Monthly Archives: September, 2016

Assessment 2: Mandatory Critical Review (60%)


Assessment 2: Mandatory Critical Review (60%)

Assignment Two is a mandatory submitted discursive assessment which requires students to demonstrate that they are able to apply the processes of risk management and safety management to an organisational context

Due Date:

Submission Details: Submitted on Turn tin. Please note that you can submit the assignment on Turn tin as many times as you like providing that the file name is the same for every submission. However, please note that on the submission date you may only submit your assignment once as it will be regarded as your final submission.

Feedback Details: Feedback will be provided on Turn tin. The intention of the feedback is to apply it to the subsequent assignments to enhance these by learning from negative items of feedback as well as from positive feedback.

Rationale

This assessment is intended to expose students to the knowledge and skills to undertake WH&S research, in particular how to manage risk according to the requirements of safety management principles: Owing to legislative requirements to manage risk, this knowledge generates particularly relevant workplace skills.

Task

Based on an evidentiary base from the study package material and other sources including the literature, the Internet and, if applicable, your workplace experience:

  • Provide an introduction which provides an overview of the content of the assignment (what you intend to argue).
  • If you were called on to implement a risk management approach to managing risks and to control hazards efficiently would you use a generic model like AS/NZS ISO 31000?
  • Alternatively would you use a more focused WH&S specific method such as those discussed in Module 7?
  • You may also choose a WH&S model not included in Module 7, but talk about your choice with Don Dingsdag before you commence the assignment.
  • Demonstrate why you have chosen the approach you have selected based on what you consider its positive and negative elements. If you are not basing your assignment on AS/NZS ISO 31000 you should discuss why you have not chosen it.

 

Criteria

You will be assessed according to the marking rubric below.

Resources

Very useful WH&S websites are: http://www.austlii.edu.au

http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA

http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au

as well as, the UWS library website e-sources for:

Google Scholar

Science Direct (in particular the journal Safety Science)

Scopus

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work at https://osha.europa.eu/en

United States Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) at

https://www.osha.gov

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCWH&S) at http://www.ccWH&S.ca UK Health and Safety Executive at http://www.hse.gov.ukWestern

 

Module 7 Hazard identification models

 

Learning  Objectives

 

At the end of this module, you should be able to:

  • detail the process of risk identification of selected models,
  • identify some common sources of risk,
  • apply commonly used tools to assist in hazard identification,
  • discuss how these tools are used to identify and control

 

Identifying hazards

 

Hazard identification is the step in the risk management process that aims to identify hazards so that the associated risks can be controlled. Remember that for OHS purposes a hazard is a source of potential personal harm, or for other generic purposes a situation with the potential to cause loss. Since only those hazards that are identified can be assessed for the associated risks which should be managed or controlled, it is a critical component of the overall risk management process and needs to be both a comprehensive and a systematic process. Sources of risk from hazards can be very extensive.

 

The hazard identification process essentially asks the following questions:

  • What can happen?
  • How can it happen?
  • What is the cause or causes?

Of course, if harm has already occurred, these questions become:

  • What has happened?
  • How did it happen?
  • What was the cause or causes?

 

The first set of questions is a proactive approach, which identifies hazards before any harm occurs and is mandatory for OHS purposes.  The latter set of questions is reactive, since harm has already occurred. To answer these two sets of questions various tools and techniques can be employed. The particular approach depends on the nature of the activities under investigation.

 

Below the module outlines a number of the more commonly employed tools and techniques. These overviews of Root Cause Analysis, Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPS), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA), Event Tree Analyis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) are adapted from various sources.

 

Root cause analysis

 

Root cause analysis (RCA) is a structured and process-focused framework whose aim is to identify the most basic, or root cause of a problem or variation in performance. RCA is useful in determining the cause(s) of variation so that appropriate improvement action can be implemented, and improvement can be sustained over time.

 

Improvement action that is not focused on the root cause will not be effective. Correcting superficial causes is like treating only the ‘symptoms’. To make performance measurably better and sustain the improvement over time, the in-depth causes must be found and fixed.

 

Getting down to the root causes of a problem or variation in performance is difficult, and sometimes even uncomfortable for the people engaging in the exercise. Too often the analysis stops prematurely and action is taken on a superficial factor identified early on. The question ‘why’ should be asked repeatedly until a further rational answer can no longer be found: That is, the process of why questions have been exhausted.

 

The focus of root cause analysis is changing the system or process to prevent a reoccurrence of the problem.

 

A Root Cause Analysis is characterized by the following:

  • A focus on the performance of a process and/or system, not individuals
  • Advancing from identification of direct or proximate causes in a process to the root causes in an organizational process or related
  • Continues to dig deeper (asking ‘why?’ repeatedly)
  • Identifies change that could be made to a system or process that would improve performance or solve the problem

 

Definition: Proximate Causes

Proximate causes are events that occurred, or conditions that existed, immediately before the undesired outcome and which directly resulted in its occurrence and, if eliminated or modified, would have prevented the undesired outcome. Proximate causes are  also known as direct causes.

 

The principal steps in conducting a Root Cause Analysis are:

  1. Assign a Include staff from all levels—those who ‘do’ the work and those with decision-making authority.
  2. Establish a method to report the progress and findings to the organisation’s senior
  3. Develop a work plan with objectives and target
  4. Clearly define the problem and the team’s task and make sure all team members have a clear understanding of the problem and what needs to be
  5. Identify all possible contributing Focus on processes, not people. Continue to ask ‘why’ at each conjuncture.
  6. Sort and analyse possible contributing
  7. Determine which process or system each possible cause is a part
  8. Plan actions focused on the most basic causes-the answers to the ‘why’
  9. Design and implement c Don’t wait until the evaluation is complete to take action if the problem is a sentinel event and/or has serious consequences.
  10. Periodically assess progress after action is Decide what should be measured, by whom and how often.
  11. Repeat the previous steps as Although it may take intermediate action along the way, don’t stop analysis until the true root cause is identified and improvement action is taken. Redesign systems and processes to eliminate the root cause!
  12. Make sure improvement is Continue to track and report progress!

 

 

 

From the Book of Readings read: Reading 15: Appendix IV: How to Conduct a Root Cause Analysis, General Project Specification For Project Safety Requirements GPS- 008, Esso Exploration & Production Chad Inc., Chad Development Project.

 

 

 

Activity

 

The Root Cause Analysis process has a heavy emphasis on teamwork and focuses on process or the system rather than on individuals when investigating an incident. In your view is it always the system which is at fault or in your opinion can humans interacting with the workplace environment also have contributory role when an incident occurs.

 

How useful is asking why repeatedly until the ‘root cause has been discovered. Will the question ultimately provide the required answer?

 

 

Hazard and operability studies (HAZOPS)

 

[Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines.

Source: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/08/v3-08- cont.htm ]

 

Summary of Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Analysis

 

The HAZOP analysis technique uses a systematic process to (1) identify possible deviations from normal operations and (2) ensures that appropriate safeguards are in place to help prevent accidents. The HAZOP technique uses special adjectives (such as ‘more,’ ‘less,’ ‘no,’ etc.) combined with process conditions (such as speed, flow, pressure, etc.) to systematically consider all credible deviations from normal conditions. The adjectives, called guidewords, are a unique feature of HAZOP analysis.

 

Some of you may have heard of HAZID which undertakes a similar process. The commercially available HaziD pack;

 

presents an ordered sequence of Primary and Secondary Hazard questions, the purpose of which is to enable the proper identification of hazard conditions on the job.

The program first asks the user to enter the site details and then provides a structured sequence of questions that will assist the user to correctly identify workplace hazards. In every case, the program will pass through a list of Primary Hazard headings, where, for every “YES” response that is made, the program will provide a detailed list of Secondary Hazard questions.

 

This process enables the user to focus attention to the broadest possible cross section of hazard conditions. A simple yes or no response to the Secondary Hazard prompts is all that is required from the user. For every Secondary Hazard question that is confirmed with a “Yes” response the computer will generate a list of pre-set (linked) safe working and exposure avoidance controls. The control lists are further enhanced by prompts for permitting requirements and equipment /machinery pre- start procedures for the work to be undertaken and are included on the printed report (Source: www.hazidpack.com/content_files/concept_summary.pdf)

 

 

 

 

Figure 7.1: HAZOP analysis process

(Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines:

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/08/v3-08-cont.htm)

 

 

Brief summary of HAZOP Analysis characteristics

 

  • HAZOP analysis is a systematic, highly structured assessment relying on HAZOP guide words and team brainstorming to generate a comprehensive review and ensure that appropriate safeguards against accidents are in place
  • It is typically performed by a multidisciplinary
  • It is applicable to any system or procedure.
  • It is used most as a system-level risk assessment
  • It generates primarily qualitative results, although some basic quantification is possible.

 

 

Most common uses

 

Used primarily for identifying safety hazards and operability problems of continuous process systems, especially fluid and thermal systems. It is also used to review procedures and sequential operations

 

 

Figure 7.2: Example HAZOP documentation

(Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines.

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/08/v3-08-cont.htm )

 

 

 

 

Activity

 

In your view beyond continuous process systems, how practical is the HAZOP approach as an application to identify potential ‘deviations.’ Is the reliance on ‘qualitative’ descriptors a barrier to its application. Do quantitative descriptors always produce more accurate potential risk exposures?

 

 

 

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

 

HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards. Some definitions directly reference food safety, reflecting the predominant use to date of the HACCP approach in the food sector. Other definitions are more generic: A step-by-step approach to the identification and assessment of hazards and risks associated with the manufacture, distribution and use of products. Hazard refers to any part of a production chain or a product that has the potential to cause a safety problem (including OHS). Analysis is the identification and assessment of the seriousness and likelihood of occurrence of a hazard. A Critical Control Point is a point, step, or procedure at which control can be exercised to prevent, eliminate, or minimize a hazard. In other words, HACCP uses the same proactive hazard identification processes as those used for OHS purposes. HACCP is a proprietary system which has ‘plug in’ OHS modules. HACCP has been increasingly applied to industries other than food, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals for example. HACCP, which in effect seeks to proactively eliminate unsafe practices based on science, differs from traditional quality control methods that are not designed to prevent hazards from occurring and identifies them at the end of the production process.

 

HACCP has its roots in the U.S. aerospace industry and was developed by the Pillsbury Company in 1959 to ensure the safety of food in the new U.S. space program in collaboration with NASA to enable to get astronauts on the moon. Because the lives of astronauts, who, if they developed food poisoning in space, would be in serious danger, NASA requested the creation of a preventive process to guarantee the quality and purity of food.

 

There are seven principal steps in the HACCP approach:

  1. Conduct a hazard analysis, preparing a list of steps in a process where significant hazards occur and identifying preventive
  2. Identify critical control points – steps at which controls can be applied to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels a safety
  3. Establish critical limits for preventive measures associated with each identified critical control
  4. Establish monitoring requirements for each critical control point, and procedures to monitor results to adjust the process and maintain
  5. Establish corrective actions to be taken when a critical limit deviation
  6. Establish procedures to verify on an ongoing basis that the HACCP system is working
  7. Establish record-keeping procedures to document the HACCP

Figure 2.3 shows a simple illustration of the HACCP method applied to preparation of an infant formula for feeding.

 

 

 

Figure 7.3: Simple HACCP illustration. A food flow diagram for preparation of infant formula from milk, water, and sugar

(Source: Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, figure 1. p. 8; Available online from: http://www.milbank.org/reports/Proactive/020925Proactive.html)

 

 

 

Title: Three pillars of ISO 31000 and HACCP for OHS

 

 

From the book of Readings read: Reading 16 International Life Sciences Institute, 1997, A Simple guide to understanding and applying the hazard analysis critical control point concept, ILSI, Belgium.

 

 

 

 

Activity

 

From Reading 16 and this module do you think that HACCP is a good fit with OHS procedures in controlling hazards?

 

 

Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)

 

FMEA is a tool used to identify and evaluate potential failures and their causes. The tool is then used to prioritize potential failures according to their risk, pointing to actions to eliminate or reduce the likelihood of occurrence. FMEA provides a methodology to document the analysis for future use and for continuous process improvement. It is used in combination with other problem-solving tools to eliminate or reduce risk.

 

The FMEA process was developed by the U.S. military in 1949 as a reliability evaluation technique to determine the effect of system and equipment failures. Failures were classified according to their impact on mission success and personnel/equipment safety. FMEA was adapted for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1960s for the Apollo space program to facilitate the process of predicting failures, planning preventive measure, estimating the cost of failures, and planning redundant systems or system responses to failures.

 

The principal steps in the FMEA process are to:

  • identify potential failures in processes (failure mode);
  • identify the possible effects of those failure modes;
  • identify the criticality of each failure mode (a combination of the probability of the failure mode occurring, the effect resulting when the failure mode occurs, and the severity of the effect);
  • prioritize the failure modes based on their criticality;
  • identify possible causes of the priority failure modes;
  • redesign the process to prevent the failure mode and/or put in place process controls to detect the failure mode before the effect occurs;
  • implement and test the new design or control process;

 

FMEA is a tool widely used in industries such as aviation, chemicals, nuclear power and aerospace. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) pioneered the adaptation of FMEA to patient safety in health care systems producing the Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (HFMEA). In 1998, the VHA established the National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS). The NCPS in collaboration with quality and risk managers, as well as others, developed a patient safety handbook to provide direct problem-based learning to front-line personnel of all VHA facilities.

 

The five key steps involved in conducting an HFMEA analysis are:

•        Define the HFMEA topic.

This should include a clear definition of the process to be studied.

•        Assemble the HFMEA team.

The personnel should be multidisciplinary and include subject matter experts and an adviser.

Graphically describe the process.

Develop a flow diagram; number each process step; identify the area of the process to focus on; identify all sub-processes; create a flow diagram of the sub-process.

•        Conduct a failure analysis.

List all possible failure modes under the key sub-process; determine the severity and probability of each potential failure mode; use a Decision Tree to determine if the failure mode warrants further action; list all failure mode causes where the decision has been made to proceed;

•        Evaluate actions and outcome measures.

Determine whether to;

  • eliminate, control, or accept each failure mode cause;
  • identify a description of action for each failure mode to be controlled or eliminated;
  • identify outcome measures to test the redesigned process;
  • identify an individual responsible for completing the action;
  • indicate whether senior management concurs with the recommended action;

 

From the Book of Readings read: Reading 17 Kusler-Jensen, J. & Weinfurter, A. 2003, FMEA—An idea whose time has come’, Surgical Services Management, vol. 9, no. 3, June, pp. 30–37.

 

Reading 18 Common Errors in Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA®)

 

Reading 19 McDonough, J.E. 2002, Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, Milbank Memorial Fund.

 

 

 

Activity

 

Whereas FMEA is a tool widely used in high risk industries such as aviation, chemicals, nuclear power and aerospace, in your view is it too complex and time consuming to provide efficient and timely advice on the control of hazards?

 

Comparison between HFMEA and HACCP

 

HFMEA and HACCP differ in significant ways in operation, but the similarities are significant.

 

Table 7.1 shows the basic steps in performing an HFMEA analysis and in undertaking a HACCP process. The five HFMEA steps are the core elements described in materials

 

produced by the VHA National Center for Patient Safety. The HACCP procedure is slightly modified from a full 14 step process to enableeasy comparison

 

Table 7.1: HFMEA and HACCP steps

(Source: Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, Table 1, p. 11;

http://www.Milbank.org/reports/Proactive/020925Proactive.html )

 

Event Tree Analysis (ETA)

 

Summary of Event Tree Analysis

 

Event tree analysis (ETA) is a technique that logically develops visual models of the possible outcomes of an initiating event. Event tree analysis uses decision trees to create the models. The models explore how safeguards and external influences, called lines of assurance, affect the path of accident chains.

 

 

 

Figure 2.4: Chart of Event Tree Analysis process[Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines. Source:

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/00/v3-00.htm ]

 

Event tree terminology

 

The following terms are commonly used in an event tree analysis:

 

Initiating event.

 

The occurrence of some failure with the potential to produce an undesired consequence. An initiating event is sometimes called an incident.

 

Line of assurance (LOA)

 

A protective system or human action that may respond to the initiating event.

Branch point

 

Graphical illustration of (usually) two potential outcomes when a line of assurance is challenged; physical phenomena, such as ignition, may also be represented as branch points.

 

Accident sequence or scenario

 

One specific pathway through the event tree from the initiating event to an undesired consequence.

 

Brief summary of Event Tree Analysis characteristics

 

  • Models the range of possible accidents resulting from an initiating event or category of initiating
  • A risk identification technique that effectively accounts for timing, dependence, and domino effects among various accident contributors that are cumbersome to model in fault
  • Performed primarily by an individual working with subject matter experts through interviews and field
  • An analysis technique that generates the following:
  • qualitative descriptions of potential problems as combinations of events producing various types of problems (range of outcomes) from initiating
  • quantitative estimates of event frequencies or likelihoods and relative importance of various failure sequences and contributing
  • lists of recommendations for reducing
  • quantitative evaluations of recommendation

 

Most common uses

 

Generally applicable for almost any type of risk assessment application, but used most effectively to model accidents where multiple safeguards are in place as protective features.

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

 

Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an analysis technique that visually models how logical relationships between equipment failures, human errors, and external events can combine to cause specific accidents.

 

Figure 2.5 Example of a Fault Tree Analysis

 

The fault tree presented in the figure above illustrates how combinations of equipment failures and human errors can lead to a specific type of accident. The procedure for performing a Fault Tree Analysis is outlined in the US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines, and consists of the following eight steps:

 

Procedure for Fault Tree Analysis

 

  • Define the system of Specify and clearly define the boundaries and initial conditions of the system for which failure information is needed.
  • Define the TOP event for the Specify the problem of interest that the analysis will address. This may be a specific quality problem, shutdown, safety issue, etc.
  • Define the treetop Determine the events and conditions (i.e., intermediate events) that most directly lead to the TOP event.
  • Explore each branch in successive levels of Determine the events and conditions that most directly lead to each intermediate event. Repeat the process at each successive level of the tree until the fault tree model is complete

 

  • Solve the fault tree for the combinations of events contributing to the TOP Examine the fault tree model to identify all the possible combinations of events and conditions that can cause the TOP event of interest. A combination of events and conditions sufficient and necessary to cause the TOP event is called a minimal cut set. For example, a minimal cut set for over pressurizing a tank might have two events:

(1) pressure controller fails and (2) relief valve fails.

  • Identify important dependent failure potentials and adjust the model Study the fault tree model and the list of minimal cut sets to identify potentially important dependencies among events. Dependencies are single occurrences that may cause multiple events or conditions to occur at the same time. This step is a qualitative common cause failure analysis.
  • Perform quantitative analysis (if necessary). Use statistical characterizations regarding the failure and repair of specific events and conditions in the fault tree model to predict future performance for the
  • Use the results in decision Use results of the analysis to identify the most significant vulnerabilities in the system and to make effective recommendations for reducing the risks associated with those vulnerabilities.

Source ‘Fault Tree Analysis’ in Chapter 9, vol. 3 of the US Coast Guard’s Risk-based Decision-making Guidelines :

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/09/v3-09-cont.htm]

 

Environmental hazard identification

 

The Australian/New Zealand guide: HB 203:2000, Environmental risk management – Principles and process, provides an excellent overview of the entire risk management process as it relates to the environment.

 

Environmental risk may arise from the relationship between humans and human activity and the environment. Ecological risk management, a subset of environmental risk management, deals with risks associated with past, present and future human activities on flora, fauna, and ecosystem.

 

Environmental risk may be divided into two categories:

  • Risks to the environment
  • Risks to an organization from environment-related

 

Risks to the environment are those activities of an organization that can cause some form of environmental change and can relate to flora and fauna; human health and wellbeing; human social and cultural welfare; earth, air and water resources; energy and climate.

 

Risks to an organization from environmental-related issues include the risk of not complying with existing (or future) legislation and criteria. Other risks of this type include business losses an organization may suffer resulting from poor management such

 

as loss of reputation, fines, cost of litigation, and from failure to secure and maintain permission for development and operational activities.

 

References

 

HB 436:2004, Risk Management Guidelines – Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.

 

HB 203:2000, Environmental risk management –Principles and process, Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENGG 123 ASSIGNMENT #3 DISASTETRS AND REFERENCING


ENGG 123 ASSIGNMENT #3 DISASTETRS AND REFERENCING

Due date: Oct. 12, 2016 7:00 am

Using the Turnitin function on the course homepage.

Introduction

Assignment #3 requires students to produce a brief formal paper that deals with an engineering disaster. The minimum length of the paper is five-double spaced pages and the maximum length is seven double-spaced pages, not including your references page. An effective paper will pose and answer a number of the questions listed below. (You do not need to answer all of these questions)

  • How is it an engineering disaster?
  • Which particular aspects of the disaster are the result of a poor engineering choice or practice?
  • How is it relevant to the study and practice of engineering?
  • Who was at fault? What caused the accident?
  • What future precautions are recommended?
  • Were any new laws, practices, or regulations implemented as a result of the disaster?
  • What was the overall impact on engineering practice?
  • Did the accident change engineering practice (either in general or in a particular field)? e.g. The Challenger disaster led to significant policy changes at NASA and ultimately to Whistleblower legislation.

To produce an acceptable paper students will employ a brief literature review to help answer research questions about an engineering disaster. And, you must complete the following four key tasks:

  1. Select a disaster to assess which is not on the “Banned Topics” list.
  2. Locate a minimum of three useful sources from the academic and/or professional literature;
  3. Compose a paper that conforms to the formatting guidelines presented in this document; and,
  4. Employ the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and referencing system presented on the Purdue Owl Writing Lab website https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

Task #1 Select an engineering disaster

You are required to select a real engineering disaster from history. You must put some thought into choosing a disaster that has engineering-related causes. In other words the disaster’s causes should be related to faulty engineering, a design flaw for example. This means that disasters related to things such as ethical lapses or corrupt practices are not suitable for your paper.

 

 

Banned Topics List

The following are the current banned topics:

  • No topic in which the accident occurred prior to the year 1925 (focus on modern engineering accidents)
  • Sinking of the Titanic
  • Space Shuttle Challenger
  • Tacoma Narrows Suspension Bridge
  • Kansas City Hyatt Regency Walkways Collapse
  • Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
  • Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Japan (nuclear accident in 2011 after earthquake and tsunami)
  • 9/11 (World Trade Center collapse)
  • Hurricane Katrina
  • Love Canal
  • Sampoong Shopping Centre
  • Ford Pinto
  • The Concorde Crash
  • Quebec Bridge
  • Francis Dam
  • East Cleveland Gas Explosion
  • Bhopal Gas Disaster
  • BP Gulf of Mexico Oil Leak (2010)
  • BP Texas City Refinery Explosion
  • Sinking of the Vasa
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa
  • Hindenburg Airship Explosion
  • MGM Grand Hotel Fire
  • Lac-Mégantic Train Derailment
  • Savar Garment Factory Collapse, Bangladesh, 2013

 

.

Task #2 Locate a minimum of three sources

At least three of the sources you employ in your literature review must be from the academic and/or professional literature. Acceptable sources include the following:

* peer reviewed academic journal articles;

* peer reviewed academic books;

* official publications of professional engineering associations;

*official government or judicial reports on the disaster; and,

*certain evidentiary documents such as company reports, and sometimes eyewitness reports.

Complete definitions and descriptions of these sources will be provided in the lectures.

How to locate sources

Our University of Regina Library provides instruction and assistance in locating academic sources. The university has a number of search engines available and can provide students with free access to many academic journals and e-books. In addition, basic online searches (e.g., Google searches) can help you locate journal articles on many topics e.g., “peer reviewed articles Three Mile Island,” would lead you to a series of academic journal articles on this topic.

Source location will be discussed in greater detail in class.

Task #3 Formatting Guidelines

The items presented below describe the format and style you are to employ for this paper.

Do not provide a title page for this paper.

Place the name and number of the assignment, your name and the date of submission, and the title of your paper at the top of the first page of the paper.

Do not provide a Table of Contents for this paper.

Be concise, do not make the mistake of using a narrative (literary story) style.

Do not write in the first person (e.g., use I or me).

If you employ tables, or figures in the paper follow the guidelines presented in writing tips #6 available on the course homepage. You do not require lists of tables and figures for a paper that is this short.

You must use the APA citation/referencing system in this paper.

Introduction

Your introduction should not be much more than 1 ½ pages in length. It should include the following items described below in the introductory section of your paper.

Purpose: i.e., your research questions

Begin with a statement of purpose that identifies the name and date of the disasters and poses your principal research question(s). Once you have read about the disaster you should feel comfortable about the sorts of questions you can effectively answer. It is often useful to select one main question along with two or three subsidiary questions. A suitable question for many papers might be: What were the flaws in engineering design that led to this disaster?

Conceptual clarification

Your research questions should be followed by a section on concept clarification. What do you mean by “disaster?” What is an engineering disaster? You should also define any technical terms that feature prominently in the paper and may not be understood by your audience.

Methodological statement

You must include a statement indicating the methodology you employed to answer your research question. In the case of this paper the methodology will be a brief assessment of the literature or a literature review. If your paper focus on a few sources, they should be cited in your methodological statement.

Analysis section

The analysis section should be the longest part of your paper.

Background statement

You can begin your analysis section with a very brief overview of the basic, undisputed facts that describe the disaster. You might describe the structures involved, the date they were completed, when they failed, how many people were killed or injured if any and perhaps the economic and other social costs of the disaster. For a paper that is this short your background statement should be no more than two paragraphs in length.

Argument points

The bulk of the analysis section involves your effort to present points which help to answer your research question. Each of the points you make should be supported by evidence provided by one of your sources and be supported by a citation and reference for the citation. You should logically explain how the point you make helps answer your question(s). There should be one or more points made for each of your questions.

Disputes and alternatives

If you run across disputed evidence or examples of alternative explanations for your questions, you should indicate as much in the text of your paper. Some writers add a discussion section at the end of their analysis to summarize their findings, assess alternative arguments and tie up loose ends. Most writers leave the discussion tasks to their conclusion.

Conclusion

In your conclusion, you make direct reference to your original research questions. You can simply summarize them, but can repeat them word for word if necessary. You should indicate whether the analysis answered your questions and briefly summarize the key points of the analysis if necessary.

You should honestly indicate whether a research question was effectively answered. If you failed to answer a question you should try to explain why. You should indicate what might be done in a future research effort to answer the question – more research, more data, more time?

At the very end of your conclusion you can include an optional “affective” statement. An affective statement is where you can briefly state what the outcome of your research says about the need to prevent similar disasters, or what the impact of studying this disaster is for you personally. The affective statement is the one portion of the paper where the use of the first person (I, me) is permitted.

References

Your paper ends with a references section which employs the APA format. You must have a reference for each of the sources cited in the text. If a source is cited more than once you still need only one reference for all the citations related to that source. The most common error students make is the failure to list the references alphabetically according to the author(s) of the article, book, etc. The items in the reference list are not numbered and they are not listed according to the order in which their corresponding citations appear in the paper.

Task #4 use APA

As was already noted in these instructions you are required to employ the APA in-text citation and referencing system as presented in the Purdue Owl writing lab. We will also be discussing citations and references in our lectures.

 

ENGG 123 ASSIGNMENT #3 DISASTETRS AND REFERENCING

Date posted: Sept 23, 2016

Due date: Oct. 12, 2016 7:00 am using the Turnitin function on the course homepage.

Introduction

Assignment #3 requires students to produce a brief formal paper that deals with an engineering disaster. The minimum length of the paper is five-double spaced pages and the maximum length is seven double-spaced pages, not including your references page. An effective paper will pose and answer a number of the questions listed below. (You do not need to answer all of these questions)

  • How is it an engineering disaster?
  • Which particular aspects of the disaster are the result of a poor engineering choice or practice?
  • How is it relevant to the study and practice of engineering?
  • Who was at fault? What caused the accident?
  • What future precautions are recommended?
  • Were any new laws, practices, or regulations implemented as a result of the disaster?
  • What was the overall impact on engineering practice?
  • Did the accident change engineering practice (either in general or in a particular field)? e.g. The Challenger disaster led to significant policy changes at NASA and ultimately to Whistleblower legislation.

To produce an acceptable paper students will employ a brief literature review to help answer research questions about an engineering disaster. And, you must complete the following four key tasks:

  1. Select a disaster to assess which is not on the “Banned Topics” list.
  2. Locate a minimum of three useful sources from the academic and/or professional literature;
  3. Compose a paper that conforms to the formatting guidelines presented in this document; and,
  4. Employ the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and referencing system presented on the Purdue Owl Writing Lab website https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

Task #1 Select an engineering disaster

You are required to select a real engineering disaster from history. You must put some thought into choosing a disaster that has engineering-related causes. In other words the disaster’s causes should be related to faulty engineering, a design flaw for example. This means that disasters related to things such as ethical lapses or corrupt practices are not suitable for your paper.

 

 

Banned Topics List

The following are the current banned topics:

  • No topic in which the accident occurred prior to the year 1925 (focus on modern engineering accidents)
  • Sinking of the Titanic
  • Space Shuttle Challenger
  • Tacoma Narrows Suspension Bridge
  • Kansas City Hyatt Regency Walkways Collapse
  • Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
  • Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Japan (nuclear accident in 2011 after earthquake and tsunami)
  • 9/11 (World Trade Center collapse)
  • Hurricane Katrina
  • Love Canal
  • Sampoong Shopping Centre
  • Ford Pinto
  • The Concorde Crash
  • Quebec Bridge
  • Francis Dam
  • East Cleveland Gas Explosion
  • Bhopal Gas Disaster
  • BP Gulf of Mexico Oil Leak (2010)
  • BP Texas City Refinery Explosion
  • Sinking of the Vasa
  • Leaning Tower of Pisa
  • Hindenburg Airship Explosion
  • MGM Grand Hotel Fire
  • Lac-Mégantic Train Derailment
  • Savar Garment Factory Collapse, Bangladesh, 2013

 

.

Task #2 Locate a minimum of three sources

At least three of the sources you employ in your literature review must be from the academic and/or professional literature. Acceptable sources include the following:

* peer reviewed academic journal articles;

* peer reviewed academic books;

* official publications of professional engineering associations;

*official government or judicial reports on the disaster; and,

*certain evidentiary documents such as company reports, and sometimes eyewitness reports.

Complete definitions and descriptions of these sources will be provided in the lectures.

How to locate sources

Our University of Regina Library provides instruction and assistance in locating academic sources. The university has a number of search engines available and can provide students with free access to many academic journals and e-books. In addition, basic online searches (e.g., Google searches) can help you locate journal articles on many topics e.g., “peer reviewed articles Three Mile Island,” would lead you to a series of academic journal articles on this topic.

Source location will be discussed in greater detail in class.

Task #3 Formatting Guidelines

The items presented below describe the format and style you are to employ for this paper.

Do not provide a title page for this paper.

Place the name and number of the assignment, your name and the date of submission, and the title of your paper at the top of the first page of the paper.

Do not provide a Table of Contents for this paper.

Be concise, do not make the mistake of using a narrative (literary story) style.

Do not write in the first person (e.g., use I or me).

If you employ tables, or figures in the paper follow the guidelines presented in writing tips #6 available on the course homepage. You do not require lists of tables and figures for a paper that is this short.

You must use the APA citation/referencing system in this paper.

Introduction

Your introduction should not be much more than 1 ½ pages in length. It should include the following items described below in the introductory section of your paper.

Purpose: i.e., your research questions

Begin with a statement of purpose that identifies the name and date of the disasters and poses your principal research question(s). Once you have read about the disaster you should feel comfortable about the sorts of questions you can effectively answer. It is often useful to select one main question along with two or three subsidiary questions. A suitable question for many papers might be: What were the flaws in engineering design that led to this disaster?

Conceptual clarification

Your research questions should be followed by a section on concept clarification. What do you mean by “disaster?” What is an engineering disaster? You should also define any technical terms that feature prominently in the paper and may not be understood by your audience.

Methodological statement

You must include a statement indicating the methodology you employed to answer your research question. In the case of this paper the methodology will be a brief assessment of the literature or a literature review. If your paper focus on a few sources, they should be cited in your methodological statement.

Analysis section

The analysis section should be the longest part of your paper.

Background statement

You can begin your analysis section with a very brief overview of the basic, undisputed facts that describe the disaster. You might describe the structures involved, the date they were completed, when they failed, how many people were killed or injured if any and perhaps the economic and other social costs of the disaster. For a paper that is this short your background statement should be no more than two paragraphs in length.

Argument points

The bulk of the analysis section involves your effort to present points which help to answer your research question. Each of the points you make should be supported by evidence provided by one of your sources and be supported by a citation and reference for the citation. You should logically explain how the point you make helps answer your question(s). There should be one or more points made for each of your questions.

Disputes and alternatives

If you run across disputed evidence or examples of alternative explanations for your questions, you should indicate as much in the text of your paper. Some writers add a discussion section at the end of their analysis to summarize their findings, assess alternative arguments and tie up loose ends. Most writers leave the discussion tasks to their conclusion.

Conclusion

In your conclusion, you make direct reference to your original research questions. You can simply summarize them, but can repeat them word for word if necessary. You should indicate whether the analysis answered your questions and briefly summarize the key points of the analysis if necessary.

You should honestly indicate whether a research question was effectively answered. If you failed to answer a question you should try to explain why. You should indicate what might be done in a future research effort to answer the question – more research, more data, more time?

At the very end of your conclusion you can include an optional “affective” statement. An affective statement is where you can briefly state what the outcome of your research says about the need to prevent similar disasters, or what the impact of studying this disaster is for you personally. The affective statement is the one portion of the paper where the use of the first person (I, me) is permitted.

References

Your paper ends with a references section which employs the APA format. You must have a reference for each of the sources cited in the text. If a source is cited more than once you still need only one reference for all the citations related to that source. The most common error students make is the failure to list the references alphabetically according to the author(s) of the article, book, etc. The items in the reference list are not numbered and they are not listed according to the order in which their corresponding citations appear in the paper.

Task #4 use APA

As was already noted in these instructions you are required to employ the APA in-text citation and referencing system as presented in the Purdue Owl writing lab. We will also be discussing citations and references in our lectures.

 

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Background:

Task 1

Tele-health can reduce socioeconomic demands by reducing travelling for face-to-face visits. Technology can be successfully applied in community-based patient care to enhance the capacity of nurses to deliver medications management for clients, resulting in increased efficiency of service delivery as well as staff and patient satisfaction. Tele-health in patients’ homes supplements delivery of care, can reduce unplanned medical visits and improve self-management of an illness. Remote healthcare can supplement the delivery of care, providing support to clients and healthcare staff. For this project we are using the Tunstall tele-health monitoring equipment as an example of the type of equipment that is used. See the series of 2 minute videos on the following site to see what their current technology looks like for tablet interaction with older people: http://www.tunstallhealthcare.com.au/what-we-do/telehealth

The aim of the project is to improve the tablet computer interaction for the end-user of tele-health hardware and software in the homes of older people living in the community. We will assume that the community-dwelling older people live in regional, rural and remote locations in the central west of NSW. The solution involves a cloud-based mobile application, although you might also identify other possible delivery methods for the interaction.

You need to create a Project Vision Document which contains:
• Problem
• Capabilities
• Benefits

Specific analysis techniques have not been taught yet, so this assignment does not require technical descriptions.

Solution:

Task 2

tele-health monitoring equipment assesses a core set of measurements (such as blood pressure, heart rate, and weight) and obtains custom measurements depending on each client’s health condition e.g., heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, hypertension and diabetes. The clinical/triage team from a service provider will ascertain the custom measurements for each client. That service provider (make up your own fictitious name) will hire equipment from an organisation such as Tunstall. You are to assume that current users have complained repeatedly about wanting to be able to engage in better self-management. The remote monitoring is helpful, because their vital signs are daily transferred to the monitoring service (Tunstall or other) and in case of problems their service provider is notified. But the users also want better feedback about their conditions, to reduce reliance on medical staff intervening, and to gain confidence about understanding their own situation and managing their own care.

You are the business systems analyst assigned to the project, you will need to produce:

Stakeholder map
• Draw stakeholder role names on a stakeholder map with 4 quadrants, Internal-Operation, Internal-Executive, External-Operation, External-Executive

Questionnaire
• Write 5 questions, either open and/or closed ended questions that you would send to stakeholders
• This should be written as a questionnaire that could be distributed
• The questions should aim to help you identify further details about the environment, the problem area and/or how the system would operate to help solve the problem
• Only write the questions, you should not write the answers

Use Case diagram and descriptions
• Draw a use case model for the information system
• Write brief Use Case description for each Use Case in the diagram
• Write one fully developed Use Case description for one of the important Use Cases identified

Solution

 

Task 3

This is the final part of the Tele-Health project. You need to answer these questions within the context of that project.

Mobile and cloud based solutions should be investigated. Furthermore, data security also needs to be further investigated, which includes data ownership, data security in the cloud and who has access permission, and to what level of access, etc.

Non-Functional Requirements
• This sets out the critical system qualities, system interfaces, user interface requirements, and system constraints.
• Use to ‘FURPS+’ acronym as reference, and ensure you at cover the non-functional aspects of the acronym, Usability, Reliability, Performance and Security.

Review of cloud based solutions
A review of strengths and weaknesses of cloud based solutions. Taking into consideration the environment in which the solution would be deployed.

SDLC Approach
Write brief description of the Pros and Cons to approaching the project using the ‘Predictive’ SDLC, then the Pros and Cons to approach the project as ‘Adaptive’ SDLC. Then recommend either Predictive or Adaptive to the SDLC for the project and briefly describe why.

Presentation

Your answer should be approx. 7 pages, Times Roman size 12 (title page and references are not part of page count). You should use your own words and avoid lengthy quotations.

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Case Synopsis:

Designed to examine the process of project management during the development cycle of a luxury condominium building for the Regency Plaza group, this case explores the issue of how the design, development strategy, project organization, and project personnel are interrelated. More specifically, it looks at how these factors shape the day-to-day operations of a development and how they affect the formal and informal mechanisms that a project manager has at his or her disposal.

Case Assignment Questions:

  1. Evaluate the project definition phase of the Regency Plaza project. How do the problems that emerged during the project relate to how the project definition phase was managed?
  2. Evaluate the role of the project manager (Kris Hodgkins) in the case. What skills do you think are required to be the project manager for the Regency Condominium Development Project? How well do you think that Kris Hodgkins meets these skill requirements? Do you think Kris Hodgkins was a good project manager?
  3. Evaluate how well risk was managed in the Regency Plaza project. You should use the four stage Risk Management framework from the module in answering this question.
  4. Given the situation that Kris Hodgkins finds herself with the Millers at the end of the case, evaluate all of the options available to her and recommend the course of action your group thinks she should take?

 

 

 

Guidelines for the written assignment:

  • The report should contain a minimum of 2500 and a maximum of 3000 words. The word count is from the start of the Executive Summary to the end of the Conclusions sections and does not include the cover page, references and appendices.
  • The required format for the layout of the report is as follows:
  1. Cover page as per UCD specifications.
  2. Executive Summary
  • In a single paragraph, summarise the contents of the entire report. This should written last when the rest of the report is completed, so that you know what you are summarizing.
  1. Introduction to the selected project
  • Briefly give an introduction to the project you have chosen to analyse.
  • Outline your plan to analyse the project, i.e. what topics you will use and the elements of theory or frameworks within those topics you will apply to the project.
  1. Analysis of the Project
  • Using the theory in the module topics, analyse the project.
  • You should not spend too many words describing the theory you use (referencing it is sufficient), but devote most of the effort to applying the theory to the information you have obtained about the project.
  1. Discussion and Conclusions
  • In this section, you discuss your findings and explain why the project can be deemed a success or failure – what worked well and why, what didn’t work and why, and what your group would have done differently if you were the project manager.
  • Identify the key learning points in the project and what your group learned from undertaking the assignment.
  1. References
  • All third party material used in the report must be listed here using a formal referencing system such as the Harvard system. These must be correctly cited where used in the body of the report.
  • This assignment will enable students to identify the challenges of Project Management in the global business environment, and to develop the following skills: teamwork due to the group nature of the task, written communication, and research skills from gathering information from multiple sources about their chosen case study.
  • As this is a group assignment, all members of the group will receive the same mark for the written submission of the project. However, all members are also required to state clearly their contribution to the group project at the end of the document.
  • This Assignment must be submitted to your Programme Manager in hard copy and via Blackboard. See the deadline in table 2B. It is the student’s responsibility to retain a copy of any submitted assessment/project work. Please read the Grade Descriptors in the Main Assignment Grade Descriptor table.

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W4 Quiz

Question 1

  1.  

Parameters are

numerical characteristics of a sample
numerical characteristics of a population
the averages taken from a sample
numerical characteristics of either a sample or a population

Question 2

  1.  

Stratified random sampling is a method of selecting a sample in which

the sample is first divided into strata, and then random samples are taken from each stratum
various strata are selected from the sample
the population is first divided into strata, and then random samples are drawn from each stratum
None of these alternatives is correct.

Question 3

  1.  

A theorem that allows us to use the normal probability distribution to approximate the sampling distribution of sample means and sample proportions whenever the sample size is large is known as the

approximation theorem
normal probability theorem
central limit theorem
central normality theorem

Question 4

  1.  

In point estimation

data from the population is used to estimate the population parameter
data from the sample is used to estimate the population parameter
data from the sample is used to estimate the sample statistic
the mean of the population equals the mean of the sample

Question 5

  1.  

The sample statistic s is the point estimator of

μ
σ
x ̅
p

Question 6

  1.  

The sample mean is the point estimator of

μ
σ
x ̅
p-

Question 7

  1.  

The standard deviation of all possible x ̅ values is called the

standard error of proportion
standard error of the mean
mean deviation
central variation

Question 8

  1.  

A sample statistic, such as a sample mean, is known as

a statistic
a parameter
the mean deviation
the central limit theorem

Question 9

  1.  

The purpose of statistical inference is to provide information about the

sample based upon information contained in the population
population based upon information contained in the sample
population based upon information contained in the population
mean of the sample based upon the mean of the population

Question 10

  1.  

Random samples of size 81 are taken from an infinite population whose mean and standard deviation are 200 and 18, respectively. The distribution of the population is unknown. The mean and the standard error of the mean are

200 and 18
81 and 18
9 and 2
200 and 2

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Business Negotiations

Trying to Sell Your Audio System

You are trying to sell your audio system (an amplifier and speakers) to raise money for an upcoming trip to overseas. The system works great, and audiophile friend tell you that if he were in the market for this kind of equipment (which he isn’t), he’d give you $500 for it. A few days later the first potential buyer comes to see the system. The buyer looks it over and asks a few questions about it. You assure the buyer that the system works well. When asked how much, you tell the buyer that you have already had an offer for $500. The buyer purchases the system for $550.

 

  • Justify and explain your decision to lie about having the second offer, and what were the consequences of your decision to lie to the buyer.

 

The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

  • Write between 750 – 1,250 words (approximately 3 – 5 pages) using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.
  • Use font size 12 and 1” margins.
  • Include cover page and reference page.
  • At least 90% of your paper must be original content/writing.
  • No more than 10% of your content/information may come from references.
  • Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.
  • Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.

References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.

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Homework Help


Homework Help

Paper #1: “Problem Definition” (min 2 pages) – In this paper, you should define a problem in your organization.  You may choose from the following areas of research.  The purpose of this paper is to gain clarity of your research problem and the significance of the research study.

  • Job Satisfaction
  • Organizational Commitment
  • Job Stress
  • Job Engagement
  • Organizational Fairness
  • Work-Life Balance
  • Job-Culture Fit
  • Organizational Communication

This paper should be written in the following format (subheadings):

  1. Background of Problem
  2. Problem Statement
  3. Purpose Statement
  4. Research Questions
  5. Assumptions
  6. Limitations
  7. Definitions

PAPERS MUST BE IN APA FORMAT AND INCLUDE SUBHEADINGS FOR EACH SECTION PROVIDED ABOVE.  PAPERS MUST INCLUDE CITATIONS TO THEORY (TEXTBOOK or OTHER REFERENCE) TO SUPPORT YOUR OPINIONS AND STATEMENTS.  Papers must be submitted in *.doc format.

Paper #2: “Literature Review” (minimum 3 pages) – In this paper, you will review at least 3 journal articles covering the topic you addressed in the previous assignment (Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Job Stress, Job Engagement, Organizational Fairness, Work-Life Balance, or Job-Culture Fit) which relates to your research.  The purpose of this paper is to become familiar with your topic area of research. For EACH JOURNAL ARTICLE, the following format/subheadings should be followed in this paper.  EACH article review should be written in the following format (subheadings):

  1. Citation/Source in APA format (Name of Article, Author’s name)
  2. Major Thesis -a summary of the article & main points
  3. Utility – How useful is the article? How can you apply what you read in your own work enviroment or situation? Provide example
  4. Conclusion

PAPERS MUST BE IN APA FORMAT AND INCLUDE SUBHEADINGS FOR EACH SECTION PROVIDED ABOVE.  PAPERS MUST INCLUDE CITATIONS TO THEORY (TEXTBOOK or OTHER REFERENCE) TO SUPPORT YOUR OPINIONS AND STATEMENTS. Papers must be submitted in *.doc format.

 

Paper #3: “Data Collection Methodology” (minimum 3 pages)

In this paper, you will present the instrument (survey) you designed to collect the data for your research.  You will also discuss how you plan to administer the instrument (Survey).  All learners will be using www.surveymonkey.com to design, collect & analyze the collected data.

This paper should be written in the following format (subheadings):

  1. Population Sample
  2. Instrumentation (present the survey)
    1. Survey questions
    2. Response options
  3. Data Collection procedure (how you plan to administer)

PAPERS MUST BE IN APA FORMAT AND INCLUDE SUBHEADINGS FOR EACH SECTION PROVIDED ABOVE.  PAPERS MUST INCLUDE CITATIONS TO THEORY (TEXTBOOK or OTHER REFERENCE) TO SUPPORT YOUR OPINIONS AND STATEMENTS. Papers must be submitted in *.doc format.

Paper #4: “Data Analysis” (min 3 pages) – In this paper, you will analyze the data collected in your survey.  Another name for this step is Data Reduction.  In other words, you will take the data you collected and “reduce” it to meaningful patterns or themes.  You will need to use Microsoft Excel for the basic Statistical (Spreadsheet) Analysis.

This paper should be written in the following format (subheadings):

  1. Data Entry (transfer raw data from survey to database)
  2. Data Preparation (remove incomplete responses)
  3. Statistical Analysis (see page 173 in text)
  4. Response Patterns and/or Themes (see page 174 in text)
  5. Write-in Comments (if provided by respondents)

PAPERS MUST BE IN APA FORMAT AND INCLUDE SUBHEADINGS FOR EACH SECTION PROVIDED ABOVE.  PAPERS MUST INCLUDE CITATIONS TO THEORY (TEXTBOOK or OTHER REFERENCE) TO SUPPORT YOUR OPINIONS AND STATEMENTS. Papers must be submitted in *.doc format.

 

Final Paper #5: “Presentation of Findings” (min 5 pages)

Here is the format for the final report (Presentation of Findings). The survey report should be written in the following format (subheadings):

  1. Introduction, which will include: (PAPER 1)
    1. Background of Problem
    2. Problem Statement
    3. Initial Research Questions
    4. Assumptions
    5. Limitations of this study
    6. Definitions of terms

 

  1. Literature Review (PAPER 2) – Please, integrate what you submitted as Paper 2 in a well written summary of the literature that you reviewed.

 

  • Methodology (PAPER 3)
  • Population Sample
  • Procedures for survey design, data entry and data preparation.
  • You can include your actual survey instrument as an attachment at the end of the report).

 

  1. Presentation of Findings
    1. Participant Demographic Data (if needed)
    2. Statistical Analysis (PAPER 4)
    3. Discussion of Major Themes (also called major response patterns) (minimum of 2-3 pages)

 

  1. Conclusions and Recommendations – This also includes an example, of how you INTEND or COULD use what you learned in your research study to make a difference in your organization. (minimum of 2-3 pages)

 

PAPERS MUST BE IN APA FORMAT AND INCLUDE SUBHEADINGS FOR EACH SECTION PROVIDED ABOVE.  PAPERS MUST INCLUDE CITATIONS TO THEORY (TEXTBOOK or OTHER REFERENCE) TO SUPPORT YOUR OPINIONS AND STATEMENTS. Papers must be submitted in *.doc format.

 

Financial Statement Analysis of Polo Ralph Lauren


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Subject Management
Topic Financial Statement Analysis of Polo Ralph Lauren

Paper details

Prepare an eight fundamental financial analysis (excluding appendices, title page, abstract, and references page) that will cover each of the following broad areas based on the financial statements of your chosen company: Provide a background of the firm, industry, economy, and outlook for the future. Analyze the short term liquidity of the firm. Analyze the operating efficiency of the firm. Analyze the capital structure of the firm. Analyze the profitability of the firm. Conclude with recommendations for the future analysis of the company (trend analysis). The paper Must be eight double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style Must include a separate title page with the following: Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use at least 7 scholarly sources

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Case Study-Medicine

Instructions to Writer:

  • Before approaching ANY of the following questions, familiarize and maximize your understanding to the clinical case in the below box. ALL questions are RELATED TO the clinical case.
  • With respect to EACH of the following questions, read carefully EACH word in the question, focus on and then answer EXACTLY the central core of the question by REVIEWING THE UPDATED LITERATURE EVIDENCE. It is absolutely important to provide a review summary based on updated literature evidence (preferably from publications within the recent 5 years in renowned nephrology journals (or other highly related journals in the field of renal disease management).
  • An EXTREMELY high-quality, concise, to-the-key-point summary of evidence from sound literature review is expected. Type the answer in paragraph in the space provided (named under “Literature Review Summary” below each Question.
  • Statements in literature review summary have to be well-referenced in APA 6th Style.
  • There is ABSOLUTELY NO need in the literature review summary to define medical terms. Do NOT restate well-known standard values in the field of nephrology. Every words must have value in presenting important evidence from literature.
  • All statistical numbers will NOT be counted as words.
  • The audience of this document are professional medical doctors with Doctor of Medicine Degree. So Professional writer is expected. Writing should be highly knowledgeable.
Clinical Case and Medical History:

Mr. Chan, a married 43-year-old male with a BMI of 32 kg/m2, is a known patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) since 2011. He has a long history of repeated admissions for recurrent glomerulonephritis precipitated by IgA nephropathy. Severely obese though, he has no diabetes mellitus, yet with hyperlipidemia for the recent 10 years, and resistant hypertension for the recent 5 years. Of note, there was a recent relapse of IgAN this year in January 2016. At that time, he was admitted for diffuse proliferative IgAN with osteomyelitis at the sixth cervical vertebra following laminoplasty to the cervical spine stenosis. Although treatment was effective with a pulse dose of methylprednisolone, oral prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and vancomycin, his renal function further declined, as evidenced by a decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from 19 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 16 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the time of discharge.

This time Mr. Chan was admitted for the management of acute mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis. Laboratory investigations (such as histopathology examination on renal biopsy samples) suggested that the primary cause of this insult was associated with class III IgA nephropathy. On admission, he was afebrile, complaining of dizziness, fatigue, oliguria for three days and decreased oral intake for two days. Lethargy and mild pedal edema were noted. His vital signs were as follows, blood pressure at 163/102 mmHg, respiration rate at 17 breaths/min and heart rate at 102 beats/min.

Owing to his moderate hyperkalemia, he was arranged to have temporary hemodialysis through placement of a temporary double lumen catheter at the right internal jugular vein. He was also asked to consider renal replacement therapy (namely haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) for his long-term management.

On admission, important laboratory results were listed as below.

24 urine collection: output: 302 ml; 3.8 g of proteinuria (i.e. nephrotic range of proteinuria)

Routine blood profile: Normal white cell and platelet level. Hemoglobin (Hb): 10 g/dl (Reference range: 13-17); Hematocrit (Hct): 31% (40-52); Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): 55 mg/dl (8-21); Serum Creatinine (Cr): 1485 μmol/L (80-115); K+: 6.7 mmol/L (3.5-5.1); Albumin: 34 g/L (34-54); Phosphate: 1.66 mmol/L (0.8-1.4); Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 14 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 5 of end-stage renal failure)

Studies of serum complements: complement 3 and 4 normal

Serum IgA: 599 units (78-391)

Serology testing (antinuclear antibody, anti-glomerular basement membrane and anti-neurophil cytoplasmic antibodies, hepatitis panel, rapid plasma reagin, protein electrophoresis) normal or negative

Lipid panel: LDL elevated 4.8 mmol/L (<2.59 mmol/L)

Urinalysis: Haematuria with dysmorphic erythrocytes and 4+ proteinuria

 

  1. Describe the pathophysiology behind “acute mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis that is precipitated by IgA nephropathy” to explain the related patient laboratory values and presenting signs and symptoms. Give a brief highlight on the definitive diagnostic criteria and the principle(s) of treatments/management.
Literature Review Summary: (130-150 words excluding references)

 

 

Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)

 

  1. Describe the relationship between IgA-mediated glomerulonephritis (IgAN) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (and how do they correlate in terms of probability). Compare and contrast the epidemiology, incidence rate, morbidity and mortality rate of IgAN who transit to ESRD in Hong Kong, China, and other parts of the world. Describe main predictors for determining the rate of progression from the initial diagnosis if IgAN to ESRD. Describe prognosis, risk factors for complications for the patient group who have been shown with recurrent IgA-mediated glomerulonephritis.
Literature Review Summary: (180-200 words excluding references)

 

 

Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)

 

  1. Describe the unique challenges and the corresponding managements of peritoneal dialysis on obese patients (in particular, risk of peritoneal dialysis inadequacy, etc). (Preferably supplemented with Hong Kong experience/ research support, if not in Asian or other parts of the world are acceptable)
Literature Review Summary: (220-250 words excluding references)

 

 

 

Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)

 

 

 

  1. Describe the perceived experience and the objective Quality of Life of obese patients who undergo peritoneal dialysis.
Literature Review Summary: (100-120 words excluding references)

 

 

 

Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)

 

  1. What are the existing modality(ies) of peritoneal dialysis (e.g. CCPD, NIPD) most effective or preferred for obese end-stage renal disease patients? How do the treatment outcomes differ across these modalities (provide controversial evidence if appropriate)? What are the advantages and disadvantages of these modalities in the management of these patients from the point of nephrology? (250 words)
Literature Review Summary: (150-180 words excluding references)

 

 

 

Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)

 

  1. Minimal residual kidney function contributes significantly to solute removal and dialysis adequacy. Compounded by the unique challenges of peritoneal dialysis in obese ESRD patients, describe how each of the risk factors (namely, resistant high blood pressure, diet control on salt intake and fluid balance, sedentary life-style, obesity, hyperlipidemia with increased low-density lipoprotein) that might lead to poor outcomes of peritoneal dialysis by accelerating the loss of residual renal function. Describe how beneficial outcomes on these patients are supported by literature by controlling these risk factors. (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided.)
Literature Review Summary: (280-300 words excluding references)

 

 

 

Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)

 

 

 

  1. Provide literature evidence to support the following assertion.

A number of inaccurate preconceptions to the renal replacement modality- peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been identified by joint discussion with the patient and his family. Patient misunderstood that peritoneal dialysis inadequacy can be resolved by setting higher dialysis goal such as adopting a PD regimen with frequent PD exchanges. To achieve a desirable Kt/V, patient’s desire to opt for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) might not be feasible, instead automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) might be needed, preferably in the form of continuous cycler peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). Considering the obesity of patient and the severe intra-abdominal pressure that might be uncomfortable, risk of catheter leak (despite technically pre-sternal catheter can be inserted rather than the traditional PD catheter on the abdomen), peritoneal dialysis inadequacy is likely.

Inadequate dialysis might lead to poor treatment outcomes such as increased morbidity, mortality, and the need to transfer back to HD. There has been a percentage of PD patients transferring back to haemodialysis (HD) due to PD inadequacy.

Literature Review Summary: (280-300 words excluding references)

 

 

 

Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)

 

Reference:

 

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Before doing your Task, Read and follow the instructions mentioned in “project briefing”

 

Task

Develop a charter for the RALS (Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show’) Rostering project including:

Include the project description and overview..

Part One:
MOV – Measurable Organisational Value
(This is the goal of the project and is utilised to define the value that your team project will bring to your client)
• Identify the desired area of impact – Rank the following areas in terms of importance: Strategy / Customer / Financial / Operational / Social
• With reference to your project, identify one or two of the following types of value:

  • Better – is improving quality important to your client?
  • Faster – does your client want to increase efficiency?
  • Cheaper – is cutting costs important?
  • Do more – does your client want to continue its growth?
  • Develop an appropriate metric – this sets the target and expectation of all the stakeholders. It is important to determine a quantitative target that needs to be expressed as a metric in terms of an increase or decrease of money.
    • Determine the timeframe for achieving the MOV – ask yourselves, when do we want to achieve this target metric?
    • SUMMARISE THE MOV IN A CLEAR CONCISE STATEMENT OR TABLE

(Note: the MOV should inform everyone what the project will achieve, not how it will be achieved. It should also focus on the organisation, not on the technology that will be used to build or support the information system).

Part Two:
Define Scope and produce a Scope Management Plan
Define the scope of the project and detail how the scope will be managed.
Provide a list of Resources
Identify and detail the resources for the project using MS Project where appropriate, including:
• People (and their roles), plus any extra personnel that is required for the project.
• Technology – any hardware, network and software needs to support the team and your client.
• Facilities – where will most of the teamwork be situated?
• Other – for example, travel, training etc.

Part Three:

Using MS Project, develop a schedule using a high level Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). It should include:
o Milestones for each phase and deliverable
o This will tell everyone associated with the project that the phase or deliverable was completed satisfactorily.
o Activities / Tasks
o Define a set of activities / tasks that must be completed to produce each deliverable.
o Resource Assignments
o Assign people and resources to each individual activities.
o Estimates for Each Activity / Task
o Develop a time estimate for each task or activity to be completed.

You will need to submit MS Project file as well

Part Four:

Project Risk Analysis and Plan
• Document any assumptions you have made about the project
• Using the Risk Identification Framework as a basis, identify five risks to the project – one for each of the five phases of the methodology.
• Analyse these risks, assign a risk to an appropriate member, and describe a strategy for the management of each specific risk.

Part Five:

Quality Management Plan. It should include:
• A short statement that reflects your team’s philosophy or objective for ensuring that you deliver a quality system to your client.
• Develop and describe the following that your project team could implement to ensure quality;
• A set of verification activities
• A set of validation activities

 

Project briefing

Congratulations!  You have been successful in gaining an appointment as an IT Project Manager consultant with Virtucon*.

Your assigned project

Please visit the Virtucon website (virtucon.uimagine.edu.au) to learn more about Virtucon, and our range of services (note: you will be prompted to enter your CSU username and password to access this site).

Once you have learned about Virtucon and our ranges of services, please access the Staff area by clicking on ‘Staff Login’ in the main menu and enter:

Username: staff101
Password: staff101

Once logged in to the staff only site, you will be able to access details of the current projects Virtucon is working on.  You have been assigned to the ‘Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show’ (RALS) project.

To access the project details, please click on ‘Current Projects -> Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show ‘

You also have access to a number of templates to be used throughout the project. To access these please click on ‘Templates’.

Your Client

Your client is Globex Corp. To learn more about Globex and their business and history, please visit the Globex website  (globex.uimagine.edu.au).  You should ensure you visit the Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show page accessed via the ‘RALS’ link in the main menu. (note: you will be prompted to enter your CSU username and password to access this site).

As a Virtucon staff member and in order to gather information for your assigned project, you have been granted temporary access to the Globex staff intranet.  Please access this by navigating to the ‘Staff’ menu option.  You will need to enter:

Username: virtucon101
Password: virtucon101

In this area you will find the current form used to collect information for potential volunteers for the Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show (found under the ‘Documents’ menu option) as well as other information regarding Globex.

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Criterion Expectation
Provides an MOV and identifies the target and expectations of all stakeholders in a suitable format. The MOV illustrates the detailed consideration of the target and a thorough analysis of the expectations of all stakeholders.

The format is logical, clear and well structured

Utilising MS Project, provides a list of resources associated with the project – including reference to people, technology, and facilities. Evidence of expertly utilizing MS Project to create a comprehensive list of resources, demonstrating in-depth analysis of the project’s needs.
Produces a Scope Management Plan (SCM).  Consistent application of industry standard language and formatting.
Utilising MS Project -evidences the processes involved with a WBS.  Demonstrates high level project management skills, integrating and applying project management tools in meaningful and purposeful ways towards completion of WBS design, correctly and comprehensively addressing all project requirements.
Provides a project risk analysis and plan using the risk identification framework as a basis for discussing alternate strategies for the management of such risks. All steps in project risk analysis and alternate strategies are comprehensively discussed and presented in the context of the project, with evidence of thorough consideration of the framework to validate the alternatives.
Produces a quality management plan which includes a statement about the team’s philosophy and verification and validation activities. All required project steps are correctly identified and appropriately contextualised for the selected project.
Referencing of sources (APA 6th ed citation) to reinforce findings. All written evidence is professionally communicated using correct referencing.

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