# ME110 Aeronautical and Automotive Systems

ME110  Aeronautical and Automotive Systems

Assignment Brief:

Part A: How do Aircraft Wings Work?

Part B: Using Aerofoils to Increase the Cornering Speed of a Car

ME110  Aeronautical and Automotive Systems

Assignment Brief:

Part A: How do Aircraft Wings Work?
Assignment Part A:

How do Aircraft Wings Work? In this part of the assignment you will investigate the fundamental physics associated with the generation of lift forces using an aerofoil. You will also investigate the important aspects of aerofoil performance for aircraft using aerofoil analysis software. • Please write your final answers in the report template provided on studentcental • Please refer to the coursework guide provided on studentcentral • Please use equations, and your own diagrams, to support your answers

Tasks 1. Explain how an aerofoil generates lift.
2. Describe three common misconceptions about how lift is generated.
3. Consider the wing of a Cessna 150, where the aerofoil section at the root is a NACA 2412: a) Why is it rounded and not pointed at the front b) Why is it thicker in the middle c) Why is it tapered at the rear d) Why is it flatter underneath, with a camber making it curve on top? 4. What other shapes will generate lift?  a) Could a house brick? b) Could a football? 5. Define the common formulas for Lift & Drag and give example use of the equations.
6. Define the main types of aerodynamic drag.
7. Define laminar and turbulent boundary layers.
8. What are wingtip vortices and what causes them?
9. IMPORTANT: To do this part you need to use a computer with XFLR5 software installed. If you want to download a copy of XFLR5 on your own computer you can do so from here: http://www.xflr5.com/xflr5.htm For tips on how to use this software, see the XFLR5 user guide on student central.  Using the XFLR5 software, load a NACA 4 series aerofoil of your choice (eg NACA 2412) a) Generate a plot of CL vs. Alpha b) Generate a plot of CD vs. Alpha 10. By inspecting the plots generated in question 9: a) What angle of attack gives zero lift? b) What angle of attack gives maximum lift? c) If it flies upside down, what is the maximum lift, and at what angle of attack? 11. Include a screenshot of the aerofoil you have chosen in section nine.
Appendix As well as making your own information searches, please visit the following websites to aid your learning of aerofoil aerodynamics:
Lift Explanations https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/lift1.html http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9120/38/6/001/pdf/pe3_6_001.pdf
Incorrect Theory Explanations: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/wrong1.html http://amasci.com/wing/airfoil.html http://www.aviation-history.com/theory/lift.htm
General Fluid Mechanics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli’s_principle http://www.cabrillo.edu/~jwelch/bernoulli/bernoulli-coanda.html http://lecdem.physics.umd.edu/f/f5.html
General Lift Discussions: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/short.html http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/fluids/airfoil.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lift_(force)#Deflection http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/46131/does-a-wing-in-a-potential-flow-have- lift/46134#46134 http://aviation.stackexchange.com/questions/21664/how-complete-is-our-understanding-of-lift

ME110  Aeronautical and Automotive Systems  Assignment Brief:  Part B: Using Aerofoils to Increase the Cornering Speed of a Car
Supporting Information: In conjunction with your lecture notes, the following diagrams and screenshots are intended to help you work through this assignment:
• Scaling and measurement using the top view of a Formula One car

• Setting up constants for Excel spreadsheet calculations
1.8 m
L
2/3 x L