Human Resource Management (HRM)
Human Resource Management (HRM) is responsible for hiring, training and developing staff and where necessary discipline or dismiss them. The employees reach their full potential through effective training and development offered by the HR department in an organization. By so doing there is a significant reduction in need for external recruitment thereby making maximum use of existing talent. This is a cost-effective way for an organisation to manage its employees.
The HRM department does not only manage the existing staff, it also makes plans for changes that will impact on its future staffing needs I a process known as workforce planning. For instance an organisation may use new technology that requires new skills such as global positioning equipment or a staff retiring or be promoted thus leaving gaps that require to be filled.
External changes in the labour market may arise whose end result implies that the available skills could be fewer or too many in a particular field. HRM keeps on monitoring all of these things in a bid to plan recruitment strategy. This centrally places the HRM role in the business because managers depend on this expertise to acquire staff.
Among the programs that comprise the HRM process include the human resource planning, selection, recruitment and professional development. The human resource planning, though often neglected is a very important function in an oganisation. The planning function involves defining the goals of the bsiness, coming up with a strategy to achieve those goals and establishing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. The importance of this goal follows from the nature of organizations as purposive. Planning activities can be simple or complex, personal or impersonal explicit or implicit. For example the HR manager forecasting demand for a business’s human resources may rely on casual conversation with HR personnel in the field complex econometric models. Good HR planning involves meeting current and future personnel requirements. The manager makes sure that personnel requirements are met through ongoing analysis of performance objectives, available personnel, job requirements coupled with employment laws knowledge. Usually, businesses plan for their future requirements for equipment, building capacity, financing and supplies. Additionally, organisations must also plan that their needs for human resource are satisfied. HRM resource planning involves identifying staffing needs, available personnel forecasting and determination of the additions and replacements needed to maintain a desired quantity and quality staff to attain the organisation’s goals. The HRM planning function comprises of at least three different elements namely legal restraints, job analysis and forecasting demand and supply.
The details of the job are necessary so as to recruit and select the appropriate personnel for specific jobs. Job analysis involves obtaining information about jobs through a systematic job content examination. The analysis has two parts: a job description and a job specification. The written statement that gives the outline of the duties and responsibilities expected of a job incumbent. The written statement includes a job title the title of the incumbent’s immediate supervisor, a short statement of the job goal and the duties and responsibilities. On the other hand, a job specification is a document that provides the qualifications that a person requires in order to accomplish the duties and responsibilities laid down in the job description. Job analysis gives valuable information for forecasting future staffing requirements. For example appropriate recruitment and selection methods can be developed from the data produced by the job analysis to determine dimensions to evaluate personnel, develop training programs for personnel and jobs for compensation purposes.
Forecasting Demand and Supply
This phase of human resource planning entails using any number of sophisticated statistical procedures based on projections and analysis. Practically, forecasting demand involves determining the kinds and numbers of personnel that a business requires at some point in the near future. A number of managers put into consideration several factors when forecasting future personnel requirements. The demand for the firm’s service or product is principal. Thus in a business, sales figures and markets are projected first and thereafter the personnel that should serve the said capacity is projected. Other factors put into consideration when forecasting the demand for personnel includes turnover due to resignations, terminations, budget constraints, retirement and transfers, new technology in the field, minority hiring goals and decisions to upgrade the quality of services provided. Forecasting supply involves determination of what personnel will be available. The sources are internal and external: people already employees of the firm and those outside the business. Managers consider such factors like promotion of employees from within the organisation, identification of the oranisation’s employees ready and able to be trained, availability of needed talent both locally and in the national labour markets. Other factors also include completion for talent within the field, trends in population and both college and university enrollments in the field. Monitoring of internal sources of employees to fill projected vacancies must be done. The use of systematic inventory of qualification of those personnel existing and the use of human audit facilitates this course. A human resource audit is an organisational chart of a unit or the whole organization with all positions shown and keyed as to the promotability of each role incumbent facilitates this endeavour.
For example when the president of finance gets promoted, the vice president of finance can now be promoted to become the finance president. But, before then, he requires further training before being ready for promotion. The person knows much in business management but lacks training in other aspects of the presidency for instance operations, personnel, sales, marketing and personnel administration. Some accountants under the vice president are promotable whereas others are either promotable or not or need additional training before getting the promotion.
Future requirements and potential of the administrative staff are identified now and weaknesses unearthed. The data produced can be of great importance to administrators in their planning mission for immediate promotion for personnel from within the organisation who are promotable, make plans for appropriate training and development of other employees or dismiss those whose services are unsatisfactory. If the organization does not have candidates to fill the vacancies, staffing specialist will typically analyse labour markets.
In conclusion the human resource planning starts with forecasting of the types and number employees needed to achieve the objectives of the organisation. Planning also comprises of job analysis which, includes preparation of job specifications and descriptions.
Employee Relations is defined as the body of work that concerns itself with maintaining employer-employee relationship that adds to satisfactory productivity, morale and motivation. Typically, employee relations concern itself with preventing and resolving problems that involve individuals arising out of or affect work situations.
Every person at the workplace shares a given relationship with his or her fellow workers. Unlike machines human beings cannot start working just at the push of a mere button. Each employee needs a person to talk to and discuss ideas with including sharing of happiness and sorrows. One cannot work on his own, you need people around. If the business is empty you will not feel like working or even seating there. An individual will usually be demotivated in an isolated environment and as such it is important that people are comfortable with each other and work together for a common goal. Therefore it is essential that employees have a healthy relation with each other at the place of work.
The state employment legislation greatly influences and shapes the field of HRM most of which is designed for the workers protection from abuse by their employees. As a matter of fact, compliance with regulations aimed at HRM departments is one of the most important responsibilities. The court rulings and laws can be can be categorised by their affect on the four primary HRM functional areas: development, maintenance, acquisition and compensation. Acts have been enacted which make it illegal the discrimination against potential recruits or employees on grounds of colour, race, sex, national origin and religion. It forces employers towards achieving, and document, fairness related to hiring, benefits, pay and virtually all the responsibilities that relate to human resource management. These legislations provide for civil penalties in the event of discrimination. These penalties include compelling a firm to implement an affirmative action program to impartially recruit and promote minorities that are underrepresented in the management of a company or its workforce. The end result of all encompassing civil rights acts is that the human resource departments have to carefully design and document several procedures to ensure compliance or face penalties.
Additionally, there are laws affecting acquisition or resource planning and selection. These acts forbid wage or salary discrimination based on sex and authorises equal pay for equal work with a few exceptions.
The major legislations affecting the human resource department, training and development include such acts like the equal pay act, the civil rights act among other laws. There are laws that mandate employer compliance with restrictions that are related to overtime provisions, minimum wages, workplace safety and child labour.
Maybe the most regulated realm of the human resource and management is safety and health, employee/management relations. The safety and health act is designed to force employers to provide their staff with safe and healthy work conditions and making their organisations liable for their workers’ safety. Additionally, of importance are the state workers’ compensation legislations that require employers to make provisions to pay for injuries related to work and forces managers to create and document safety programs and procedures that reduce a firm’s liability.
A job description describes a group of like-positions for example an academic administrator or lecturer regardless of which institute or school each position resides in. A position description is very specific to a particular position in a particular department and may have duties and responsibilities, which are not captured in the generic job description.
A job clearly defines the content and purpose of a particular position or job that is, it gives the description of the reason the position exists and the specific contributions. It also describes the particular duties and responsibilities needed to be carried out by the job holder which allows them to achieve particular contributions defined by each key accountability statement.
Besides giving a clear an understanding and description of each position there are a number of other crucial uses for a job description that is well defined.
On the other hand, a person specification gives the minimum set of capabilities a person requires to possess so as to be appointed to a position. As such the primary use of a person specification assists in the new staff recruitment selection. A person specification normally addresses the minimum set of qualifications, skills, abilities, personal attributes, behaviours required to be considered for appointment to a position and knowledge.
The piece of information contained in the person specification is used to create a job advertisement and, more importantly, to confirm the evidence against and criteria, which applicant’s suitability for appointment is to be judged. Following to the appointment, the person specification is also used to commence the PRP process, and as a base for identifying the appointee’s training requirements.
The human resources selection process is vital because of the performance value and production companies get by making high-quality hires and the high costs of replacing employees following hires that may have been bad. The small businesses especially heighten these considerations. Human resource has taken on a more strategic role in many companies, with selection and hiring integral to that role.
Development of screening tools is one of the significant and sometimes under-valued selection processes. The ultimate objective of selection process is hiring a candidate who is the best match for the culture and job duties of the company. The HR professionals are aided by careful job analysis to better align selection tools with the job. The tools, interview questions and criteria that help yield the very best should be considered in the selection process.
When businesses make bad hires they pay to train and orient people who at the end of it all may cause more harm than good if they perform poorly and affects the workplace. The costs to replace bad hires are astronomical in many firms.
States have become known as litigious societies making protection against discrimination lawsuits critical for hiring processes. Any misalignment between the selection criteria and the job can open the door for a candidate to claim discrimination. Laws that mandate equal opportunities for employees irrespective of such traits such as nationality, religion, disability, race, sexual orientation and age have been enacted.
The employees’ quality and their development through education and training are major factors that determine long-term profitability of businesses. If managers hire and keep good employees, it is good policy when they invest in the development of their skills, so as to increase their productivity.
Training usually is considered for new employees only. This is a misconception because continuous training for current employees aids them adjust to fast changing job requirements.
There are a number of reasons that underpin the growth and development of personnel. To begin with, it helps create a pool of readily available and enough replacements for personnel who may move up or leave the organisation. Secondly, it helps enhance the firm’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology because the company has a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. Additionally, it assists in building a more efficient and highly motivated team, which enhances the competitive position of the company and improves employee morale. Last but not least, it ensures adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
In order to increase the commitment level of employees and growth of quality movement, senior management team has increased the role of staff training. Such concepts of human resource and management need careful planning as well as higher emphasis on long term education and employee development. Training is now an important tool of the human resource management in controlling the attrition rate since it helps in employee motivation towards achieving their personal and professional goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction and more. As a result training covers a multitude of courses and a variety of skill development. Training of work tasks is among the main aspects of staff training including professional knowledge and skills and principles at work. By offering employees these essentials, staff training aids personal abilities match with the requirements of the business. Training can be hugely demanding and should be in-depth; poor or lack of training brings out high employee turnover and delivery of services and products that are substandard.
Staff training is the key function as well as a significant part of human resource management and development; it is an important path of employee motivation and increasing productivity in a company. Staff training fosters teamwork in a company. An enterprise could train employees to be skilled or hire experienced staff. When a firm trains their own staff by forming and providing a harmonious atmosphere the passion of work and accurate work specification, team spirit will be built between management team and employees within the process.