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PLEASE NOTE: THERE ARE SIX PARTS TO THIS LAB
- To identify the functions of bones within the body.
- To understand bone composition.
- To understand proper anatomical terminology.
- To identify the different types of bones of the body.
- To identify the bones of the human body.
- To explore the relationship between anatomy and locomotion.
- To compare the anatomy of human and non-human primates.
- To practice using the scientific method to create hypotheses comparing the anatomy of different primates.
- Read through this lab assignment.
- Read Chapter 6 in your Larsen textbook.
- Read through the Powerpoint Slideshow, Primate Locomotion.
- Explore and read through the following websites:
Functions of Bone
The skeletal system provides many important functions in human anatomy. Bones offer support for the body and protect the organs of the body. In addition to this protection of the organs, the bones of the cranium, or skull, protect the brain. Bones provide leverage for body movement, and offer sites of attachment for the muscles of the body. Bones are essential for proper movement of the body. Bones also house mineral stores, which are released into the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body. Bones are also essential for blood cell formation contained within bone marrow.
Types of Bones
There are four types of bones in the body. Most of the limb bones are called long bones and are much longer than they are wide. The short bones are more square-like in shape. Many bones of the body are flat bones, and these are often flat and thin. These bones include many bones of the skull, the scapula, and the ribs. Irregular bones do not fit into any of the other three categories, and exhibit a range of shapes. Irregular bones include the bones of the pelvis and the spinal column.
Each bone is comprised of spongy bone and compact bone. The outer layer of bone is dense compact bone. Contained with the compact bone layers is the spongy bone, which looks like honeycomb. Bone marrow resides in the open spaces of the spongy bone. Long bones contained a diaphysis, which is the bone shaft. The epiphyses are the ends of the long bones. Bone growth occurs at the point at which these two sections of long bones meet. In childhood, the two epiphyses are separated from the diaphysis at the epiphyseal plate, a cartilaginous disc where bone growth occurs, until fusion occurs near adulthood. In adulthood, the epiphyseal line shows the place at which the bones fused together. The medullary cavity is found in the middle of long bones, and is filled with bone marrow. Short, irregular, and flat bones contain no diaphysis, and only contain bone marrow between the cavities of the spongy bone, as there is no medullary cavity.
Anatomical position-body erect, eyes facing forward, feet together and upper limbs at the side, palms facing forward and thumbs facing away from the body
**All references to the human body are made assuming proper anatomical position.**
Anterior (ventral, in animals)-toward the front of the body
Posterior (dorsal, in animals)-toward the back of the body
Superior (cranial, in animals)-toward the head
Inferior (caudal, in animals)-toward the lower body
Medial-close to the midline of the body
Lateral-farther from the midline
Sagittal Plane-vertical plane that divides body and organs into symmetrical right and left halves
Coronal Plane-vertical plane that runs perpendicular to the sagittal plane and divides body into anterior/posterior
Transverse Plane-horizontal plane that divides the body into superior/inferior
Axial skeleton-pertaining to the head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular skeleton-pertaining to the limbs
Part 1: Fill in the Blank
Using the terminology listed, please fill in the following blanks with the best answer using the anatomical terminology listed above (there might be a couple that make sense).
- When in anatomical position, human palms face .
- The heart is to the shoulder.
- The pelvis is to the neck.
- The belly button is to the buttocks.
- The brain is to the heart.
- The humerus is a part of the skeleton.
- The axis is a part of the skeleton.
- The scapula is superior to which plane?
- On which plane of the skull is the foramen magnum located?
- List the bones of the foot (phalanges, tarsals, metatarsals) in order from proximal to distal.
Part 2: Bone List/ Terminology
Use the websites assigned with this lab to identify, recognize, and memorize the bones listed below. You should be able to identify the bones using a drawing and recognize images of individual disarticulated bones.
Upon completion of this lab, you should know and be able to identify the bones of the human skeleton that are listed below, along with their associated structures. For a test, you need to be able to identify these structures either from a drawing or in “real life” i.e. if I provide an image of a bone for an exam, you would need to be able to identify it.
- The Axial Skeleton
- Bones of the skull
- Frontal bone (unpaired)
- Parietal bones (paired)
- Bones of the skull
- Occipital bone (unpaired)
- structure: foramen magnum
- Temporal bones (paired)
- structure: mastoid process
- Mandible (unpaired)
- Maxilla (unpaired)
- Zygomatics or malars (paired)
- Bones of the vertebral column
- Cervical bone
- Thoracic bone
- Lumbar bone
- Structures of the vertebral column
- Spinous process
- Transverse process
- Bones of the bony thorax
- First rib
- The Appendicular Skeleton
- Bones of the pectoral girdle
- structure: glenoid fossa
- structure: scapular spine
- Bones of the upper extremities
- structure: humeral head
- structure: olecranon fossa
- Bones of the pectoral girdle
- Bones of the hand
- Be able to identify the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges generally
- Bones of the pelvic girdle
- structure: iliac crest
- structure: sciatic notch
- structure: acetabulum
- structure: pubic symphysis
- structure: pubic arch
- Bones of the lower extremities
- structure: femoral head
- structure: linea aspera
- Bones of the foot
- Be able to identify the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges generally
- Identify the talus, hallux, and calcaneous specifically
Parts 2 and 3:
Use the lab worksheet to label the following skull (A-H) and skeleton (A-O) with the bones and structures from the list above.
Part 4: Bones of the Hand:
Use the lab worksheet to answer the three questions.
Do the exercise and answer the questions in 2-4 sentences.
Read the directions on slide 31 of the Slideshow, Primate Locomotion. Attempt the knuckle-walking locomotor pattern. What do you notice? In what ways is your skeletal anatomy less than ideally formed for this sort of locomotion?
Part 6: Comparative Anatomy
To be completed on the Discussion Board.
The web site http://www.eskeletons.org/ and the Primate Locomotion slideshow will provide the information needed for this portion of the lab exercise.
To receive credit for this lab exercise, each student will need to submit three posts in the appropriate forum on the course discussion board (one Primary Post and two responses- you know the drill at this point). The first post contains your two hypotheses. The second and third posts are responses, which should be posted in the original thread to which you are responding .
For this section, using www.eskeletons.org, click on the Comparative Anatomy button. You will be able to choose between numerous primate species. Make anatomical comparisons between humans and other primates. I have suggested some bones in the list below, but each student is encouraged to follow their own curiosity, and you are not limited to the bones on this list. Do be sure to select the same view for each of bone whenever possible. Additionally, use the slideshow and your textbook to compare the locations of the foramen magnum on different species.
After comparing the bones and structures, choose two to develop hypotheses about. At least one of your hypotheses should address the relationships between anatomy and locomotion. Hypotheses should focus on similarities and differences. Think about why these bones vary so much between such closely related species. After posting, respond to at least one of your classmates’ hypotheses. As with previous assignments, responses should be substantive and thoughtful. Not just agree or disagree.
 This lab was adapted in part from Rachel Grabner’s and Tom Murphy’s Human Osteology lab and Dr. Eroschenko’s 2007 Laboratory Manual for Human Anatomy for Use with Models and Prosected Cadavers.