Category Archives: Geology

Need help-MiniProject 3


Need help-MiniProject    3:    Rock    Cycle:    Explorations    in    Google    Earth    Geology    101:

The    Way    the    Earth    Works    Fall    2016    with    Dr.    McLean

Due    December    8th    at    11:59    PM    on    course    Blackboard    Site
Content    by    Bitting,    K.,        McLean,    N.,    and    Roberts,    J.A.    (2015/2016)

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Learning    Goals    that    will    determine    your    grade:    • Connect    rock    type    to    depositional    environment    by    investigating    modern    and    ancient    sedimentary    systems.        • Write    clear,    detailed    and    grammatically    correct    paragraphs.    • Cite    reliable    sources    using    in-text    citations    and    complete    citations    in    a    Works    Cited    section.        Part    1:    Getting    Started    1. Each    group    member    will    choose    and    complete    one    different    part    (IA,    IB,    IIA,    IIB,    IIC,    IIIA)    of    the    project.        If    you    have    three    group    members,    that    means    that    only    three    different    parts,    of    your    choosing,    need    to    be    completed.        Put    your    name    next    to    the    text    of    the    part    that    you    write    yourself.        If    you    have    fewer    than    three    people    in    your    group,    please    contact    geol101@ku.edu    for    guidance.        2. In    Google    Earth,    go    to    ‘View’    and    de-select    “Water    Surface,”    if    you    haven’t    already.        This    will    allow    you    to    see    the    bathymetry    better    in    the    oceans.    3. When    you’re    finished,    compile    all    group    work    into    one    Microsoft    Word    (.docx)    document    and    have    one    group    member    submit    it    on    Blackboard    using    the    SafeAssign    module.        Sketches    can    be    completed    on    paper,    digitally    photographed    or    scanned,    and    inserted    into    the    Word    document.        Part    2:    Writing    and    Citing    Your    Sources    Citing    Your    Sources    4. In    each    part    of    the    assignment,    there    will    be    a    few    questions    that    require    citations    and    you    will    be    prompted    to    do    so    where    you    see    CITE.    You    may    cite    sources    for    other    questions    if    you    choose    to    do    so,    but    if    we    do    not    ask    for    a    citation,    you    should    be    able    to    figure    it    out    from    things    we’ve    learned    so    far.    Any    idea    or    piece    of    information    that    you    needed    to    look    up    should    be    cited!    Do    not    use    direct    quotes    –    we    will    be    looking    for    you    to    translate    ideas    into    your    own    words    as    a    demonstration    that    you    truly    understand    the    information.        Direct    quotes    will    result    in    points    being    taken    off    your    grade!    5. For    questions    requiring    a    citation,    you    need    to    cite    your    source    within    the    text    of    your    answer    in    an    abbreviated    form:    for    example    (Marshak,    2001).    At    the    end    of    each    part    of    the    assignment,    include    a    “Works    Cited”    section    for    that    part    of    the    assignment    with    the    following    information:    Author,    date,    title,    website    URL    or    publisher    info.    Although    some    websites    don’t    contain    author    information,    many    do,    and    most    include    a    date    when    the    page    was    last    updated.        Here’s    an    example:        Rubin,    Ken    (2015).        Mauna    Loa    Volcano.        https://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/maunaloa.html        6. Make    sure    you    are    citing    reliable    sources-    Joe    Schmoe’s    blog    is    not    acceptable!    The    new    Google    Earth    version    links    to    Wikipedia    for    some    information.    Because
MiniProject    3:    Rock    Cycle:    Explorations    in    Google    Earth    Geology    101:    The    Way    the    Earth    Works    Fall    2016    with    Dr.    McLean    Due    Thursday,    December    8th    at    11:59    PM    on    course    Blackboard    Site
Content    by    Bitting,    K.,        McLean,    N.,    and    Roberts,    J.A.    (2015/2016)            2
of    the    way    Wikipedia    is    created    and    managed,    it    doesn’t    necessarily    contain    correct    or    accurate    information!    Find    information    to    support    your    answers    from    more    reputable    sources-    DO    NOT    CITE    WIKIPEDIA.        Also,    sources    with    .com    in    their    domain    name    are    not    reliable,    and    often    contain    plagiarized    information    from    Wikipedia    (not    reliable    itself    –    see    above).        Do    not    cite    internet    sources    with    .com    in    their    domain    name.    7. Appropriate    citations    include    materials    provided    by    the    United    States    Geologic    Survey    (USGS),    state    (e.g.    Washington)    geologic    surveys,    the    National    Aeronautics    and    Space    Administration    (NASA),    professional    societies    such    as    the    Geological    Society    of    America    or    American    Geophysical    Union,    National    Park    Service    websites,    or    your    textbook.    If    you    have    concerns    about    whether    your    citations    are    appropriate    and    reliable,    contact    one    of    the    TAs    well    in    advance    of    the    deadline.        Plagiarism    and    Honor    Policy    8. Your    will    upload    your    assignment    using    SafeAssign    in    Blackboard,    which    checks    your    text    against    materials    on    the    Internet    and    against    one    another’s    work.        Do    not    copy    and    paste    text    from    websites.        It    is    painfully    obvious,    and    defeats    the    purpose    of    this    exercise.        If    you    are    properly    citing    sources,    SafeAssign    will    likely    come    back    with    a    low    percentage    of    duplication    (~30%    or    less),    and    this    is    acceptable.        Read    the    relevant    part    of    the    Syllabus    again.        If    still    in    doubt,    ask    the    GEOL101    team.            However,    if    you    are    caught    plagiarizing    existing    work    or    the    work    of    other    groups,    you    will    receive    a    zero    for    the    assignment,    as    follows    the    University    Senate    Rules    and    Regulations,    Section    2.6.    If    this    is    a    repeat    offense    for    you,    you    will    also    face    an    academic    misconduct    charged    that    may    have    much    wider    implications.
MiniProject    3:    Rock    Cycle:    Explorations    in    Google    Earth    Geology    101:    The    Way    the    Earth    Works    Fall    2016    with    Dr.    McLean    Due    Thursday,    December    8th    at    11:59    PM    on    course    Blackboard    Site
Content    by    Bitting,    K.,        McLean,    N.,    and    Roberts,    J.A.    (2015/2016)            3
Part    I:    Coral    Reefs            Launch    Google    Earth    and    turn    off    all    layers.        A.    Search    for    the    Great    Barrier    Reef    in    Australia,    and    zoom    out    to    an    eye    altitude    of    ~300    km.    Follow    the    reef    up    and    down    the    coast.    Choose    a    smaller    feature    (such    as    the    one    pictured    at    right)    and    create    an    elevation    profile    for    it.    What    is    the    approximate    thickness    of    the    reef?    __________________    m        1. What    organism    is    primarily    responsible    for    creating    the    reef?    Describe    the    organism,    what    it    needs    to    survive,    and    any    other    interesting    facts    about    this    type    of    organism.    Based    on    these    details,    do    you    expect    to    find    reefs    near    deltas,    or    in    deep    water?    Why    or    why    not?    (CITE,    1-2    paragraphs)    2. What    type    of    rock    (both    general    type-    igneous/metamorphic/sedimentary-    and    specific    name)    will    the    Great    Barrier    Reef    (GBR)    become    if    it    is    preserved?        (3-4    sentences)    3. How    do    changes    in    climate    impact    reefs    (CITE,    1    paragraph)?    4. Include    a    Works    Cited    section    at    the    end    of    this    section.        Include    complete    bibliographic    information    for    all    of    the    citations.        Within    the    text    include    in-text    citations.
MiniProject    3:    Rock    Cycle:    Explorations    in    Google    Earth    Geology    101:    The    Way    the    Earth    Works    Fall    2016    with    Dr.    McLean    Due    Thursday,    December    8th    at    11:59    PM    on    course    Blackboard    Site
Content    by    Bitting,    K.,        McLean,    N.,    and    Roberts,    J.A.    (2015/2016)            4
B.            Search    for    El    Capitan,    Guadalupe    Mountains,    Texas,    and    zoom    out    to    an    eye    altitude    of    10    km.    Create    an    elevation    profile    for    El    Capitan    Peak    (like    the    one    pictured).        Compare    the    profile    to    the    Great    Barrier    Reef.        How    does    thickness    of    this    feature    compare    to    the    GBR?_________________                1. How    old    are    these    rocks    and    how    were    they    formed    (see    Guadalupe    Mountains    National    Park    website    or    other    sound    reference    for    details)?    (CITE,    1-2    paragraphs)    2. What    was    climate    like    when    these    rocks    formed    (CITE,    1    paragraph)?    3. What    type    of    rock    is    El    Capitan    composed    of    (both    general    type-    igneous/metamorphic/sedimentary-    and    specific    name)?        How    did    the    feature    become    exposed    at    the    surface?    (3-4    sentences)    4. Describe    what    processes    have    to    occur    in    the    GBR    for    it    to    become    lithified    like    El    Capitan    (3-4    sentences).    5. Include    a    Works    Cited    section    at    the    end    of    this    section.        Include    complete    bibliographic    information    for    all    of    the    citations.        Within    the    text    of    your    responses,    include    in-text    citations.        Part    II:    River    Systems        A.        Search    for    the    Amazon    River    in    Brazil,    the    find    its    delta    where    the    river    empties    into    the    Atlantic    Ocean.        1. What    is    a    river    delta,    and    how    does    it    form?    2. Zoom    out    to    view    the    entire    South    American    Continent.    What    is    the    origin    of    the    sediment    deposited    in    the    Amazon    Delta?    Based    on    differences    in    elevation    and    vegetation,    suggest    three    processes    of    weathering    that    might    be    responsible    for    producing    sediment    in    two    specific    areas    on    the    continent.    (2-3    sentences,    include    a    screenshot    marking    the    places    you    describe)    3. Zoom    back    in    to    the    delta    area.    What    type(s)    of    sediment    would    you    expect    the    river    to    deposit    in    the    delta?    What    will    happen    to    the    grain    size    of    the    sediment    being    deposited    as    you    move    farther    and    farther    away    from    the    coast    on    the    delta?    Why?    (3-4    sentences)    4. If    the    sediment    offshore    from    the    delta    continues    to    be    buried    and    is    lithified,    what    type    of    rock    (both    general    type    and    specific    names)    would    it    produce?    What    type    of    event    could    eventually    cause    this    rock    to    be    uplifted    above    sea    level?    (3-4    sentences)
MiniProject    3:    Rock    Cycle:    Explorations    in    Google    Earth    Geology    101:    The    Way    the    Earth    Works    Fall    2016    with    Dr.    McLean    Due    Thursday,    December    8th    at    11:59    PM    on    course    Blackboard    Site
Content    by    Bitting,    K.,        McLean,    N.,    and    Roberts,    J.A.    (2015/2016)            5
5. How    long    has    the    Amazon    been    actively    depositing    sediment    in    this    location?    How    has    the    river    changed    through    time    (CITE    1    paragraph)?    6. Include    a    Works    Cited    section    at    the    end    of    this    section.        Include    complete    bibliographic    information    for    all    of    the    citations.        Within    the    text    of    your    responses,    include    in-text    citations.        B.    Search    for    the    Mississippi    River    Delta    near    New    Orleans,    Louisiana.        1. Zoom    out    to    view    the    entire    North    American    Continent.    What    is    the    origin    of    the    sediment    deposited    in    the    Mississippi    Delta?    Based    on    differences    in    elevation    and    vegetation,    suggest    three    processes    of    weathering    that    might    be    responsible    for    producing    sediment    in    two    specific    areas    on    the    continent.    (2-3    sentences,    include    a    screenshot    marking    the    places    you    describe)    2. Zoom    back    in    to    the    delta    area.    What    type(s)    of    sediment    would    you    expect    the    river    to    deposit    in    the    delta?    What    will    happen    to    the    grain    size    of    the    sediment    being    deposited    as    you    move    offshore    from    the    delta?    Why?    (3-4    sentences)    3. If    the    sediment    offshore    from    the    delta    continues    to    be    buried    and    is    lithified,    what    type    of    rock    (both    general    type    and    specific    names)    would    it    produce?    What    type    of    event    could    eventually    cause    this    rock    to    be    uplifted    above    sea    level?    (3-4    sentences)    4. How    long    has    the    Mississippi    been    actively    deposit    sediment    in    this    location?    How    has    the    river    changed    through    time    (CITE    1    paragraph)?    5. Include    a    Works    Cited    section    at    the    end    of    this    section.        Include    complete    bibliographic    information    for    all    of    the    citations.        Within    the    text    of    your    responses,    include    in-text    citations.
MiniProject    3:    Rock    Cycle:    Explorations    in    Google    Earth    Geology    101:    The    Way    the    Earth    Works    Fall    2016    with    Dr.    McLean    Due    Thursday,    December    8th    at    11:59    PM    on    course    Blackboard    Site
Content    by    Bitting,    K.,        McLean,    N.,    and    Roberts,    J.A.    (2015/2016)            6
C.        Search    for    Harpers    Corner,    Maybell,    CO,    which    is    in    Dinosaur    National    Monument    (in    Colorado).        Zoom    in    to    an    eye    altitude    of    about    ~5    km.        1. What    variations    or    features    do    you    observe    in    the    rocks    that    allow    you    to    distinguish    layers?    (2-4    sentences)    2. Turn    on    the    Photos    box    under    “Layers”    and    Locate    “Harper’s    Corner    Rock    (with    ancient    sea    creatures    in    it).”        Click    the    icon    and    then    enlarge    the    picture.    What    features    do    you    observe    in    this    rock?    (1-2    sentences)                3. Visit    the    website    for    Dinosaur    National    Monument,    including    the    Paleontology    section    (and    other    reputable    websites).    What    type    of    environment    was    this    location    190    million    years    ago    (CITE)?    In    what    type    of    environment    were    the    fossils    here    deposited    (CITE)?    Through    what    series    of    events    were    the    fossils    here    preserved    (CITE)?    (3-5    sentences)    4. Provide    a    list    of    the    various    types    of    fossils    found    here    (CITE).    What    fossils    are    most    commonly    preserved?    Why?    (3-4    sentences,    plus    list)    5. Does    the    fossil    assemblage    described    above    likely    represent    the    entire    ecosystem    of    organisms    living    at    this    location    at    this    time,    most    of    the    ecosystem,    or    only    a    small    subsection    of    the    ecosystem?    Why?    (3-4    sentences)    6. When    did    dinosaurs    become    extinct    (CITE)?    How    old    is    the    oldest    Homo    sapiens    (humans)    fossil    (CITE)?    Based    on    these    ages,    could    humans    and    dinosaurs    have    coexisted    on    Earth?    Why    or    why    not?    (1-2    paragraphs)    7. Include    a    Works    Cited    section    at    the    end    of    this    section.        Include    complete    bibliographic    information    for    all    of    the    citations.        Within    the    text    include    in-text    citations.
MiniProject    3:    Rock    Cycle:    Explorations    in    Google    Earth    Geology    101:    The    Way    the    Earth    Works    Fall    2016    with    Dr.    McLean    Due    Thursday,    December    8th    at    11:59    PM    on    course    Blackboard    Site
Content    by    Bitting,    K.,        McLean,    N.,    and    Roberts,    J.A.    (2015/2016)            7
Part    III:    Shelf    and    Deep    Ocean    Environments        A.    Navigate    to    New    York,    New    York,    move    ~200    km    east    and    go    to    an    eye    elevation    of    of    ~650    km.    The    light    blue    area    you    see    extending    up    to    several    hundred    kilometers    east    of    the    coastline    is    the    continental    shelf,    sometimes    simply    called    “the    shelf.”        This    is    continental    crust    that    is    submerged    at    present-day    sea    levels,    and    today    makes    up    a    broad    area    at    the    continental    margin    with    relatively    shallow    depths.        Move    up    and    down    the    coast    investigating    the    eastern    edge    of    the    shelf    and    the    area    just    below    it.        Zoom    in    to    ~200    km    eye    altitudes.        1. Describe    the    somewhat    linear    features    that    you    see    along    the    edge    of    the    shelf.        How    many    are    there,    and    how    closely    spaced    are    they?        Create    an    elevation    profile    of    one    of    the    individual    features–how    deep    are    they?    (3-4    sentences)    2. How    are    these    features    created    and    how    old    are    they    (CITE,    3-4    sentences)?    3. Describe    the    process    of    sediment    transport    through    these    features.        Where    does    the    sediment    come    from,    what    is    it    made    out    of,    and    where    is    it    deposited        (CITE,    1-2    paragraphs).        4. Once    the    sediment    is    deposited,    describe    the    process    that    turns    the    sediment    into    a    rock.        Look    up    the    term    “turbidite”    to    help    you    answer    this    question.    (CITE,    1    paragraph)    5. Include    a    Works    Cited    section    at    the    end    of    this    section.        Include    complete    bibliographic    information    for    all    of    the    citations.        Within    the    text    of    your    responses,    include    in-text    citations.

Buy Essay on Soil Salinity / Sodicity Issues in Queensland (in Australia)


Buy Essay on Soil Salinity / Sodicity Issues in Queensland (in Australia)

Soil Salinity / Sodicity Issues in Queensland (in Australia)

Essay

At least 3 pages

Topic :

Review the status of soil salinity / sodicity issues in Queensland (in Australia). 

Please explain

How soil salinity is developed and affects the infrastructure and agricultural production, and how to remediate the saline/ sodic soils in Queensland?

Important note

You will need to carry out the literature search thoroughly on the relevant government websites and scientific databases (e.g. Google scholar, web of science, Scopus). Please follow the format of the Review paper attached to prepare this short essay.

Buy Essay on Soil Salinity / Sodicity Issues in Queensland (in Australia)

Argumentative Essay


Argumentative Essay

This writing assignment involves writing your Argumentative essay. Once you draft your essay and revise, you may submit it for feedback. The feedback will help you revise the draft so you can submit it as a final. The final version will be graded. Option #1: Your Position on Pirated Movies Develop a thesis statement on the topic of pirated movies (piracy hurts the economy by…, society can prevent movie piracy by…, etc.) and write an argumentative essay. Strive for at least three strong arguments in addition to a counterargument and refutation (see counterargument and refutation details in the Top Ten Tips section). Using argumentative topic sentences that include your opinion for each section can help ensure the majority of your essay is argumentative. Beginning of a sample topic sentence: “The first way movie piracy hurts the economy is….” Then be sure to support that claim with researched data. Conclude each paragraph with a sentence that summarizes the paragraph’s main ideas. Sample Thesis Statement: Ideally, a thesis would include the major assignment objectives for the essay, which in this case would be your claim/opinion, reasons why you have that opinion, and the counter-argument: “Movie piracy is unethical because (add argument 1), (add argument 2), and (add argument 3), even though (add counterargument focus).” Note that a thorough thesis statement will include the counterargument in addition to your own arguments. See Top Ten Tips section for more thesis statement assistance. Use at least three credible sources (the author should be considered an expert on the topic in which he or she writes; try Google Scholar to search), such as books, articles, and websites, to support your thesis. Include a mix of cited paraphrases, summaries, and quotes in your argumentative research paper. Use MLA format to create proper parenthetical citations as well as a Works Cited page at the end of your essay. For additional Works Cited assistance visit http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/ and use the left navigation menu to locate the type of reference you need. Option #2: Your Position on Electronic Policing Develop a thesis statement on the topic of electronic policing and anti-plagiarism software and write an argumentative essay. Your chosen topic needs to be specific and might address a question like the ones you see in these examples: • Should student writers be subject to having their work checked by anti-plagiarism software? Why or why not? • Is anti-plagiarism software an effective deterrent to stealing published work? Why or why not? • You may choose another topic regarding electronic policing as well; just be sure that your main thesis addresses the topic of electronic policing. If the assignment does not address one of the given options, it will not be graded. Strive for at least three strong arguments in addition to a counterargument and refutation (see counterargument and refutation details in the Tips section). Using argumentative topic sentences that include your opinion for each section can help ensure the majority of your essay is argumentative. For example, “First, students should be subject to having their work checked by antiplagiarism software because….” Then be sure to support that claim with researched data. Conclude each paragraph with a sentence that summarizes the paragraph’s main ideas. Sample Thesis Statement: Ideally, a thesis would include the major assignment objectives for the essay, which in this case would be your claim/opinion, reasons why you have that opinion, and the counter-argument: “Students’ work should be checked by anti-plagiarism software because (add argument 1), (add argument 2), and (add argument 3), even though (add counterargument focus).” See Tips section for more thesis statement assistance. Use at least three credible sources (the author should be considered an expert on the topic in which he or she writes; try Google Scholar to search), such as books, articles, and websites, to support your thesis. Include a mix of cited paraphrases, summaries, and quotes in your argumentative research paper. Use the MLA format to create proper parenthetical citations as well as a Works Cited page at the end of your essay. For additional Works Cited assistance visit http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/ and use the left navigation menu to locate the type of reference you need. More Tips Visit http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/01/ for more argumentative thesis statement assistance and to learn if your thesis is both arguable and narrowed. A counter-argument section for this paper should explain what the opposition believes, and it is the opposite of the opinion you are arguing in your paper. For example, if you are arguing that antiplagiarism software should not be used in college classes, then the counterargument would be that antiplagiarism software should be used. Then in your refutation, try to prove the counterargument false, insignificant, or unimportant with researched information that is new to the essay (avoid recycling facts from a previous argument in the essay). The guidelines for this assignment are as follows: Length: This assignment should be at least 750 words Header: Include a header in the upper left-hand corner of your writing assignment with the following information: • Your first and last name • Course Title (Composition I) • Assignment name (Argumentative Essay) • Current Date Format: • Three sources, documented using MLA style • Double-spaced throughout • Title, centered after the heading • Standard 12-point font • 1” margins on all sides • Save the file using one of the following extensions: .docx, .doc, .rtf, or .txt Underline your thesis statement in the introductory paragraph.

The landers earthquake shear zone , California


The landers earthquake shear zone , California

“CRUST-BUSTING” FAULTS PROJECT: GEOS 304, Spring 2016

INTRODUCTION:

“Crust-busting” faults, whether active or inactive, are regional-scale faults with trace lengths commonly in the range of hundreds of kilometers. Crust-busting faults emerge directly from plate-tectonic forces, and commonly record histories encompassing tens of millions of years. The characteristics we see today, when examining a crust-busting fault, is the ‘finite’ result of progressive deformation over time. In some cases a crustbusting fault may become dormant, only to become ‘reactivated’ hundreds of millions of years later. Some crust-busting faults may reveal exclusively brittle fabrics, others ductile fabrics, and still others a combination of brittle and ductile. It all depends on what depth-level of faulting (or shearing) is today exposed at the earth’s surface. Crust-busting faults are wonderful devices to integrate facts and knowledge. And this is the intention of the project. We want you to gain experience describing fundamental physical and geometric characteristics; describing the kinematic properties; interpreting the mechanics of faulting/shearing; and interpreting the faulting in relation to plate tectonics. ASSIGNMENT: First, you will choose a crust-busting fault from a list provided. If you wish to study one that is not on the list, you will need to gain approval from me in advance. I want to be certain that the fault truly qualifies, and that it is connected with a helpful literature of good articles and lots of information. Second, you will prepare a 7-page report. As in Project X, you will mount the pages in a Poster format. The contents are as follows: STRUCTURE-TECTONIC MAP (page 1): Based on maps that you discover in the literature, you will draw a geologic map that emphasizes structural geology. Don’t just Xerox a map/figure and cut-and-paste. Instead, draw it by hand, and color it by hand, so that the nature of the crust-busting fault becomes apparent. Somewhere near the base of this page you need to show a small index map of location, north arrow, and scale. You also will show the literature reference (source) for the map (e.g., Coney, 1998), and then post the full reference on p. 6, References Cited. Your map must be accompanied by an explanation of rock formations. You will ‘lump’ formations together into specific thick assemblages, e.g., Precambrian basement, Paleozoic sedimentary formations, Mesozoic sedimentary formations, Cenozoic sediments and volcanics, etc. The explanation will also explain structural symbols: folds, faults, bedding or layering, etc. STRUCTURE SECTION (page 2): You will hand draw and color a geologic cross section (structure section) showing the fault relationships. Be sure to note the orientation and scale of the cross section. This will not be a cut-and-paste of a figure from the literature, but your own rendering, typically simplifying the published section(s) in ways that underscore the key relationships. 2 FAULT DESCRIPTION (page 3): Through bullet-points, and in an organized fashion, you will describe the key geometric attributes of your crust-busting fault: shape, length, breadth, orientation, map pattern, associated structures (e.g., folds and faults), nature of fault rocks, rocks assemblages affected, truncations and offsets, etc. Be sure to cite sources for your information. KINEMATICS (page 4): Through bullet points, and in an organized fashion, you will describe the type of fault (normal, thrust, strike-slip, oblique), magnitude of slip, direction of slip, sense of slip, nature of strain, sense-of-slip indicators, rotations (if any), etc. Place the kinematics in a time frame: i.e., what happened when? In your own hand, draw diagrams/pictures that show in cross-section or map view the progressive kinematic development. For active faults include focal mechanisms and GPS data. Be sure to cite sources of your information. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS (page 5): Through bullet points, and in an organized fashion, describe the depth/temperature/pressure/rate conditions under which your crust-busting fault evolved. Also describe the orientations of the principal stress directions that can explain what is seen, including any possible variations in principal stress directions over time. Be sure to cite sources of your information. TECTONICS (page 6): In your own hand, draw a map (and if useful a cross-section) showing the plate conditions and configurations that gave rise to your crust-busting fault. Then, through bullet points, describe the tectonic origin, evolution, and significance of your fault. Be sure to cite sources of your information. REFERENCES (page 7): Use the journal Geology as guide to citing references. Your document should include 3 or 4 references. Do not take all of your information and maps/sections from just one resource. We don’t want to see Wikopedia or other sources for which it is difficult to evaluate validity. Reference articles and books in the way I reference material in the textbook, at end. THE POSTER SESSION ITSELF This will be held in the Lobby of the Gould-Simpson Building from 10:30 to 12:30 on May 10th. As I did for Poster X, I will invite faculty and graduate students to come and view your work, and to engage in conversations to learn what you found and concluded. There will be sections of wall devoted to a particular ‘class’ of faults: strike-slip, thrust & reverse, and normal. We will all ‘mill around’ and look at as many of the products as possible. Then we will have a brief discussion re/ the diagnostic characteristics of strikeslip versus normal faults versus thrust faults versus reverse faults.

GCU 357: Social Geography Photo Essay 3


MGCU 357: Social Geography Photo Essay 3

The Infrared “Veil” of Tempe: “Imageability” as Defined by Heat

The intense central Arizona sun beat down on the streets, parking lots, buildings and sidewalks of downtown Tempe as if Helios’ son, Phaethon, had set the Earth on fire once more with his father’s golden chariot (Theoi.com). I wiped a bit of perspiration off my brow and pulled my heat-absorbing brunette hair back into a knot on the top of my head. As citizens of the Valley of the Sun, or, the Vale of Tempe, we deal and interact with heat on a daily basis. When it is absent, the repulsive reaction is extreme, for heat is the familiar and its sensations lie somewhere in the subconscious of Tempe residents. The subconscious quickly transforms into the conscious as the handle of the i5 Infrared camera is lifted to eye-level and suddenly the visible spectrum disappears and the wavelengths of the world of IR reveal themselves.

Susan Sargent touched on a study of place image by urban scholar Kevin Lynch (1960) in a chapter of her PhD dissertation (2002, p.174). Lynch coins the term “imageability” in his study, which is constituted of five visual elements that contribute to a strong sense of urban identity: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks (Sargent, p. 175). Dr. Sargent goes on to discuss her own journey through the visible world of Tempe and provides a description of downtown Tempe in terms of Lynch’s five visual elements. With the thermal world gripped firmly in my hand, available to me with the single push of a button, I set out to explore and delve into the same five visual elements of Kevin Lynch*.

Districts

            An area of a city having some recognizable character is considered to be a city district (Sargent, 2002). Little Italy in Philadelphia and Hell’s Kitchen and the Theater District in New York are all examples of districts. Sargent points out that downtown Tempe itself is a district of its own since it is not big enough to be separated into multiple districts (2002).

Our IR group departed the ASU campus and headed north on Forest Avenue. The day was quite warm and the rays of the sun were relentless. We walked with no real direction or objective and found ourselves wherever there might be a tree or two to stay cool. We eventually wandered into an area with quite a lot of trees and saw a very strangely shaped building in front of us. It was the Tempe Municipal Building in the government area, which Sargent mentions as being the one location Tempe could designate as a district (2002). The upside-down prism was dark beneath the shade of the large trees. The mood touched on foreboding and the noise of the city seemed to dampen as we came closer to the complex. The IR image only heightens the feeling of disquiet (Figure 1).  A dark, cool gateway partially obstructs the view of the eerie scene beyond. The building that was so stark and so clearly defined in the shaded sunlight appears alien and veiled. The warm, bright path leading to the veiled prism captivates and beckons the viewer to move closer.

We meandered around the complex and took in the quiet and somewhat eerie atmosphere the district emanated.

Landmarks

Lynch defines a landmark as an element of the urban center that serves as a reference point and more meaningfully, “possesses some quality that is unique or memorable within a context and is easily identifiable” (Sargent, 2002). In the visible spectrum, our eyes are instantly drawn to downtown Tempe’s more obvious landmarks: Hayden (Tempe) Butte, the Victorian-style buildings on Mill Avenue and the Mill Avenue Bridge. Sargent directly quotes Lynch detailing that a landmark such as Hayden Butte is a “’distant landmark,’ one that is ‘visible from near and far, by day or night; unmistakable; dominant by size and contour; closely related to the city’s traditions’ (Lynch 1960, p.82)” (Sargent, 2001). As I pointed the camera north, the retained image is startling (Figure 2). The intense brightness of the sun across the landscape disappears. The sky is no longer the Southwestern bright blue that scatters the sun’s light, but is transformed into the cold, deep void we know space to be. Hayden Butte stands hot and proud and this image seems to accentuate Hayden Butte as quintessential Lynch landmark of urban identity. An image taken at a closer proximity is even more arresting. The Butte seems to have great size and prominence hovering over downtown Tempe (Figure 3).

Taking a sip from my water bottle, the group of us turned west, away from the government building complex and toward the downtown center of Tempe. We eventually came to an area of openness that was very quiet and most certainly had a lack of motion – a stillness.  We were drawn to an artistic feature that sat under the trees at the focal point of this open and quiet space. Two of the group took places on either side and once more the camera caught a snapshot of the ethereal thermal world. It wasn’t until I sifted through the images later that I realized how drawn I was to this particular image of the two group members on this artistic bench (Figure 4). After reading Dr. Sargent’s dissertation chapter, I learned that this small open space wasn’t, in fact, a space, but rather, a place. This is the Tempe landmark the Plazita de Descanso, or “little place of rest” (p.182, 2002). Even the artistic bench itself has an identity, “Greetings from Tempe.” As I write, I glance at the image on the page and I am unsettled. In the IR spectrum, it is impossible to tell what it is that lurks behind the group members. I feel as if the void between them is a passageway or an entrance to a celestial world. It also appears as if there are amorphous, cool figures lurking just behind the “veil” of the void, figures and shapes that are concealed in the thermal world. This particular image had a very spectral quality to it. The stark contrast of the heat of the living bodies and the non-discernable dark, cold figures hovering behind them causes a slight chill to course under my skin. This photo had me so absorbed that it compelled me to type “Plazita de Descanso” into my internet search engine. To my immense surprise, a 1995 Phoenix New Times News article entitled “Out of Their Trees” appeared as a search result. So it was that I read and learned the rich history of the “little place of rest.” I received another small shock to find out that Plazita de Descanso is in fact a significant landmark of downtown Tempe and a landmark that evoked controversy. The two-page article by Dewey Webb begins by detailing the origins of the park. It was donated to the City of Tempe by Olivia Birchett to honor her late husband, Joseph Birchett, who was a Phoenix lawyer (Dewey, 1995). The chill seemed to pass laterally through every millimeter of my skin and my heart beat a little faster when I read that Joseph Birchett had actually been murdered in his downtown Phoenix office by a disgruntled handyman who’d been dropped as a legal client (Dewey, 1995). It was also stated in the article that Olivia Birchett had also died. Perhaps the Birchetts are the nebulous figures in the void, revealed only by their heat. As I contemplate the path to the perhaps spiritual world beyond the veil in Plazita de Descanso, my thoughts wander to another visual element of Lynch: paths.

Paths

A path is a corridor, or main artery, along which people in the urban center move as they experience the city center, according to Lynch (Sargent, 2002). The central image of the city is usually construed through paths as they are obvious and recognizable features as well as being the most-often utilized of the visual elements (Sargent, 2002). I feel as if we occasionally take the paths of the city for granted. We expect cities and downtown areas to contain paths and usually always know when we’ve reached the town or city center due to the words “Main St.” plastered on to a green street sign.

The paths of Tempe include Mill Avenue and the Mill Avenue Bridge (Sargent, 2002). As our group ambled from the cool shade of the Plazita de Descanso toward 6th Street, we could already hear the hum of the traffic and the bustle of the downtown office lunch crowd strolling, chatting and laughing. Our first path, while not a major artery, led us past the Plazita and the small park towards the main street. Although the wide and winding path might not have had the potential to be a particularly interesting image in IR, I snapped a picture anyway. Almost immediately, the thermal world engulfed my senses once more (Figure 5). The photograph does not speak of the pleasant and up-beat lunchtime humming and buzzing of downtown Tempe. For me, it has the opposite effect. The photo strikes me as if I was caught in a very lonely and unsettled world, not knowing where the path would lead, let alone to a city center of bustling activity. As I experience the image, I see the large windows of the nearby building have flames erupting from them and the green and lush trees in the visible spectrum are suddenly transformed into a billowing, black cloud of smoke. This image depicts an incredibly different experience than the Vale of Tempe – the valley of “verdant walks” and “cooling shades.” This image is in fact almost violent in its thermal contrasts. A similarly lonely place in the thermal world, though not quite as turbulent, is depicted in Figure 6.

The turbulent world disappeared as the group finally made its way to the main path of Tempe – Mill Avenue. The cheery lunch mood of the crowd was omnipresent and even a few of the IR images, which seemed to cast a sinister shadow a few paces behind us, couldn’t cast a veil on the lively downtown atmosphere (Figure 7). This thermal image of Mill Avenue is particularly alive and I imagine the kinetic energy, or the rapid motion, of the atoms producing the heat of the image. The photo clearly depicts the warm feet of the crowd walking on the baking, glowing sidewalk. One of the crowd lifts his/her arm to indicate a direction or a point of interest. These lunchtime groups are clearly experiencing the city through the vibrant path of Mill Avenue. A couple more photographs display liveliness and motion, not through human activity, but through the trees and building facades that line the sidewalk (Figure 8). The leaves cast a warm glow, which radiates outward from the cool and somewhat moist bark of the trunk. The scorching building facades compete with the glow of the trees intensely while also providing a curtain of cool shade to the area directly beneath them.

It is made clear by these infrared images that the experience of the city by movement along paths parallels the experience of moving through the path of life. Life is lonely, unsettling and turbulent (Figure 4). At others, life is exciting and full of motion, motivation and spirit (Figure 5). And at times, life is in the in-between where a dark curtain or veil obscures what lies ahead.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

“HELIUS : Greek Titan God of the Sun ; Mythology ; Pictures : HELIOS, SOL.”HELIUS : Greek Titan God of the Sun ; Mythology ; Pictures : HELIOS, SOL. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013.

Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1960. Print.

Sargent, Susan. 2002.  The Urban Image of Mill Avenue. Chapter 4 in Main Street Meets Megastrip: Suburban Downtown Revitalization in Tempe, Arizona.  Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Department of Geography.

Webb, Dewey. “Out of Their Trees.” Phoenix New Times News. Phoenix New Times News, 14 Dec. 1995. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.

 

ENVT 3790 Hydrology I; Geology


ENVT 3790 Hydrology I

Take-Home Quiz #10

Instructions

Please read the problem very carefully and follow all of the instructions. You may use any resource whatsoever in addressing these questions, but you may not discuss these questions with any living person except for me. The quiz is due at the beginning of class on Tuesday, April 5.

Problem: Evaporation Rate!

  • Choose a lake for which someone has estimated a typical evaporation rate.
  • Do the best you can to find for your lake the following predictor variables for typical evaporation rate: typical wind speed, typical air temperature, typical water temperature, typical relative humidity.
  • State all of the above information with your sources.
  • If you were able to find all of the relevant predictor variables, use the mass-transfer equation (3.47) in Dingman to predict the evaporation rate. Discuss any discrepancies between your prediction and someone else’s estimate.
  • If you were not able to find all of the relevant predictor variables, discuss the values of the missing predictor variables that would be needed to make the evaporation rate predicted by the mass-transfer equation (3.47) in Dingman match someone else’s estimate of the evaporation rate. Discuss the likelihood of the necessary missing predictor variables. If the required values of the missing predictor variables seem unlikely, please discuss the discrepancy.

 

 

 

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