Early Triassic therapsids that survived the “Permo- Triassic Mass Extinction” of ≈ 245 Mya like Trinaxodon, the earliest mammals (from≈ 195 Mya) such as Hadrocodiem, Mesozoic placental mammals like Juramaia, early condylarths like Protungulatrm, and the carious whale lineages starting from Indohyus, through Pachycetus, Ambulocetus, Rhodocetus, Durodon, etc. to modern Odontocetes (toothed whales and dolphins) and Mysticetes (baleen whales like the humpback and blue whales). Use and cite information included in your answer to question #2.
  1. Develop a detailed, illustrated or illuminated overview of what paleontologists have discovered regarding the origin and evolutionary history of the mammalian order Cetacea (whales and dolphins). Include a phylogeny with Indohyus, Pakicetus. Ambulocetus, Rhodocetus, Durodon, and the modern Odontocetes (toothed whales and dolphins) and Mysticetes (baleen whales). Discuss evidence from the double pulley astragaus found in Indohyus and Pakicetus, that whales are descended from ancient artiodactyls (even toed ungulates) and therefore belong to the artiodactyl clade.Explain the significance of the thick, dense involucrum found in Pakicetus (a synapomorphy found in all whales). Finally, discuss the fossil evidence for the progressive reduction nd eventual loss of hind legs by ancestral whales, as well as the isotopic evidence for the timing of the adaptive shift by ancestral whales from fresh water to marine habitats.
  2. In the “Your Inner Fish” video series, Neil Shubin shows that “we humans are all, every one of us, just jury-rigged fish”. Consider what scientists have discovered regarding the great transformations in vertebrate evolution and explain why the statement: whales are all, every one of them, just jury-rigged fish” is equally valid. Consider the following steps in whale evolutionary history: Tiktaalik (the flat headed traditional fish/ tetrapod found in 375 My old deposits on Ellsmere Island), Early Tetrapods (Paleozoic amphibians like Eryops), Late Permian Gorgonopsids (≈265-252 Mya), Early Triassic therapsids that survived the “Permo- Triassic Mass Extinction” of ≈ 245 Mya like Trinaxodon, the earliest mammals (from≈ 195 Mya) such as Hadrocodiem, Mesozoic placental mammals like Juramaia, early condylarths like Protungulatrm, and the carious whale lineages starting from Indohyus, through Pachycetus, Ambulocetus, Rhodocetus, Durodon, etc. to modern Odontocetes (toothed whales and dolphins) and Mysticetes (baleen whales like the humpback and blue whales). Use and cite information included in your answer to question #2.

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