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Food Microbiology – ONPS1042


ASSIGNMENT 1 – written communication task


Literature review

Each student submit their own literature review. Write a section on each of the following chemicals used for microbial preservation of food. Chemicals to be covered should include:  x Nitrite/nitrate

x sulphur dioxide

x introduce the use of organic acids including sorbic, benzoic, propionic acid and the parabens BUT THEN concentrate your writing in this section on sorbic or benzoic acid

x the use of an organic acid as a surface spray or dip


(please do not review plant derived products such as essential oils from herbs and spices, animal derived products such as lysozyme and lactoferrin and the microbial metabolites bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide as we will discuss these in lectures).


Criteria for content In your review for each section you should cover the following information:

x The action of the chemical on microbes to kill them (ie their antimicrobial effect).

x The types of microorganisms that are sensitive / resistant to the chemical and the reasons for their specific resistance or sensitivity. Include both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.

x The types of foods that use the chemical as an ingredient in formulation and why these food groups choose to use the chemical.

x Safety restrictions on the chemicals use and reasons for restrictions.

x Dose allowed in food (see additives and processing aids in the Food Standards Code of FSANZ web site or EU recommendations or FDA recommendations – AND ENSURE YOU REFERENCE WHICH STANDARDS YOU ARE QUOTING).

Background reading: Adams and Moss Chapter 4.5.

Contents page: An index or contents page should also be included.

Length Literature review should be 1500words (+/- 10%). (hint – put some information in tables to decrease word count as it is not included in the word count), The table and any reference are not included in the word count.

Guidelines Writing of the literature review should be based on Guidelines for a Literature Review. (this document is in online assignment section).

Written font and paragraph format Please use Times New Roman, 10 pt, and double spaced. When using acronyms ensure you first used the full title then the acronym in bracket and then you can use the acronym only for the rest of the report – eg “ the product was made using Good Manufacturing Practice(GMP). There are a number of support systems that are included in a GMP program”.

Tables and figures: Collating some of the information relating to the criteria for content (above) into tables and using figures is encouraged. Tables and figures do not count towards the word count. With a simple explanation in the text referring to what the table is interpreting they are very good for a literature review like this. In particular tables would allow you to set out specific information on efficacy of preservation with respect to a range of organisms and also across different food groups. Ensure your title for tables is above the table and figure title is below the figure. If you copy or modify tables or figures from an article / book ensure you reference them correctly. Use your own numbers either fig1 to eg 10 – or Fig 1.1, 2.1 etc for chapters or subsections. Make sure you explain the relevance of each figure / table in the text.

Word count: 1500 words +-10%. Please register a word count on the front page when you submit your assignment. Go to Tools / Word Count. Do not include contents page, tables, figures and references in the count.


There must be at least 12 references (at least 5 in the last 10 years and definitely not just review books). See Guidelines for Literature Review and Referencing in the online assignment section for details.

Reference formatting: Please use the APA referencing system for citing references in text and reference section;ID=8rwjnkcmfoeez Your . For journal abbreviations go to:

Plagiarism and Turnitin

The review must be submitted via Turnitin in the assignment 1 section of your Blackboard ONPS1042 site. This checks for plagiarised material. Please refer to the document in the online assignment section for details of how to do this.

Your assignment must be <10% similarity index and there should not be any major block of similarity more than 2%. You may submit your review as many times as you like before the final date of submission to Turnitin date ie 24 hours before the close date and time for submission, to check you are not plagiarising but after the final close date and time you cannot resubmit. Please see timetable for relevant dates. Please also read the details of academic integrity and plagiarism at All support information for staff and students is at: Submission for marking Literature review draft – new students in their first semester ONLY can show me a hard copy draft at least 1-2 weeks before final submission. You must submit a hard copy of the final assignment, including the cover sheet and a copy of the turnitin % originality report of your final draft, to reception building 3 level 1 city campus by the due date as requested in the timetable for this course. The cover sheet is at Help with English expression: If your English expression is poor, please get a peer to read the report and help you with any English expression changes and spelling etc BEFORE YOU HAND IT IN or the seek help from RMIT English Worldwide. Things not to do Books like Hocking and Doyle are already literature reviews. Using these extensively for referencing is not a good literature review and will receive low marks – however there are lots of references linked to the chapters in those book that can be searched and referenced if read and used in the review. Do not use references within a chapter or book unless you have sourced the reference. Marks will be allocated in the following categories: 1. Literature review directly related to the topic criteria and directly related to food microbiology and micro-organisms. (see Content criteria dot points above) 2. A GOOD review of the literature – not just a rewrite of the most used references or an already written review. Use you own headings to design content and incorporate material from all the literature you have written. Extra marks will be given to people who think critically about the information they are incorporating and who include a critical comparison of information from their literature search in their literature review. 3. All references used correctly cited in the text and all those cited in the text written in the reference section in correct format in alphabetical order, preferably in APA format. If you have not used APA format please add a copy of an example of a reference format you have used. 4. Accuracy in microbiological terms eg microbiological organisms names in italics and properly spelled. 5. Tables and figures correctly used and numbered, with titles relevant to what you are writing about, and properly explained in the text. 6. Plagiarisms of heading and paragraphs from text will not be tolerated. If students plagiarise they will receive zero for the assignment. For more details please read: GUIDELINES FOR LITERATURE REVIEW AND REFERENCING.


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