Category Archives: Electrical Engineering

EE 221 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering

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Page 1 of 1
Tuesday, January 23
EE 221 – Introduction to Electrical Engineering
Due – 5
th February 2018 (beginning of the class)
Problem 1: Innovation is the number one driver of US economy. Computer, internet, smart
phones, smart watches, self-driving cars, Amazon Alexa, Google home, military technologies
such as Drones, are some of the examples of innovation and many of these innovative
technologies are utilized by the millions of citizens all around the world.
In this spirit, if all the funds and resources are available to you to do the innovation, what would
you innovate related to your discipline?
To shape up your writing for the innovation topic, please try to incorporate the best answers
(based on your ability) to following questions in your write up:
What is the strong rationale for the topic of innovation?
What are the two goals that will be needed for realizing the innovation?
What are the two objectives of each goal described earlier?
Find and discuss at least one technique or algorithm without which your innovation is not be
Please submit your paper in PDF format in ECampus ‐> Homework Assignment 3 link. Use single
spacing, 10 pts Times New Roman font with 1 inch page margin all sides format. Page limit ‐1
page. Write the title of the innovation in the header space of the page. Use page 2 for graphs,
tables and references. Do not write your name on the document.
For research use following website from WVU computers:

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Need help-Project 3: Single-Transistor Amplifier

EENG 3510, Fall 2016

Need help-Project 3: Single-Transistor Amplifier

Design a single-transistor amplifier that delivers at least ten times as much power to the load as it draws from the source. In other words, the power gain must be at least 10 (10dB). The signal source has a resistance of 10kΩ and the load has a resistance of 1kΩ. Your power supply is 5V. You are allowed to use a BJT or a MOSFET, as well as any amplifier configuration of your choosing.

A SPICE template file has already been created for you and is available for download from Blackboard. It contains all the information you need besides the actual circuit. Follow the instructions given and add the rest of your circuit to make it complete. Use the instructions and analysis commands given to evaluate your amplifier.

In order to do a hand analysis with the MOSFET, you need to know the transistor parameters. The MOSFET given in the template has Vt = 1V and kn = 35.9μA/V2. I have fixed the W/L ratio at 500, giving kn = 17.9mA/V2. Do not change W or L.

If you use the BJT, assume β = 70.

In addition to the basic performance requirement above, a pool of bonus points will be awarded to the top performing designs. These bonus points will apply to your final grade in the course. The pool is for the entire class and will be divided up amongst the best performers. You can receive points from more than one category. The pool total is as follows:

  • Overall voltage gain (40 points)
  • Highest input resistance (40 points)
  • Lowest output resistance (40 points)
  • Lowest DC power consumption (40 points)

Any submission will be disqualified that changes the source resistance, load resistance, supply voltage, transistor model statements, or uses more than one transistor.



On December 6, you must turn in a printout of the 5 design parameter results, a picture or hand drawing of your circuit design and a printout of your netlist. Please include a coversheet. You will be graded solely on your circuit functioning properly. Note: If you do not turn in a printout, or you copy someone else’s design, you will get a zero for the project.

Need help-Project 3: Single-Transistor Amplifier

ENGR 202 Evaluation and Presentation of Experimental Data II – Summer 2016

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ENGR 202 Evaluation and Presentation of Experimental Data II – Summer 2016
Lab 4: Capturing Temperature Measurements with a
Original: Dr. Scoles, Dr Miller, Dr Chmielewski Rev: Dr. Marino
8/17/16 page 1 of 7
Goals  Measure, plot, and record temperature measurements from a Type K thermocouple (TC)  Correct the measured voltages with a calibration curve  Find the time constants of the TC cooling curves
Equipment/Software  NI USB TC-01 Thermocouple Measurement Device  Type K thermocouple, Omega KTSS-HH
o Nickel-10% chromium (+) vs. Nickel-5% aluminum and silicon (-)  Power resistor, 100 Ω, 25 Watt  Hewlett Packard E3631A DC power supply  Excel
Reading or Viewing
• Review – Week 8 lecture notes
Introduction A thermocouple (TC) can be used to measure temperature over wide ranges in a variety of measurement environments and with fine spatial resolution. The sensing operation of the TC is based on the Seebeck effect: when two dissimilar metals are joined at both ends to form an open loop, an open circuit voltage is developed (Figure 1). The voltage is proportional to the difference in temperature at the two junctions. The measured voltage is on the order of tens of millivolts. To extract the temperature at the measuring junction (T1) from the measured voltage, we will want to keep the reference junction (T2) at a fixed, known temperature.
Figure 1. Two junctions, T1 and T2, formed by joining wire types A and B.1 The ice/water bath at 0°C (Figure 2) has become the standard for the reference temperature, and published thermocouple voltage vs temperature tables are based on
Figures are from Analog Devices Application Note AN-369, Thermocouple Signal Conditioning Using
the AD594/595, J. Marcin, 1998.
8/17/16 page 2 of 7 this value. This method of providing the reference junction temperature is impractical in field- and lab-measurement situations, so alternatives have been developed.
Figure 2. Thermocouple loop with the reference junction at 0 °C. Rather than using ice, two methods can be used to do cold-junction compensation
– software and hardware. The temperature of the reference junction can be measured directly using a semiconductor sensor or thermistor. The T2 sensor can be chosen to provide a very accurate measurement in a narrow temperature span centered on the expected junction temperature. The measured T2 and the measured sensing junction voltage can be used in a calculation to remove the effect of the reference junction voltage and extract the temperature of T1. The alternative to the software approach is to have the T2 sensing junction within your measurement hardware, and have it used by a circuit that will generate a voltage equal and opposite to that of the reference junction (Figure 3). Once the effect of the T2 junction is removed, the circuit amplifies and scales the output voltage to represent the T1 junction temperature as 1 mV/°C or 10 mV/°C (the 10 mV/°C value is more common).
Figure 3. Electronic cold junction compensation
ENGR 202 Evaluation and Presentation of Experimental Data II – Summer 2016
Lab 4: Capturing Temperature Measurements with a
Original: Dr. Scoles, Dr Miller, Dr Chmielewski Rev: Dr. Marino
8/17/16 page 3 of 7
Procedure 1. With the Hewlett Packard E3631A DC power supply off connect two alligator leads from the power resistor terminals to the + and COM terminals (under ±25V label) as shown in Figure 5). Figure 4. TC inserted into the core of the bower resistor (not to scale) 1. Start your temperature measurement VI. Within the NI software, set the
thermocouple type to, ‘K’ and set the units to ‘C’. Enable data logging in the NI software, collecting 1 sample/second. 2. Record the starting temperature as the ambient temperature, T∞, in the analysis discussion that follows. 3. Insert the Omega thermocouple into the center of the power resistor. The thermocouple should not touch the sides of the resistor, it must float at the center of the radius. 4. Set the power supply voltage to 16 V. a. Turn on power supply by pressing the “Power” button. Press the “Output
On/Off” button. Voltages are shown on the left half of the supply display, and currents on the right half. If a digit on the voltage side is not flashing,
press the “Voltage/Current” button. Use the “Adjust” knob to set the voltage. 5. Observe the TC temperature as the resistor warms up to its maximum temperature, typically between 50 and 70°C (122 and 158°F). Collect data until dT/dt=0.0167, or one degree/minute, we will treat that as steady-state. 6. Remove the TC from the power resistor, hold it vertically without waiving it around and continue to measure the temperature until it returns to a value close
8/17/16 page 4 of 7 to the ambient level. This is measuring the free convective cooling response
of the thermocouple. 7. Stop your VI and save the data to a file. 8. Repeat this heating and cooling cycle two more times, saving the data into a new file each time. 9. Make sure you have three good cooling curves saved before you leave the lab.
These curves should generally look alike. 10.Turn off the power supply. a. Press “Output On/Off” on the supply, and turn off “Power”.
Data Analysis this portion can be done outside of lab Part 1. The shape of the curve you saw for the thermocouple cooling is characteristic of many physical phenomena, including capacitor discharging, radioactive decay, and others. A straight forward energy analysis of the thermocouple system identifies that the rate of change in energy stored in the thermocouple is equal to the energy lost to the room by way of convection. The energy of the system is calculated with respect to the heat capacity of the thermocouple and is represented by the expression
E = m x cp x T (1) Where E = energy content of the thermocouple, kJ m = mass of thermocouple system, kg (assumed constant) cp = the specific heat of the material from which it is constructed, kJ/(kg-K) (assumed constant) T = temperature of the thermocouple, K, which varies. Therefore the rate of energy change with respect to time is evaluated by taking the time derivative of this equation
dE/dt = m x cp x dT/dt (2) Where t is time in seconds. The energy leaving the thermocouple is picked up by the air in the room. This energy flow, driven by the temperature difference between the thermocouple and the air in the room is called heat transfer and in this case is primarily convective heat transfer (we will ignore conduction and radiation). As mentioned in lecture, this mode of heat
ENGR 202 Evaluation and Presentation of Experimental Data II – Summer 2016
Lab 4: Capturing Temperature Measurements with a
Original: Dr. Scoles, Dr Miller, Dr Chmielewski Rev: Dr. Marino
8/17/16 page 5 of 7 transfer is modeled based on the Newton Law of Cooling for a surface and is calculated with the expression
dE/dT = h x As x (T-T∞) (3) Where h = Newton Coefficient for rate of convective heat transfer, kJ/(m2-K-s) depends on the conditions As= surface area of the thermocouple, m2 T∞= temperature of the room, K (this is the ambient temperature of the room) T = temperature of the hot surface, K, in this case the thermocouple temperature Equating the two expressions for rate of energy change produces a simple, first order ordinary differential equation between temperature and time
dE / dT = – m x cp x dT/dt = h x As x (T-T∞) (4) Note: the negative sign results from the fact that energy gain by the air is energy lost from the TC Take a look at the simple solution for this equation of temperature as a function of time, T(t). Determine the time constant, τ, for a first-order thermodynamic system: Where T0= temperature of thermocouple before cooling starts, K  = m cp / (h As), s, represents the time constant for the first order system T∞= ambient temperature The next formal step is usually to collect terms in T and t, which yields With the data acquired in this laboratory, T∞, T0, and T(t) the time constant for your TC can be evaluated. There are several ways to find these time constants.
Tt  T  T0  T et / (5)TtT T0Tet / (6)8/17/16 page 6 of 7 The simplest technique is to take the natural logarithm of both sides of equation 1, which yields This equation has the familiar form of y = mx + b, where the slope m equals -1/ and the intercept b is 0. The slope of the straight line you get when you plot the natural log of the fraction in parenthesis vs. time will be the time constant. The Excel LINEST function can extract the slope from straight-line data. Computer tools such as MATLAB and LabVIEW have built-in capabilities to fit an exponential curve to a set of data. See the Exponential Fit VI in LabVIEW’s Mathematics: Fitting menu on the Functions Palette. Tab-delimited data can be read into LabVIEW with the Read From Measurement File Express VI. Once you find your time constant, plot an exponential through your measured data. Describe in your report how well an exponential model fits the cooling data. For each run, calculate:o Rise time to steady state and dT/dt at mid-riseo Time at steady state and dT/dto Fall time from steady state and dT/dt at mid-fallYour Report Prepare a written report following the guidelines in our grading rubric. This report is due one week after your lab. Required Graphical Results Each of the three cooling curves should be included in the report Some Discussion Points That Must Be Covered  From your readings and lecture, what are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the Cold Junction Compensation circuit for temperature measurement?  Why would you choose a differential input channel thermocouple for this application rather than a single-ended channel?  Explain your reasoning behind the setup of your voltage measurement task.  What are some of the sources of measurement error in this experiment? What is the Omega Type K thermocouple temperature accuracy? Can you use propagation of error to estimate the error in the temperature readings?  How well did the exponential cooling model fit the temperature data?ln Tt  TT0 T   – t/ (7)ENGR 202 Evaluation and Presentation of Experimental Data II – Summer 2016Lab 4: Capturing Temperature Measurements with aThermocoupleOriginal: Dr. Scoles, Dr Miller, Dr Chmielewski Rev: Dr. Marino8/17/16 page 7 of 7 Required Printouts  One page hardcopy of final temperature measurement front panel showing measured data for the three trials  Excel, Labview, or Matlab analysis of your temperature measurements. Make sure all tables and figures are properly labeled in the body of your lab report or the appendix section.  If you use Labview: one page hardcopy of final temperature measurement block diagram including the subVI. The diagram should have text documentationexplaining the VI’s function and the team member names.Bibliography American Society for Testing and Materials (ATSM), Manual on the Use ofThermocouples in Temperature Measurement, ASTM PCN 04-470020-40. Analog Devices AD594/595 Datasheet,, Rev. C, 1999. Viewed on November 3, 2007. Omega TC wire spec sheet page Analog Devices Application Note AN-369, Thermocouple Signal Conditioning Usingthe AD594/595, J. Marcin, 1998. Doering, Ed. Create a SubVI in LabVIEW, Connexions. 17 Mar. 2008. Viewed on May 10, 2010.

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Wheel Self Balancing robot design (Mechanical Design, Electrical/Electronics Design)

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Wheel Self Balancing robot design, Arduino UNO compatible board

Mechanical Design

Our 2-Wheel Self Balancing robot design utilizes the main frame that was given with the kit. Design of an outer casing was developed in Solidworks to connect to the existing framework, encasing all the arduino boards, wires and batteries, This design was then created into a STL file which was then utilized to print on a Lulzbot mini in PLA material.  including all theby utilizing Arduino and MPU6050. Use Arduino as the controller and sensor MPU6050 to control the balance the report. Simply include a Bluetooth module and utilize a Bluetooth Serial Controller APP for Android Phone to make the remote control. The controller is Arduino UNO. The Balanbot is an Arduino Based Self-balance Robot Kit. It utilizes acrylic structures and keeps the robot adjusted utilizing its focal point of gravity (, 2016).

Electrical/Electronics Design

It associates with the Arduino UNO compatible board through the I2C interface. With this sensor, you can get stability when the Kalman filter is utilized. The Balance Shield used in this robot need to be coordinated with one L298P for driving engines. The L298P is a high voltage (50V), high ebb and flow (2A) double channel full-connect driver. It can drive inductive loads, for example, transfer, DC, motors, and engines (, 2016). A serial interface can be used while connecting adapters with Bluetooth and Wi-Fi for the purpose of communication with different gadgets. Four IO pins can be used while connecting different sensors or RC recipient in order to make it as more extensible one (, 2016).



  • Mathematical Model
  • Controller Design (Using Working Model /MATLAB/ Simulink).
  • Simulation Results
  • Experimental Results
  • Conclusion

Contribution: Clearly State Contribution of each team member to the project.

References (2016). 2-Wheel Self Balancing Robot by using Arduino and MPU6050. Retrieved from (2016). Saint smart. Retrieved from

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APPT 6116 Negotiated Study

APPT 6116 Negotiated Study

Learning Contract

 Please complete the areas in this learning contract that are shaded.

Student Name:   Student ID:  
Date: 06/04/2016    
APPT 6116 Negotiated Study
Course Title: Hydroelectric power
Level: 6   Credit: 15
A.  Purpose Statement:
The purpose of this course is to enable me to:  Hydroelectric power: Fundamental and main principles.   (Continue the statement to describe what it is you want to be able to do after completing this course, in no more than three short sentences)
B.   Learning Outcomes:
I will be able to provide evidence that I can: Start each learning outcome with a verb
1.    List the technology that used to harness hydroelectric power.
2.    Discuss the positive and negative aspects of hydroelectric power.
3.    Explain the principles that cause the ability of hydroelectric power to deliver useable energy.
4.    Illustrate the usability of hydroelectric power.
C.   Course Content:
During this course I will be studying the following areas of interest:
§  Technology of the hydroelectric power.
§  Advantages and disadvantages of the hydroelectric power.
§  Ability principle of the hydroelectric power.

§  Hydroelectric power usability.

D.        Resources required:
During this course I need access to the following resources (List any physical resources you need access to and that your technical advisor has agreed to)







E.   Capabilities:

I believe that I will be developing the following Bachelor of Applied Technology Capabilities: (Tick the appropriate capabilities P )




problem-management / research  


critical thinking  


working collaboratively  


managing project  


reflection on practice  


self-employment and entrepreneurship   innovation  


Maori dimensions  
I believe that this course will help me develop these capabilities because: (Provide details of your reasoning)

Reflection on practice:

Reflection on practical discover the way of learning hydroelectric power. Also, indicate the difficulties and easiness of the hydroelectric power. What is more, solving the problems that will be occurred./


Critical thinking:

In this report, critical thinking concept will be taking into consideration. Think critically about hydroelectric power will help researcher in its field to focus on area that could be improvements. Therefore, critical thinking is the only way of improvement.


Problem-management / research:

This part will illustrate the needs and interest of the topic and how these will be covered.


Communication: Ask expert.



This part will shows the comparison between the old and new technology of hydroelectric power and how its developed.


F.   Assessment

The following assessment will assess the learning outcomes described in section B:
In this assessment I will: Writing between 2500-3000 words.
G.  Assessment due date:




H.        Reference: 

I intend to study the following text books during my study of this course:


§   Perlman, H. (2015). U.S. Department of the Interior


§  U.S. Woodbank Communications Ltd. (2005) United Kingdom.


Karl,F.(1999).Wite Gold Hydroelectric power, Canada on acid-free paper. UBCPress/Vancouler.


§  Sherman, J. (2003). Capstone, Hydroelectric Power Energy, Centre of Wisconsin Madison. Capstone Press, Mankato, Minnesota.

I.          Declaration
I declare that:
a.       This course is not related to the Industry Project course, and will not be used again for the purpose of completing the Industry Project course;
b.      Will not duplicate any part of an existing course within the Bachelor of Applied Technology; and
c.       The learning outcomes of this course are not covered within any of the technical subjects of the degree specialization within this programme.
d.      Resources identified within this contract have been discussed and agreed with the technical advisor as being available and accessible during the term of this course
e.       All texts, journals, authors, internet sites, and all other academic works will be acknowledged appropriately in the submitted assignments.


(Student) Date:  


(Technical Advisor, please print) Date:  


-Course Structure Purpose /Aim .

The purpose of this course is to foster the development of the learner-practitioner who embraces life-long, personal and professional advancement.
This course enables an individual student to study an area of relevance and personal interest that is not formally taught in the qualification. This area of interest may be a specialisation of a taught topic or it may be study in a related discipline or field.

-In the learning contract part E (capabilities), we have 9 choices we select five of them which is already marked on the learning contract that will upload it later .

-In the references part you need to use the 4 references that chose on the learning contract and you can add as mush as you need as long its include my main references. same thing go with part B (Learning Outcomes)

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