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Buy your Research paper Online-Amphibians

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Answer the following questions using the information provided above.

  1. What problem are amphibians experiencing worldwide? Please explain it as clearly and completely as you can in the space provided (approximately 150 words). Make sure you address broadly what is happening as well as causal factors involved. (max. 2 pts)



  1. What does the “climate-linked epidemic” hypothesis of Pounds et al. (2006) propose (that is, what is hypothesized to be causing the problem)? Summarize it in 1-2 sentences, using your own words. (max. 1 pt)



  1. List two distinct lines of evidence used to support the “climate-linked epidemic” hypothesis in your own words. (This is data that corresponds to one of the predictions of the hypothesis.

max. 2 pts)



  1. What does the “spatio-temporal spread” hypothesis of Lips et al. (2008) propose? Summarize it in 1-2 sentences, using your own words. (max. 1 pt)




  1. List two distinct lines of evidence used to support the “spatio-temporal spread” hypothesis in your own words. (max. 2 pts)



  1. How are these two hypotheses different in terms of their predictions? Contrast the predictions of each hypothesis. Explain in 2-4 sentences, using your own words. (max. 2 pts)




  1. Please list and explain one strength and one weakness of each hypothesis in the chart below. A weakness is something about the hypothesis (an assumption, way something is measured, piece of data, combination of data, or absence of data, etc.) that makes it less convincing. A strength is something that makes it more convincing. (max. 4 pts)


  Weaknesses Strengths
Climate-Linked Epidemic    

































  1. If you were Ms. Torres, and you had to briefly describe to your students why the frogs have disappeared in this forest, and what you think is the most likely explanation, what would you say? Write your explanation as if you are talking to high school students. Be sure to synthesize the information available; your explanation should include an informed evaluation of the evidence. Please explain it as clearly and completely as you can in the space provided (~100-150 words). (max. 2 pts)




Finally, read carefully the following information and answer the last two questions.


In a new study, Cheng et al. (2011) recently described a new genotyping technique —a way to discover the genotype of the sample— by which amphibian museum specimens can be tested for the presence of chytrid fungus through a simple swab. This DNA-based technique uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)2 to detect the presence of Bd DNA in the skin of specimens, and can be used for specimens collected up to 50 years ago.

  1. Please read carefully and as many times as needed. How would you use this new tool to help understand the causes of enigmatic amphibian declines knowing that many museums have been collecting specimens from Central and South America for decades? Provide a specific example or scenario of where and for what purpose, you could use this technique. (For example, what would you test for and in what populations? What would you expect to find, and what would it mean?). (max. 3 pts)


  1. Please read carefully and as many times as needed. How might new evidence from using PCR on specimens from several decades ago strengthen or reject the hypotheses above? Describe how new evidence could be used to produce data to strengthen each hypothesis, and what data that would be. Explain. (max. 6 pts) —-PCR is a molecular technique used to amplify specific fragments of DNA. If the chytrid fungus is present on a frog specimen, chytrid DNA fragments will be amplified with the PCR.


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Homework help_

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Instructions for term paper

  • 750 words
  • Assigned organ KIDNEY
  • A general description of your assigned organ in the introduction. In the general description, you will include the following: a brief description of the primary functions of this organ, its general shape, and the location of this organ in the human body.
  • Describe in detail the importance of this organ to the function of the body as a whole. What are the functions of this organ and how is it critical for survival?
  • Identify and describe which of the four tissue types (epithelial, connective, muscle, and/or nervous tissues) are present in the organ.
  • Describe any organ-specific cell types that are present and if these cell types have any special structures (e.g., presence of microvilli and/or abundance of particular organelle such as mitochondria).
  • Discuss in detail how these different cell-types work together to provide the overall function of the organ.
  • Include a discussion of why each organ requires the different tissue types as well as unique cell types to function. Why can the organs not be comprised of just one cell type? What is the advantage of having so many different types of cells?


Ireland, K. (September, 2012). Visualizing Human biology, 4th Edition. [Kaplan]. Retrieved from

  • 2 additional references


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Need Help-Peer Evaluation

Need Help=Peer Evaluation

Peer Evaluator: T.  Alshehhi

Group #:

Topic: ___________________________________________ Date: November

Rate each of the following areas as excellent (ü+), good (ü), or needs work (ü-). Add Comments to explain your rating and answer the questions below.




Rating Comments
Content (e.g. interest, appropriateness for assignment, clear focus, good support and details)


Organization (e.g. easy to follow, coherent)


Delivery and Overall Communication (e.g. eye contact, appropriate volume and rate of speech, clarity of speech, comprehensibility, posture and body language, use of media and visual aids, all members well-prepared)



  1. Why must engineers understand biological concepts for success of the project/concept?


  1. What is one thing the group did well?


  1. What is one suggestion to help them improve future presentations?


  1. Additional Comments


Need Help-Biology

Need Help-Biology

Discuss Osmosis (e.g.,describe the process, describe sub-groups of osmosis,

discuss how osmosis works, discuss the category (s) of transport it belongs to, discuss what it transports, etc.,)

– 1 or 2 pages

– Proper heading, name, date, course

– Double spaced

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Term Paper

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Term Paper



  1. Identify a Health, Human or Ecological Topic for Analysis.



  1. Describe the topic and how it relates to the Course, Course Concepts and/or principles.



  1. Analyze the Decision-Making Process (Human) or the Environmental (Ecological) application that is used for your topic



  1. What is the reason for your interest or analysis?



  1. What changes or recommendations should be made?



  1. Would you try to influence your area of interest?

Why or why not? How?




Note: The 6-8 page paper must be typed (12-14 point font), with separate reference (scholarly using MLA, APA or Scientific) and title page.


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Food Microbiology – ONPS1042


ASSIGNMENT 1 – written communication task


Literature review

Each student submit their own literature review. Write a section on each of the following chemicals used for microbial preservation of food. Chemicals to be covered should include:  x Nitrite/nitrate

x sulphur dioxide

x introduce the use of organic acids including sorbic, benzoic, propionic acid and the parabens BUT THEN concentrate your writing in this section on sorbic or benzoic acid

x the use of an organic acid as a surface spray or dip


(please do not review plant derived products such as essential oils from herbs and spices, animal derived products such as lysozyme and lactoferrin and the microbial metabolites bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide as we will discuss these in lectures).


Criteria for content In your review for each section you should cover the following information:

x The action of the chemical on microbes to kill them (ie their antimicrobial effect).

x The types of microorganisms that are sensitive / resistant to the chemical and the reasons for their specific resistance or sensitivity. Include both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.

x The types of foods that use the chemical as an ingredient in formulation and why these food groups choose to use the chemical.

x Safety restrictions on the chemicals use and reasons for restrictions.

x Dose allowed in food (see additives and processing aids in the Food Standards Code of FSANZ web site or EU recommendations or FDA recommendations – AND ENSURE YOU REFERENCE WHICH STANDARDS YOU ARE QUOTING).

Background reading: Adams and Moss Chapter 4.5.

Contents page: An index or contents page should also be included.

Length Literature review should be 1500words (+/- 10%). (hint – put some information in tables to decrease word count as it is not included in the word count), The table and any reference are not included in the word count.

Guidelines Writing of the literature review should be based on Guidelines for a Literature Review. (this document is in online assignment section).

Written font and paragraph format Please use Times New Roman, 10 pt, and double spaced. When using acronyms ensure you first used the full title then the acronym in bracket and then you can use the acronym only for the rest of the report – eg “ the product was made using Good Manufacturing Practice(GMP). There are a number of support systems that are included in a GMP program”.

Tables and figures: Collating some of the information relating to the criteria for content (above) into tables and using figures is encouraged. Tables and figures do not count towards the word count. With a simple explanation in the text referring to what the table is interpreting they are very good for a literature review like this. In particular tables would allow you to set out specific information on efficacy of preservation with respect to a range of organisms and also across different food groups. Ensure your title for tables is above the table and figure title is below the figure. If you copy or modify tables or figures from an article / book ensure you reference them correctly. Use your own numbers either fig1 to eg 10 – or Fig 1.1, 2.1 etc for chapters or subsections. Make sure you explain the relevance of each figure / table in the text.

Word count: 1500 words +-10%. Please register a word count on the front page when you submit your assignment. Go to Tools / Word Count. Do not include contents page, tables, figures and references in the count.


There must be at least 12 references (at least 5 in the last 10 years and definitely not just review books). See Guidelines for Literature Review and Referencing in the online assignment section for details.

Reference formatting: Please use the APA referencing system for citing references in text and reference section;ID=8rwjnkcmfoeez Your . For journal abbreviations go to:

Plagiarism and Turnitin

The review must be submitted via Turnitin in the assignment 1 section of your Blackboard ONPS1042 site. This checks for plagiarised material. Please refer to the document in the online assignment section for details of how to do this.

Your assignment must be <10% similarity index and there should not be any major block of similarity more than 2%. You may submit your review as many times as you like before the final date of submission to Turnitin date ie 24 hours before the close date and time for submission, to check you are not plagiarising but after the final close date and time you cannot resubmit. Please see timetable for relevant dates. Please also read the details of academic integrity and plagiarism at All support information for staff and students is at: Submission for marking Literature review draft – new students in their first semester ONLY can show me a hard copy draft at least 1-2 weeks before final submission. You must submit a hard copy of the final assignment, including the cover sheet and a copy of the turnitin % originality report of your final draft, to reception building 3 level 1 city campus by the due date as requested in the timetable for this course. The cover sheet is at Help with English expression: If your English expression is poor, please get a peer to read the report and help you with any English expression changes and spelling etc BEFORE YOU HAND IT IN or the seek help from RMIT English Worldwide. Things not to do Books like Hocking and Doyle are already literature reviews. Using these extensively for referencing is not a good literature review and will receive low marks – however there are lots of references linked to the chapters in those book that can be searched and referenced if read and used in the review. Do not use references within a chapter or book unless you have sourced the reference. Marks will be allocated in the following categories: 1. Literature review directly related to the topic criteria and directly related to food microbiology and micro-organisms. (see Content criteria dot points above) 2. A GOOD review of the literature – not just a rewrite of the most used references or an already written review. Use you own headings to design content and incorporate material from all the literature you have written. Extra marks will be given to people who think critically about the information they are incorporating and who include a critical comparison of information from their literature search in their literature review. 3. All references used correctly cited in the text and all those cited in the text written in the reference section in correct format in alphabetical order, preferably in APA format. If you have not used APA format please add a copy of an example of a reference format you have used. 4. Accuracy in microbiological terms eg microbiological organisms names in italics and properly spelled. 5. Tables and figures correctly used and numbered, with titles relevant to what you are writing about, and properly explained in the text. 6. Plagiarisms of heading and paragraphs from text will not be tolerated. If students plagiarise they will receive zero for the assignment. For more details please read: GUIDELINES FOR LITERATURE REVIEW AND REFERENCING.


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1st. and 2nd Lab Assignments :Virtual Ecology Lab

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1st. Lab Assignment :Virtual Ecology Lab

Login into the university website using the same user name and password as last time, and click on the class bio 240 tab, then go to week 5 and you will find the assignments tab near the bottom of the page. Click the tab that says “Virtual Systematics Lab”, then click on MasteringBiology Virtual Labs tab, as you complete the lab, then complete the worksheet provided.


Resource: MasteringBiology Access, lab worksheet

Complete the MasteringBiology® Systematics Virtual Lab: Introduction to Systematics


Complete the lab by accessing it in MasteringBiology. Then, follow the laboratory procedures contained within the lab and fill in the requested data/answers from your experiment/observations on the worksheet found on your student website.


2nd. Lab assignment:

Login into the university website using the same user name and password as last time, and click on the class bio 240 tab, then go to week 5 and you will find the assignments tab near the bottom of the page. Click the tab that says “Virtual Ecology Lab”, then click on MasteringBiology Virtual Labs tab, as you complete the lab, then complete ONE of the worksheet provided.


Complete one of the following MasteringBiology® Virtual Labs:

  • Disruption of a Marine Food Web

  • Invasive Species

  • Effects of Removing a Predator

Complete your selected lab by accessing it in MasteringBiology. Then, follow the laboratory procedures contained within the lab and fill in the requested data/answers from your experiment/observations on the worksheet found on your student website.



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Questions to answer and hand to your demonstrator at the start of week 2 of the can prac class i.e. week 4 of the semester on August 11:


  1. In relationship to Clostridium botulinum spores, what is meant by  a 12D heat process? 


  1. What types or groups of microorganisms would you expect to find if a can has been under-processed. Explain the reason for your answer.


  1. What is the meaning of leaker spoilage of canned food and how does this occur?








  1. What types of microorganisms would you expect to isolate from a can if there is leaker spoilage?







  1. Suggest two sources of organisms that may contribute to leaker spoilage



  1. What physical tests would you do on the can and its contents to determine if the can spoilage has been caused by leaker spoilage?
  1. Controls need to be applied to ensure production of a batch of appertised  food  (in a glass bottle, can or sealed pouch) is shelf stable and safe for consumption. As a brief summary, control of the following seven (7)  steps is important to ensure production of appertised (commercialy sterile) shelf-stable cans.
  1. Supply of cans from the can manufacturer
  2. Source, supply and storage of the raw materials
  3. Preparation of the product going into the can
  4. Applying the lids
  5. Retorting the cans
  6. Cooling the cans
  7. Storage and distribution of the cans



  1. Of the steps listed above, state three (4) steps that are the most important to prevent leaker spoilage in a batch of processed cans.  Explain why you have chosen each of them.






















  1. Of the steps listed above, state three steps that are the most important in controlling unerprocessing, in a batch of processed cans. Explain why you have chosen each of them.


















  1. Why is Liver broth (covered with a layer of 2% agar ) commonly used as a growth medium, when analysing cans to check for sterility or cause of spoilage?






  1. Why is Dextrose Tryptone Broth commonly used as a growth medium, when analysing cans to check for sterility or cause of spoilage?






  1. After inoculation of the food into the above media thetubes are incubate at two temperatures i.e. 300C and 550 Why are both of these temperatures used?

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Meiosis and Orossing over

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Meiosis and Crossing over

Video: Refresh yourself on the process of meiosis and crossing over by watching Professor Anderson’s Meiosis Video

Video: Watch this video if you want to understand Linked Genes

Animation/Problem: Work through the recombination problems at DNA from the Beginning.

Textbook:  Read Chapter 7 (Principles of Genetics, Snustad & Simmons 2012)

Important Formulas


  1. Ebony (black body, b) and apterous (vestigial wings, v) are recessive traits, present on different chromosomes. A cross is performed between an ebony female with normal wings and an apterous male with normal body color.
  1. What are the genotypes of the parental flies? (10 points)
  1. List the genotype(s) and phenotype(s) you expect to see in the F1 offspring. Explain how you arrived at your answer. (10 points)


  1. A cross is performed between an ebony female fly and a sepia (brown eyes; s) male fly. Ebony and sepia are recessive traits. All of the F1 offspring are wild-type.
  1. What are the genotypes of the parental and F1 flies? (10 points)

The F1 flies are crossed, and the following results are obtained:

48 wild-type body color and eyes

26 ebony, wild-type eyes

24 wild-type body color, sepia

2 ebony, sepia

  1. Is this result expected for traits that are not linked? Explain. (10 points)
  1. Assuming that these traits are linked – and therefore inherited together – draw the arrangement and inheritance of the genes in the F1 and F2 flies by filling in the boxes in the figure below. The parental arrangement has been drawn for you. The lines represent individual chromosomes (remember that flies are diploid organisms). (15 points)
  2. Looking at your genotypes in the figure above, list the phenotypes of the F2 offspring (from left to right). (5 points)


  1. What is the recombinant genotype? Explain. (10 points)
  1. What is the frequency of recombination? You must show your work! (10 points)
  1. In maize, three recessive genes (z, xt, and cm) are linked on chromosome 3. A homozygous plant for the recessives is crossed with a wild-type plant. The F1 is crossed to get an F2 generation with the following results:


Genotype Number Observed
z xt cm 444
z+ xt cm 59
z+ xt cm+ 74
z+ xt+ cm 5
z  xt+ cm   60
z xt cm+ 6
z xt+ cm+ 65
z+ xt+ cm+ 440

What are the parental, single recombinant, and double recombinant genotypes? (10 points)

What is the order of the three genes on chromosome 3? Explain your answer. (10 points)

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Cloning, Genetically Modified Foods, or Bioethics

“Cloning, Genetically Modified Foods, or Bioethics”

Because BIOLOGY is an essential element of our everyday lives, we see and hear news reports on a variety of issues that relate to it almost every day. Your assignment is to research and review one article or report on the specified topic or issue related to Biology indicated. Additional information on writing a journal (or newspaper) review or summary can be found in the attachments to these instructions. Your report should be organized as follows:

Title of the article or report pertaining to the specific topic for the week
Author of article
Source of article or report (This includes the name of periodical, newspaper, or other media resource. Include the “URL” for online resources. “Wikipedia,” other encyclopedias, and textbooks are not approved sources. The source must be valid, as I will check the source)
Date of article (this is absolutely required)
“Your summary” in “your own” 200 words or less discussing and/or explaining what the article is about.
Make sure you read the attached files on “Writing a Journal Review” and “Writing Summaries.”
Write an objective summary of the facts presented in the article; therefore, do not use first or second person in your summary. In this summary you are to
discuss (consider as many important elements related to the issue as you can)
explain (tell about something that is complex in a way that makes it clear)
Since the summary should be “in your own words,” avoid directly quoting material from the article, unless absolutely necessary to characterize what the article is about. Also, be mindful of plagiarism.

While it is important for you to demonstrate that you understand the ideas contained in the article, this is not the place for personal commentary. I have tried to align assignments and discussion topics with the chapters covered in the textbook. So an ideal place to share personal commentary on an article that you have read would be the Discussion forums.

The article submitted for the week must be on the specified biology topic or issue listed for the week. The article should come from a source that provides “new” information; therefore, it should not simply define the topic or provide background information that has long been established. See the “Helpful Resources” menu for some websites that offer current biology news articles. The publication date of the article MUST be CURRENT or within 90 days of the assignment due date. Weekly Assignments/Reports will be evaluated based upon the degree of completion and correctness.

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