# Quantitative research exercise-Statistics

Quantitative research exercise-Statistics

Imagine you are taking part in a project exploring Middlesex University’s undergraduate students’ use of social networking sites (SNS).

The overall objectives of the study are as follows:

• Explore how students use SNS
• Test whether or not there is any statistical association between student’s use of SNS and their personal characteristics (e.g. age, gender, year of study, etc.)
• Test whether or not there is a statistically significant relationship between student’s use of SNS and their academic learning

Within this broad objective, you may want to give your study a clearer focus – looking into a specific aspect or, for example, building on what you have learned with your earlier qualitative exercise.

As an experienced quantitative researcher you have been asked to conduct a survey, based on a structured questionnaire. A crucial  part of good research design concerns making sure that the questionnaire design addresses the needs and the objectives of the research. In other words, it is important to ensure that the questions asked are the right ones.

# 1. Design a questionnaire, which must include:

1. An introduction to the research, the researcher and explain any confidentiality issues;
2. 10 questions (=10 variables) which relate to the objectives of the research.

Different types of questions should be used, e.g. closed, single vs. multiple responses, ranking, and rating.  Due to the difficulty of analysing open responses, you should not include open-ended questions in your questionnaire. Moreover, when designing your questionnaire it is imperative that you take into consideration the types of statistical methods that you wish to use to analyse your data once it is collected.

Note: Before setting-up the questionnaire for data-collection with SurveyMonkey (next task), it is advisable that you pilot (or ‘pretest’) your questionnaire, using a paper version of it. Piloting is a crucial step to ensure any kind of error or problem associated with survey research are reduced before you start collecting the data. This will help you to improve the quality of data significantly.

Pilots are usually conducted on a small sample of respondents  from the target population. Here you can pretest your questionnaire on at least one (1) student. Based on how it goes you may decide to revise the questionnaire and then move to data collection.

# 2. Set-up and administer an online questionnaire with SurveyMonkey

• Register for a free SurveyMonkey account (all information about SurveyMonkey are available here: http://www.surveymonkey.com)
• Set-up your on-line questionnaire (based on what you designed in task 1)
• Send a link to your SurveyMonkey survey to fellow students in order to collect 20 completed questionnaires. (You should ensure you get a well- balanced sample – e.g. 10 males and 10 females – also depending on what your variables are).

For this part, please provide me with the table of all data. You may just make up the possible answers for all survey questions reasonably and I will then create a surveymonkey account to enter the data myself.

# 3. Enter and analyse your results into SPSS

• Enter the data from SurveyMonkey into and SPSS data file (ways to do this will be discussed during the seminars)
• Ensure the dataset is properly organised and that all variables are coded properly (e.g. for gender, you could use male=1 and female = 2). Always double check both the ‘Variable view’ and ‘Data view’ in SPSS.
• Analyse the data-set with SPSS, producing outputs tables (which you should include in your report, see next task)

# 4. Write a brief reflective report (1000-1500 words)

The report must include the following parts:

• Introduction to the study, including aim and objectives;
• Survey methodology including: how you have determined a certain set of questions and responses to those questions; sampling criteria; issues of confidentiality
• Presentation and discussion of results of the survey, with tables and comments (n.b. tables are not included in the word count)
• A description of your experience of conducting a survey, reflecting on the advantages and disadvantages of such an approach.
• References (Note: it is important that you draw on the relevant and appropriate literature in your reflective report. So please ensure that you add the appropriate references at the end of the report)
• Your questionnaire (at the end, as an appendix – not included in the word count).

# Assessment Criteria:

• Your work will be judged on the extent to which you have addressed all the requirements successfully. Your lecturer will specifically assess the following:
• You developed a structured questionnaire using SurveyMonkey, based on ten questions that meet the objectives of the study. [15 marks]
• You have surveyed 20 students successfully, using SurveyMonkey [10 marks]
• You have entered the data into SPSS and coded the variables properly [10 marks]
• You have appropriately conducted and presented  data-analysis (e.g. creating and commenting on frequency distribution tables for all variables). [10 marks]
• You have tested and discussed whether there is any statistically significant relationship between relevant variables (including Chi-squared test). [10 marks]
• Your report is properly structured and presented  (including tables as appropriate) [10 marks]
• Your report discusses aims, objectives and methodological issues [15 marks]
• Your report includes a description of your work and experience [10 marks]
• Your report includes appropriate referencing [10 marks]

# Assignment 2 – Implementation of Algorithms and Data Structures

Software Technology 2 (7170)

Assignment 2 – Implementation of Algorithms and Data Structures

Type: Individual assignment

Submission: A Word file that contains Java code listings and test cases (including input, output and your comments) for each of the questions listed below. Submit this Word file via Moodle.  Email submission is not accepted. Tutors will test your Java code listings and test cases on Hacker Rank or Tutorials Point.

Total mark: 20

Proportion of unit assessment: 20%

Late submission: 5% of the total mark (i.e., 1 mark) per day.

Note– 5 marks if Google Java Style is not used

• [4 marks]
1.  [2 marks] Implement a generic Stack<T> class using an array T[] for storing elements. Your class should include a constructor method, which takes as argument the capacity of the stack, push, pop and peek methods, and a size method which returns the number of elements stored. Implement dynamic resizing for this stack.
2. [2 marks] Write a program to test your implementation of this Stack class. You also need to provide at least 4 test cases for this program to test all the methods including constructor, push, pop, peek and size, and to test dynamic resizing.

Submission: A report that shows how to implement dynamic resizing. A Java program that contains this Stack class and all test cases. Tutor will run your program on Tutorials Point web site. Your program will have no input at runtime and will output results for all test cases at the same time.

• You cannot use any existing Stack class in Java library to implement this Stack. Use an array to implement this Stack.

Hint: Think of an efficient algorithm for dynamic resizing first.

• [4 marks]
1.  [2 marks] Implement a generic Queue<T> class that has enqueue, dequeue and peek methods and all of these methods must be O(1) time. This class also has a min method which returns the minimum value stored in the queue, and throws an exception if the queue is empty. Assume elements are comparable. If the queue contains n elements, you can use O(n) space, in addition to what is required for the elements themselves.
2. [2 marks] Write a program to test your implementation of this Queue<T> class. You also need to provide at least 4 test cases for this program to test all the methods including enqueue, dequeue, peek and min.

Submission: A report that shows how the enqueue, dequeue and peek methods are O(1) time. A Java program that contains the queue class and all test cases. Tutor will run your program on Tutorials Point web site. Your program will have no input at runtime and will output results for all test cases at the same time.

• You cannot use any existing queue class in Java library to implement this queue, however other data structures (ArrayList, LinkedList, Stack, etc.) are acceptable.

Hint: Compare different data structures in Java and choose an appropriate one. Check their Big-O for time and space efficiency.

• [4 marks]
1. [2 marks] Implement a generic queue class named InefficientQueue<T> in terms of two internal stacks.  The methods required in this class are enqueue, dequeue, and peek.  The goal of this problem is to get you to use the stack abstraction while implementing a queue abstraction. This method for implementing a queue is quite inefficient (thus the name of the class).  Why is this so?
2. [2 marks] Write a program to test your implementation of this queue class. You also need to provide at least 4 test cases for this program to test all the methods including enqueue, dequeue and peek.

Submission: A report that explain why this queue is inefficient. A Java program that contains the InefficientQueue class and all test cases. Tutor will run your program on Tutorials Point web site. Your program will have no input at runtime and will output results for all test cases at the same time.

• [4 marks]

Implement the RemoveBefore(int nodeValue) [1 mark] and RemoveAfter(int nodeValue) [1 mark] methods for a LinkedList class.

The RemoveBefore (RemoveAfter) method removes the node before (after) the node having the given node value. The internal class Node [1 mark] to build the LinkedList class has only an integer value, nodeValue, and a single link, next, that links to the node just behind the given node. You also need to implement the Add(int nodeValue) method [1 mark] for the LinkedList class using the internal Node class.

Submission: a Java program that contains the Node and LinkedList classes, your method implementation, and all test cases. Tutor will run your program on Tutorials Point web site. Your program will have no input at runtime and will output results for all test cases at the same time.

Hint: You cannot use any existing LinkedList and Node classes in Java library

• [4 marks]
1. [2 marks] Write a method that takes a sorted integer array A and a key k and returns the index of the first occurrence of k in A. Return -1 if k does not appear in A. For example, when applied to the array in Figure 12.1 below, your algorithm should return 3 if k = 108; if k = 285, your algorithm should return 6.
2. [2 marks] Write a Java program to test this method and provide at least 4 test cases for this program.

Submission: The Java method and program and all test cases. Tutor will run your program on Tutorials Point web site. Your program will have no input at runtime and will output results for all test cases at the same time.

References:

[1] Gayle Laakmann. Cracking the Coding Interview.

[2] Adnan Aziz, Tsung-Hsien Lee and Amit Prakash. Elements of Program Interviews.

— END —

# Network Requirements and Business Drivers

Subject or discipline: IT, Web Executive Summary 3 No
Paper format: APA 3 Double spaced 825 ppt icon 0 0

# Aspect of the Vietnam War

 Aspect of the Vietnam War
Subject or discipline: Cultural and Ethnic Studies Aspect of the Vietnam War 0 No
Paper format: MLA 2 Double spaced 550
Paper details: Discipline: Asian American Studies

The assignment:

Interview someone who was out of high school and in the United States during the Vietnam War, 1965-1975. You need to have a paragraph about the interviewee’s background. The person does not have to be Vietnamese or a veteran. The paper will be graded on its readability, organization and editing. The length of the paper should be two pages. Do not use the person’s actual name.

Your interview is to get the person’s opinion about any aspect of the Vietnam War. There is no set rules or requirements of the interview. It may take one interview or two interview sessions. Some of the questions below might not be appropriate. You might not need to use all of the points below. A few suggestions might be:

1. Did the war affect their lives or their families’ lives.

2. If it did affect their lives, in what way.

3. As part of the public, what views or opinion did they have about the war.

4. Did their view stay the same or change from the beginning to the end of the war?

# Hammeron, Accounting;

Academic level: Master’s Accounting hammeron 7 No
Paper format: Other: harvard citation 2 Single spaced 1100

 Key element Achieved (√/X) Comment Company Audit Background  of company Company Structure Outlined Competitors are identified and discussed  Introduction Company has been researched for adequate information to complete tasks and reported

# EDUC 303/503: Curriculum Analysis F2014.OL

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EDUC 303/503: Curriculum Analysis F2014.OL
CURRICULUM ANALYSIS
For this assignment, you will analyze the instructional value of a lesson plan for elementary, middle, or high school students. You may either use a lesson plan you have created in a previous course or you may locate one on the internet. This assignment will help ground our readings and discussions of development, learning, cognition, instruction, assessment, and individual and group differences. Students are expected to work on this assignment individually, although there will be ample course time for consultation and discussion.
Assignment Instructions:
1. Determine the subject area and grade level of the lesson plan you wish to analyze. You may wish to choose a lesson plan that is in a subject area that you plan to teach.
2. Look through the various web sites listed below or on D2L to find a lesson plan. You may also use a lesson plan you have made in another course or from another source available to you. A high quality, clearly written lesson plan will be easier to analyze for instructional value than a poor quality or unclearly written lesson plan. Please select accordingly.
3. Choose and answer THREE of the questions listed on the last page of this assignment packet.
1. Briefly describe the lesson plan you have selected in your own words, including the subject area and grade level. Identify the learning objectives or outcomes in your description. You are allowed to use portions of your D2L post for this portion of the paper.
2. Answer each of your chosen questions thoroughly (see last page). Each question should take approximately 1 – 2 paragraphs to answer, and not longer than 1 full page per question. Include the question topic as your header for each section and cite the textbook in APA style where appropriate (Eggen & Kauchak, 2013, p. 201). See the D2L page for an APA template for this assignment.
3. Provide an introduction and a conclusion to your discussion. Consider how the topics of your questions work together and frame your write-up accordingly.
4. Include a complete copy of the lesson plan at the end of the paper.
5. Each write-up should be approximately 4-7 pages (double spaced) total, not including the copy of the lesson plan, APA title and references pages.
EDUC 303/503: Curriculum Analysis F2014.OL
2
Where to Find Lesson Plans
Scores of lesson plans are available online, so your next step is to fire up Google. For example, searching for “math lesson plans” will bring up pages of hits. Roughly, the links will be of four classes:
I. Lessons created by classroom teachers. These are often collected by clearinghouse sites.
http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/lesson_plans/
http://www.col-ed.org/cur/
http://www.lessonplanz.com/Lesson_Plans/
 Note that these range wildly in quality. Do not just settle for the first one you find.
II. Lessons created by professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NTCM).
http://illuminations.nctm.org/
 These reflect best practices in the field, and are typically quite good.
III. Lessons created by textbook publishers. Publishers of course want you to buy their expensive textbooks. However, as a kind of advertising, they often make available a few free lessons for each grade level. One example is:
http://www.mathgoodies.com/lessons/
IV. Lessons created by university researchers as parts of projects to improve curriculum. Some examples include:
http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/curriculum/mathematics/elementary/
http://mathforum.org/
Many of these projects have been purchased by textbook publishers, and the researchers’ websites will not provide any lessons, but rather will direct you to the textbook publishers’ sites. There are other sources of lessons. You may also use Google, contact teachers that you’ve worked with or know, or select a lesson plan you have previously developed for a course. Those of you in licensure programs can use your instructors in your areas as resources as well. Just make sure to read the questions below first to ensure that the lesson is complex enough to analyze in this format.
EDUC 303/503: Curriculum Analysis F2014.OL
3
Questions
Analyze the lesson from the perspective of the theories and experiments we are covering in class. Select any THREE of the following questions to address in your write-up:
1. Cognitive Development: From a cognitive development perspective, is the lesson appropriate given the known cognitive capacities of children of that age? Make sure to describe and provide a theoretical basis for you argument. Include a discussion of either the Piagetian or Vygotskyan theory of cognitive development.
2. Information Processing: How can the information processing model describe the movement of information in this lesson plan? What cognitive processes are used? Are these processes encouraging deep or shallow processing? How is information successfully encoded? How is cognitive load managed? Be sure to discuss sensory, working, and long-term memory in your response.
3. Behaviorism/Social Learning: What elements of operant conditioning are present in the lesson plan? How are reinforcers used to build skills/expertise in the subject area? Are there elements of social learning? Describe any examples of modeling and why you think they would or would not be effective.
4. Assessment: How is achievement in this lesson plan formally assessed? Through tests? Written reports? Class presentations? Portfolios? What would be the best way to go about assessing this lesson plan? What strategies should a teacher delivering this lesson plan use to increase reliability and to provide evidence of validity?
5. Individual and Group Differences: How is or could the lesson plan be made appropriate for important individual and group differences learners may have? Describe at least two important learner differences and how those differences are addressed in the lesson plan (i.e., SES, culture, prior knowledge, gender, exceptionality status, or others).
EDUC 303/503: Curriculum Analysis F2014.OL
4
Scoring Criteria
Absent
Below Average
Average
Above Average
Excellent
– Unclear and confusing information presented.
– Citations absent.
– Numerous grammatical and spelling errors.
– Independent, critical thought not present throughout.
– Information unevenly presented, some clarity present
– Few spelling errors & grammar errors, citations
– Uneven independent and critical thinking present.
– Information and writing mostly clear
– Spelling & grammar errors rare, well cited
– Independent and critical thinking mostly present throughout
– Information and writing clear & unambiguous to reader
– Spelling & grammar errors completely absent, fully cited
– Independent and critical thinking throughout
APA Title Page
0
1 – 5
6 – 7
8 – 9
10
Lesson Plan Copy & Description
0
1 – 15
16 – 17
18 – 19
20
Introduction
0
1 – 15
16 – 17
18 – 19
20
Question #1
0
1 – 31
32 – 35
36 – 39
40
Question #2
0
1 – 31
32 – 35
36 – 39
40
Question #3
0
1 – 31
32 – 35
36 – 39
40
Conclusion
0
1 – 15
16 – 17
18 – 19
20
APA References Page
0
1 – 5
6 – 7
8 – 9
10
TOTAL
100 pts.

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# Air conditioning in building; UMass Boston or the New England region.

Air conditioning in building

Subject or discipline: Economics Air conditioning in building 3 No
Paper format: MLA 6 Double spaced 1650 ppt icon 0 1

# Financial Decision Making

Financial Decision MakingBudgeting and Performance Management

 Financial Decision Making
Subject or discipline: Finance Financial Decision Making 3 No
Paper format: Other: Harvard referencing style 3 Double spaced 825
 PLEASE LABEL EACH OF THE QUESTION AT THE FRONT Required Q1. Prepare an expense budget for the Department based on  budgeted production. ANSWER Q2. Prepare a flexible budget for the department based on actual  production ANSWER Q3. Use the flexible budget to calculate variances from actual results  for the month. ANSWER Q4. Identify the variances that the department manager would need  to investigate and provide reasons for your choices. ANSWER Q5. Suggest possible causes for those variances. ANSWER

Financial Decision MakingBudgeting and Performance Management

Wow Windows Ltd produces housing windows. It operates a number of departments. Your task involves one department (metal stamping) that produces three parts. The company has a detailed budgeting process which involves flexible budgeting. Responsibility accounting is used as part of the budgeting process. Detailed reports by department are prepared each month, and managers are responsible for explaining variances.

The department produces three products – a Basic Frame, Triple window Frame and a Dual Slide Window Frame. Only one raw material is used – metal sheets. The output of the department is measured in direct machine hours. The following data is provided:

1. Planned output in July – Basic Frame 900 units, Triple Window Frame 750 units, Dual Slide Window Frame 800 units
2. Planned rates and costs: Raw Material metal sheets – Planned purchase price per sheet \$56.00

Planned usage rates per unit of finished product: Basic Frame requires 1 metal sheet Triple Window Frame requires 3 metal sheets Dual Slide Window Frame requires 2 metal sheets

Direct Labour – Average wage rate \$64.00 per hour Basic Frame requires 1 direct labour hours Triple Window Frame requires 3 direct labour hours Dual Slide Window Frame requires 2 direct labour hours.

Flexible budget for the department:

 Cost Fixed cost per month Variable cost per budgeted direct machine hour Indirect materials 0 \$0.70 Indirect labour \$1,540 \$1.25 Miscellaneous \$750 \$0.35 Share of Admin salaries \$15,800 0 Supervision salaries \$21,600 0 Depreciation \$7,640 0 Insurance and Taxes \$3,560 0

Share of Admin salaries, supervision salaries, depreciation and insurance and taxes are not controllable within the department.

Budgeted direct machine hours per unit Basic Frame 2 hours

Triple Window Frame 3 hours Dual Slide Window Frame 3 hours

1. Actual data provided by the accounting department:

Output in Jul Basic Frame 850 units

Triple Window Frame 800 units

Dual Slide Window Frame 870 units. Purchases of the metal sheet raw material in June 9,000 units at \$55.50. (Approximately a 3 month supply) Raw material issued to production – 5,000 metal sheets. Direct labour costs for July was 5,100 hours at a cost of \$328,950.

 Cost Amount \$ Indirect materials 4,080 Indirect labour 10,500 Miscellaneous 3,500 Share of Admin salaries 15,000 Supervision salaries 22,000 Depreciation 7,640 Insurance and Taxes 3,560

Actual direct machine hours for July 5,100 hours

Required

1. Prepare an expense budget for the Department based on budgeted production.
2. Prepare a flexible budget for the department based on actual production
3. Use the flexible budget to calculate variances from actual results for the month.
4. Identify the variances that the department manager would need to investigate and provide reasons for your choices.
5. Suggest possible causes for those variances.

# Renal Physiology Lab

Renal Physiology Lab
Approach to, and interpretation of, the results from the Renal Physiology Lab
The renal lab is informative, but we always run into the problem that some individuals simply don’t serve as textbook cases of renal function. There are a number of potential reasons for this, including what they have drunk and eaten for breakfast and lunch on the day of the laboratory, caffeine consumption, etc., but the basic fact is that you may find the measurements and calculations for some members of your group don’t appear to represent what would reasonably be predicted. Additionally, some people were not capable of urinating every 30 min, or even more than once during the lab. Not to worry, you’ve been provided with the results of all 5 groups (a total of 36 students), so you have data from 36 subjects to examine and to help you find reasonable responses. The only way we could tighten up the data considerably would be to supervise diets and activities for a day or two before the lab.
By now or by the time you will start writing the report you are/will be familiar with the function kidney plays in the homeostatic adjustment of: (1) the osmotic pressures of the body fluids; (2) the volumes of the body fluids; (3) the pH of the body fluids (normal body fluid pH is about 7.4), and; (4) the electrolyte concentrations of the body fluids. Thus, if any of these parameters is disrupted, the kidneys will function to adjust them back to normal values.
Kidney Function – Summary
1. Nephrons are the functional units of your kidneys. There are millions of them. When blood flows into the kidneys, some of the fluid portion of the blood (i.e., the blood plasma) is filtered into small tubular structures called nephrons. Larger molecules, such as proteins, are left in the blood, but smaller molecules pass into the nephron with the plasma.
2. The filtered plasma moves through the nephron, and as it does so the nephron uses membrane transport mechanisms to reabsorb molecules that the body needs. That is, molecules that need to be retained in the body are moved back to the blood and the other body fluids.
3. Molecules that are present in excess in the body fluids will not be reabsorbed, or will be reabsorbed only in limited amounts. Molecules that don’t get reabsorbed have no alternative but to end up in the urine, and so will be eliminated from the body.
4. So, needed molecules get reabsorbed at the kidneys, and molecules in excess get dumped in the urine – the end product being homeostasis.
Given these basic facts, consider the following. If you drank 800 ml of water, and you weren’t thirsty, would you expect that in response to this unneeded water for: urine volume and rate of formation to go down, or for the specific gravity of the urine to increase? Your kidneys would be expected to get rid of the excess water, and so bring the volume and electrolyte concentrations of your body fluids back to normal. Thus you would expect there to be a greater volume of water in the urine, a higher rate of urine formation, and a drop in the specific gravity due to the extra water diluting any electrolytes in the urine. [Since your body fluids were diluted by the excess water, the kidneys would also tend to reabsorb more electrolytes from the filtered plasma in the nephrons,
2
instead of voiding them in the urine, and that would also help to adjust electrolyte concentration back to normal. However, you really don’t have a way to pick this up readily from the lab data].
The adjustments the kidneys make happen pretty quickly. For most subjects, the response that is seen through urine analysis will peak in about an hour or so, and then decline as the correction is completed. This varies from person to person, as you will see by comparing different individuals who drank the same solutions, but is the typical situation.
How is the data presented:
There are several ways to assemble data. I have assembled the semi-analyzed data in the tabular form under two broad sections- Pre-treatment (T=0) and Post-treatment (average values for T=30-120). The post treatment values are averages of values obtained from the entire 2 hour session after drinking the test solutions. Under each section the values for the four parameters tested (Rate of urine formation, pH, Specific Gravity and amount of NaCl in urine) are provided for each subject in columns (every group has atleast 7 subjects who participated and provided the data) and for each group (A/B/C/D/E) in rows. The last column in each of the two sections provides a mean value from all the subjects in that group for each of the four parameter tested. Feel free to re-assemble the data in any other way, if that helps you look at and interpret it better.
Note: You will be expected to draw graphs for each of the four parameters (rate of urine formation, pH, Specific gravity and NaCl) and compare the pre-treatment and post treatment values. Based on those graphs write a two-page report about your findings and conclusions.
How to Use the Data
Again, there are various ways to interpret a large volume of data such as this. You could compare within a group (e.g. changes in mean pH values in group D before and after treatment), or between groups (e.g. changes in pH values between group A and group D before and after treatment), in a subject (e.g. change in values pre-and post-treatment in subject 1 of group A, between individual subjects in the group, so on and so forth. In general, it’s a good idea to compare the mean values for a group since it would reflect a general trend instead of individual variations that might skew interpretation. When you compare data, comment on whether any change you observe is along predictable lines and if not; provide any insights into why the data surprised you. To help you with the data interpretation here are a few basic things to consider:
1. The person who is the control should not be expected to deviate in any significant way from normal values for any of the normal urine parameters, since s/he didn’t drink any of the test solutions. This assumption, of course, is completely out-the-window if the control persons drank two liters of their favorite drink at lunch! Thus, a good question to ask is whether the control group members appear to be functioning as a representative control.
2. As with the controls, others in your or other groups may have produced data that don’t seem to represent homeostatic renal function. That’s ok- we are dealing with real physiology here.
3. In approaching the data ask the following questions:
(a) How would ingestion of solution X have perturbed any of the parameters that are
3
regulated by the kidney, and;
(b) How could the kidney make adjustments that would be reflected in the composition of the urine, and would correct these perturbations? That is to say, what would be reabsorbed, and what would be dumped in the urine.
For example, what if a person who drank the 1000 ml of water at time zero showed consistently low urine volumes and rates of urine formation, and maintained normal to high specific gravities? Why this sort of response might be observed instead of what is expected? How about, maybe that person came into the laboratory dehydrated, and so the 1000 ml of water simply took care of that problem, diluting the body fluids to normal values instead of diluting them beyond normal values?
4. What about NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate)? It is a basic/alkaline molecule. It is also part of the buffer system that regulates the pH of the body fluids. If it’s present in excess in the body fluids, what do you think will happen in the kidneys, and how will that response affect the pH of the urine? The bicarbonate, to make its taste less obnoxious, is drunk in 300 ml of water. Could that water volume affect any of the parameters you measured? Do the data show such a response?
5. NaCl intake should produce an obvious imbalance, and so produce a response in terms of NaCl in the urine, and in terms of specific gravity of the urine. Check out rate of urine formation also, since intake of Na+ can reduce urine volume.
6. You may want to compare responses to a given solution across different subjects in a group. Is there an obvious trend for each solution, accepting the fact that some people probably won’t fit the norm?
7. Keep in mind that the time = 0 min values can be influenced by all sorts of things that happened before students came to lab. Ask yourself whether they are reasonable, and consider any trends in the post treatment values (time = 30-120 min) if the initial values are a bit unusual.
The lab reports are due as attachment to email (sent to me- kurian@cua.edu) by Thursday April 28.

# Finance-Call Option

Finance-Call Option

Choose a call option for one stock. Record the current stock price, the option cost, the strike price, the expiration date and the date when you record these numbers (because the stock price and option cost would change with time). Choose the put with the same strike price for the same stock and record the same information. The option prices should not be zero.

1. Use a 10-step binomial tree with risk neutral pricing to price the call option assuming that it is a European call option.
2. Use a 10-step binomial tree with risk neutral pricing to price the put option assuming  (1) It is a European put option (2) It is an American put option  Inputs:
1. Current stock price.
2. Strike price.
3. Time to maturity = time to expiration date = the days between the date you  record (price) the option and the expiration day. Convert the days into years.
4. Assume risk free rate = 3 % annually.
5. Underlying stock volatility. Get the past five years’ monthly data for this  stock and calculate the annual volatility of the stock returns.