**Need help-Statistics Assignment:Geochemistry 1**

**Field and Laboratory Techniques in Geochemistry 1**

**Statistics Assignment**

Question 1) 10%

The data for a digestion of Bolivian tailings are provided. The elements are grouped as majors, traces and rare earth elements. Produce, using the descriptive statistics command in Excel (or any other suitable programme), summary data for each of these three groupings (Mean, Standard Error, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Sample Variance, Kurtosis, Skewness, Range, Minimum, Maximum, Sum and Count).

The data should be presented in tabulated form.

Question 2) 10%

Explain, using a maximum of three sentences for each, what you understand by the terms: Mean, Standard Error, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Sample Variance, Kurtosis, Skewness, Range, Minimum, Maximum, Sum and Count.

Question 3) 10%

Calculate the precision for each element analysed. (Hint the copy and paste tool is very useful for formulae).

Question 4) 10%

The data for a digestion of Bolivian uncontaminated soil are provided. The elements are grouped as majors, traces and rare earth elements. Calculate the mean, standard deviation, standard error and median of the samples for each of these three categories. Comment on any elements which show a large median/mean difference (hint Bi might be worth comparing in this context; for example against a major element). Your answer should incorporate the word ‘outlier’.

Question 5) 10%

BCR-1 and JB-3 are soil CRM materials. They were digested at the same time and using exactly the same methodology as the samples themselves. Calculate the accuracy of the digestion by comparing the results with the given elemental concentrations of the reference materials (BCR-1 rv and JB-3 rv). Comment on the accuracy of the analysis.

Question 6) 25%

The data for chloride concentrations of Regent’s canal and Pennine stream water, as determined by Ion Chromatography (IC), are presented. The data to be analysed are those collected from the Regent’s canal (RC in the spreadsheet itself). To the right of the spreadsheet these data has been extracted to help you answer the following questions.

Question 6a) the samples were analysed at two dilutions: a hundred fold (*100) and neat (*1). Why do you think that such a difference was reported in concentration? Which of these ‘dilutions’ do you trust?

Question 6b) construct a calibration curve (hint, scatter graph). The calibration standards employed were made up to 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg L^{-1}. Plot a suitable regression line and display the R^{2 }value on the graph, from this calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient (hint this is a one-step transformation)

Question 6c) do you think that drift correction might be necessary? Plot a suitable scatter graph to illustrate your answer. Note there is not a definitive yes or no answer to this question. You will be awarded marks on the strength of your reasoning.

Question 6d), using the blank data determine the LOD and LOQ for the complete analytical run. Describe, in a maximum of four sentences, what is meant by the terms LOD and LOQ.

Question 6e) Determine the precision* and accuracy (hint, consider the CRM dilution factor) of the Regent’s canal data. The concentration of chloride in the Battle reference standard is as follows:

*Note there are two duplicate pairs: 1 and 1a together with 2 and 2a. Calculate the individual precisions and the combined overall precision by any appropriate method.

Question 7) 25%

The data provided are from a column experiment which investigated the evolution of pore water concentrations over a modelled twenty year period. The column was packed with uncontaminated Bolivian soil together with sulphide mine tailings.

Question 7a) Produce a correlation matrix encompassing all of the elements (hint spreadsheet 30 gives a suitable method and also remember to remove all non-numerical data).

Question 7b) Produce three scatter graphs from the data. The first should show a strong positive correlation, the second a negative correlation and the third show minimal correlation. For each of these graphs plot a regression line, produce a linear equation and a R^{2} value. From the latter obtain the value of r (Pearson’s correlation).

7c) Calculate a Spearman correlation coefficient for the Zn and Cd concentrations (hint, follow the ranking formulae given in spreadsheet 11).

When comparing the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient, which of the two is more sensitive to outliers? Looking at the formulae can you suggest a reason for your conclusion?

Pearson

Spearman

7d) Give an example, not necessarily from the scientific literature, of correlation not implying causation (hint, Wikipedia has a good page addressing this specific question).

Need help-Statistics Assignment:Geochemistry 1