Category Archives: Physics

MEE 312 – Engineering Materials

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MEE 312 – Engineering Materials

Homework 6

Due Wednesday 15  in class


1)  Briefly (in a single phrase or short sentence) describe/define the following terms in your own words and, if relevant, include an example:


  1. Strain hardening f)    Residual stresses
  2. Cold working g)   Annealing
  3. Springback h)   Polygonized subgrain structure
  4. Frank-Read source i)    Recrystallization temperature
  5. Texture strengthening j)    Hot working



2)  Some of the key mechanical properties of 2024 aluminum alloy (AA), obtained from tensile testing (MatWeb), are shown below:

Mechanical Properties
Modulus of Elasticity 10,600 ksi
Yield strength 11 ksi
UTS 27 ksi


  1. Draw the engineering stress-strain curve for 2024 AA (qualitative). Annotate the stress-strain diagram with the mechanical properties above and their respective values.
  2. On the same stress-strain diagram, using a dashed line, construct the stress-strain curve (qualitative) for a 2024 AA that has been subjected to 50% cold work. Explain the following:
    1. Would you expect the modulus of elasticity (stiffness) to differ between the two curves? Why or why not?
    2. Would you expect the yield strength and UTS to be higher or lower for the cold-worked material and why?
  • Would you expect the ductility to be higher or lower for the cold-worked material and why?



3)  Metals with what type of crystal structure are least responsive/receptive to cold working?  Most responsive/receptive?





4)  Data from a tensile test conducted on a metallic specimen is provided in an MS Excel spreadsheet (tensile_raw.xlsx).

  1. a) Convert these “semi-raw” measurements to an engineering stress-strain curve and a true stress-strain curve. Plot both curves on the same set of axes.
  2. b) Briefly describe (in words) how you would determine the stiffness, yield strength, UTS, ductility, and toughness of the material (no need to go through the actual calculations).
  3. c) Determine the strain-hardening exponent n for the plastic portion of the stress-strain curve. What type of crystal structure do you think the metal has?  (Extra Credit)



5)  Are polycrystalline ceramics responsive to cold working?  Amorphous ceramics?  Thermoset polymers?  Thermoplastic polymers?  Why or why not?  If yes, is the strain hardening mechanism the same as in metals?



6)  Fill in the table below as it relates to the different stages of annealing:


Stage Recovery    
Change in microstructure   New grains nucleate Grains enlarge
Change in mechanical properties     Further reduction in strength, further increase in ductility
Temperature Below T_rc   Well above T_rc



7)  Reproduce Example 8-5 on pp. 289-290 of the textbook (7th ed.) in your own words.  (Don’t just copy things down without thoroughly understanding each step.)  What did you learn about the interplay between cold working and annealing in deformation processing?










8)  Consider the following material property data obtained experimentally as a material was progressing through the three different stages of annealing:


Annealing Temperature (C) Electrical Conductivity (ohm-1 cm-1) Yield Strength (MPa) Grain Size (µm)
400 3.04 E5 86 100
500 3.05 E5 85 100
600 3.36 E5 84 100
700 3.45 E5 83 98
800 3.46 E5 52 30
900 3.46 E5 47 31
1000 3.47 E5 44 70
1100 3.47 E5 42 120


  1. Estimate the recrystallization temperature? How do you know?
  2. Estimate the grain growth temperature? How do you know?
  3. Estimate a suitable temperature for a stress-relief anneal.
  4. Estimate a suitable temperature for hot working.



9)  For each of the qualities/characteristics below, list whether it corresponds to cold working (CW), hot working (HW), or both.


Reduces ductility                                                                    Suited to form & shape large parts


Provides good surface finish                                                 Reduces porosity


Deforms material above T_rc                                               Produces anisotropic behavior


Does not increase strength                                                   Increases strength


Deforms material below T_rc                                               Provides poor surface finish


Easier to control dimensional                                               Harder to control dimensional

accuracy                                                                                accuracy


Material continuously recrystallizes                                     Decreases stiffness (modulus of

during deformation                                                               elasticity)


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Physics 211L

Peter Webb




In this lab we are Verifying Newton’s 2nd Law of motion, we are also finding the acceleration using the derived equations  and which are both derived with the free body diagrams on the attached paper. We used a computer with logger pro, Rotary motion sensor (RMS), and rolling cart with wired force probe, cart track, table clamp, long rod, 5 gram and 10 gram masses.

Our results showed that the force acting on an object is proportional to the mass. This is shown when we increase the mass from 5g to 10g the force measured and the theoretical force nearly doubled as well. This proves Newton’s 2nd law of motion. Possible reasons for error would be caused by neglecting friction and the track not being perfectly straight and level.




The first thing we did is cleaning the track and wheels to make sure that the motion is smooth; we recorded the mass of the cart including the force probe which was 650.6 g and the mass of the string which was 3.3 g, then we added mass to the cart so that the total mass was equal to 1 kg .We used the RMS and the force gauge to collect data on Logger Pro. The force gauge was attached to the cart this combined weight became “M” and the weight hanging off the end of the RMS was “m”. The data collected from Logger Pro from both the force gauge and the RMS are shown below in Table 1 along with the comparison to the theoretical values with percent error and standard deviation for the 5g tests. The data collected from Logger Pro from both the force gauge and the RMS are shown below in Table 2 along with the comparison to the theoretical values with percent error and standard deviation for the 10g tests.


Data Tables and Plots/Results and error analysis:

Table 1:

Test # Force Measured (N) Force Std dev. Force Theoretical (N) Force ∆% Acceleration Measured (m/s^2) Accel



Acceleration Theoretical (m/s^2) Acceleration ∆%
1 .046 .014 .049 6.12% .083 .004 .078 6.41%
2 .046 .006 .049 6.12% .056 .006 .078 28.21%




Table 2:

Test # Force Measured (N) Force Std dev. Force Theoretical (N) Force ∆% Acceleration Measured (m/s^2) Accel



Acceleration Theoretical (m/s^2) Acceleration ∆%
1 .090 .007 .084 7.14% .106 .004 .156 32.05%
2 .088 .007 .084  4.76% .114 .009 .156 26.92%



Trial 1:

Velocity vs time graph



Force vs time graph


Trial 2:

Velocity vs time graph

Force vs time graph





Trial 3:

Velocity vs time graph

Force vs time graph

Homework Help-Physics 211 Lab#3: Unbalanced Forces

Homework Help-Physics 211 Lab#3: Unbalanced Forces

Physics 211 Lab#3


Group Report: Unbalanced Forces


Date: September

 Homework Help


In this lab, we worked mostly on Newton second low. We worked on a formula, which was F=ma. We got the measurement from the tool that we used to get the first measurement.  We mostly wanted to get the acceleration from Newton’s second low. We follow the instructions on the procedures to get exactly what we were asked to do. We fist measured each mass container from the 12 pennies and the string. We also assumed that all of the penny masses are equal. Then we moved on to step 2, which stated that we must attach a RMS devise on the top about 2m above the floor. After we got the measurement, we moved the pennies from inside of the container to the other. And after that, we plotted in the data after getting them into Excel program so we can plot and get the needed graph. After that, I shifted many pennies from one container to another so we can get different measurement. Lastly, we wrote the x-axis for the (M-m) and the y-axis for the y-axis. We worked on the formula that we got from the instructor, which was F=ma. We got new measurement from the Excel program by writing the date for only the acceleration and the (M-m). Then, for the last thing we needed to find g.

 Homework Help


First, we assume that all the penny masses are equal. We measure the masses of each container, the 12 pennies that were given to us by the instructor and the string. Then, we attach the RMS at the top about 2 m above the floor so we can get the measurement and we connect the sting to both of the containers. The first one we drape the string over the elevated pulley. The second one we attach it as an illustrated above. Then, we adjust the length of the string so that m doesn’t hit the pulley when M is on the floor. And we start with 6 pennies in each container so that m=M. On our second step we launch the Logger Pro and then pull down and there was a note that states on the experiment we must drag the RMS to the right side box and calibrate the position not the angle. On step number #4, we set the calibration of the RMS by setting the diameter within Logger Pro and measuring the diameter of the pulley. On step number #5, we shift 1 or 2 pennies from m to M so that we can get M accelerate smoothly downwards when released from rest. We made sure that every container has an organized string when we release them. On step number #6, we measure the acceleration (a) by liner fit into the Logger Pro. On step number #7, we skipped it. On number #8, we shift an additional penny from m to M. We do repeated runs using number #6 methods. And on number #9, we get the data from number #8 and plot a plot which graphs the acceleration on the y-axis and the x-axis.




10 0.229
15 0.808
20 1.315
25 1.67



Note: The y-axis: m/s^2 and the x-axis: gram.






g Slandered Delta (%)
2.78 9.81 71.6%
6.533 9.81 33.9%
7.908 9.81 23.3%
8.102 9.81 19.2%


Analysis and Error:

The string sometimes gets loose and falls from the scale itself. And it also gives us false readings. The acceleration has increased by in unbelievable way. Then we had the Delta errors and they were incorrect.

Homework Help-Physics 211 Lab#3: Unbalanced Forces


Lab 2: Motion and Gravity

Lab 2: Motion and Gravity


– Operator

 – Theorist

 – Recorder



Theory and Procedure

Lab Objective: TO study motion in one dimension and determine g, the acceleration due to gravity.

Due to the parking garage being unavailable until a later time, we started the lab at step 3, and our report will follow that procedure.

We began by dropping a ball under the sonic range finder, looking to calculate a number sufficiently close to the expected value of gravity: 9.81. We experienced several difficulties in measuring this value. Many, if most, of our graphs were extremely steep and yielded very high values of gravity (200+), we knew that this could not be right and so tried several more times, using balls of various size. Eventually, we calculated a value that was sufficiently close to g, by including in the graph a small curve that occurred before the linear motion. This small curve is included in the graph below.

This is the Graph for Part 3 of the Lab, with it, we calculated a value for g equal to 10.84 m/s^2. The error in this result is %10.5 error.

Gravity was calculated by following this equation: g= (2y)/ (t)^2

After this sonic range finder work, we travelled to the parking garage and dropped 6 golf balls off the top as an alternative method to calculate a value for g. The garage was approximately 11.2 meters tall, and we timed the descent of 6 golf balls as they were dropped off the edge. There was particular difficulty in coordinating the drop time with the time that the recorder began his stopwatch, and so some values were distorted, and clearly off. We choose to negate these values, because they were clearly errors.


The equation for gravity as derived by Mohammad was g=(2y)/(t)^2

Data recorded during the parking garage experiment was

Time of Descent in seconds Gravity Calculated
1.54 9.445
1.62 8.535
1.52 9.695
1.32 12.855
2.13 (negated for error)
1.53 9.568


The table shows that the normal result was very close to the expected value. We negated the Descent values of 1.32 s and 2.13 s when we calculated the average value for gravity which was: 10.016.

This means that we have two values of gravity – one from the parking garage experiment and one from the sonic range finder experiment. We compared these results against the expected value of gravity and calculated a percent error.

Experiment Gravity Value Percent Error
Sonic Range Finder 10.84 10.5%
Parking Garage Experiment 10.016 (Avg) 2.1%


This clearly and distinctly shows that the Parking Garage Experiment was a better experiment to calculate the value of gravity on the surface of the earth. This is an interesting result because we would have guessed that the sonic range finder experiment would perform better. This is because we imagined there would be all sorts of errors outside (wind, coordination problems between dropper and timer etc..) To find that the Parking Garage Experiment performed more accurately than the sonic range finder was a curious result.


Need Help-Physics Assignment

Need Help-Physics Assignment

  • A 493.0 g pot of water at room temperature (20.0°C) is place on a stove. How much heat is required to change this water to steam at 100.0°C? answer must be given in kcal
  • A 1.2 kg metal head of a geology hammer strikes a solid rock with a speed of 3.7 m/s. Assuming all the energy is retained by the hammer head, how much will its temperature increase? (chead = 0.11 kcal/kg°C). answer must be given in °C


  • The driver of a 850.0 kg car decides to double the speed from 21.4 m/s to 42.8 m/s. What effect would this have on the amount of work required to stop the car, that is, on the kinetic energy of the car?

KEi=__× 10^5 J

KEf=__ × 10^5 J

___times as much work must be done to stop the car.


4.)   What is the horsepower of a 1,500.0 kg car that can go to the top of a 380.0 m high hill in exactly 1 minute?

5.)  (a) How many seconds does it take a 27.5 hp motor to lift a 2,500.0 lb elevator a distance of 90.0 ft? answer must be given in seconds.

(b) What was the average velocity of the elevator? Answer must be given in ft/s




6.)   (a) What is the kinetic energy of a 2,030 kg car that is traveling at 98.0 km/h? answer must be given in  kJ

  1. b) How much work was done to give the car this kinetic energy, assuming that the car starts from rest? Answer must be given in kJ

(c) How much work must be done to stop the car? Answer must be given in kJ



7.)   A 147.0 g baseball has a velocity of 31.7 m/s. What is its kinetic energy in J?

How much work is needed to stop a 1,570 kg car that is moving straight down the

highway at 57.0 km/h? answer must be given in scientific notation


8.)  Enter your answer in scientific notation. What is the kinetic energy of a 2,400 kg car moving at 88 km/h?

9.)  In an electric freezer, 319.0 g of water at 25.9°C is cooled, frozen, and the ice is chilled to −6.0°C. (a) What is the change of heat in the water? Answer must be given in  kcal  (b) If the latent heat of vaporization of the Freon refrigerant is 40 cal/g, how many grams of Freon must be evaporated to absorb this heat? Answer must be given in g.

10.)   A 68.3 kg student runs up the stairs of a football stadium to a height of 10.8 m above the ground in 11.0 s. (a) What is the power of the student in kW? (b) in hp?

(a) P= ____kW

(b) P=____ hp




  • A refrigerator removes 27.0 kcal of heat from the freezer and releases 73.5 kcal through the condenser on the back. How much work was done by the compressor? Answer must be given in KJ
  • How many minutes would be required for a 327.0 W immersion heater to heat 217.0 g of water from 20.6°C to 88.1°C? answer must be given in min
  • A 50.2 kg person will need to climb a 2.7 m stairway how many times to “work off” each excess Cal (kcal) consumed?


  • A bicycle and rider have a combined mass of 109.0 kg. How many calories of heat are generated in the brakes when the bicycle comes to a stop from a speed of 31.9 km/h? answer must be given in kcal
  • (copper = 0.093 cal/g°C) An electrical current heats a 245 g copper wire from 16.8°C to 35.4°C. How much heat was generated by the current? Answer must be given in cal

Need Help-Physics Assignment



COURSE TITLE:         College Physics                          YEAR: fall 2016


COURSE & SECTION NUMBER:   PH 154                      TIME & PLACE:  Online







COURSE DESCRIPTION: An algebra-based introduction to the concepts and application of Newton’s Law, linear and rotational motion, work, energy, and momentum, solids and fluids, and heat. Experimental investigation of selected topics.





  1. College Physics, 7th Edition, by Jerry Wilson, Anthony Buffa, and Bo Lou. Addison-Wesley.


All textbooks should be purchased through the Trine University Bookstore to insure that you purchased the correct version/edition of the textbook your instructor requires.  Textbooks may be purchased online at:  Purchasing your textbook through the Trine University Bookstore will also insure that you have the opportunity to utilize financial aid for the purchase of textbooks and supplies.



LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Upon completion of this course, the student should be able to:

  1. demonstrate an understanding of the physics equations and concepts related to the topics listed in the course description
  2. solve quantitative problems involving the physics equations and concepts related to the topics listed in the course description.
  3. draw and/or interpret graphs which illustrate the physics equations and concepts related to the topics listed in the course description.
  4. make measurements using a variety of tools and instruments, record the data in an organized manner, and analyze the data using physics-specific equations, draw graphs, calculate the standard deviation, and perform propagation of error.




Students are expected to complete reading assignments, practice homework, concept checks, discussions, lab simulators for each section covered. The homework is not submitted or graded, but it should be used to prepare for the weekly test.  The concept checks will be graded and worth 10 pts.  Students must answer a real-world question each week in a discussion board.  Discussion posts will be worth 10 points for each week.  Each week you will also have a lab simulator that you will need to complete worth 10 points.  At the end of every week there will be a test in Moodle over the sections covered that week worth 20 pts.  Each student gets 1 attempt on each test and there is a time limit of 120 minutes for each test.  The final will be 80 questions and 240 minutes.  It will include 70 questions from previous tests and 10 questions from unit 8.





ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION:  The average student needs approximately eight to fifteen hours per week to complete the work in an interactive online class.  Discussion posts will be due by 1:00 pm (EST) Sunday of each week.  Tests will open Thursday morning and you are expected to complete the weekly test by 5:00 pm (EST) Sunday of each week.  If the weekly test is not attempted then you have not participated in that week of class and that will be reported for financial aid purposes.


ASSISTANCE :  Feel free to email me any questions and I will get back with you as soon as possible.  Also there will be discussion forums weekly where you can discuss with other classmates, any questions or difficulties that you may have had on the homework for that week.


GRADING/EVALUATION: Student performance will be evaluated based on  200 total points.

Concept Checks                                   8 checks @ 10 pts each            80 pts

Labs                                                     7 Labs  @  10 pts each             70 pts

WEEKLY DISCUSSION                         8 Posts @ 10 pts each 80 pts

WEEKLY TESTS:                                 7 Tests @ 20 pts each  140 pts

FINAL:                                                                                                  80 pts

TOTAL:                                                                                    450 pts


HOMEWORK: is not graded, but essential practice to pass the weekly exams and final.

The grading scale that will be used:

at least 90 percent = A      at least 87 percent = B+

at least 80 percent = B      at least 77 percent = C+

at least 70 percent = C      at least 60 percent = D

under 60 percent = F


Trine Virtual Campus Student Resources

You will find information on the following topics within the course:

Attendance Policy
E-textbook Information (CafeScribe User Guide)
Financial Services (Payment Options, Financial Aid Links, Refund Policy)
Services for Students with Disabilities
Trine Virtual Campus (Academic Calendar, Moodle tutorials, etc.)
Writing Style (APA, MLA)

Carefully review each item and let me know if you have any questions.





The University prohibits all forms of academic misconduct. Academic misconduct refers to dishonesty in examinations (cheating), presenting the ideas or the writing of someone else as one’s own (plagiarism) or knowingly furnishing false information to the University by forgery, alteration, or misuse of University documents, records, or identification. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, the following examples: permitting another student to plagiarize or cheat from one’s own work, submitting an academic exercise (written work, printing, design, computer program) that has been prepared totally or in part by another, acquiring improper knowledge of the contents of an exam, using unauthorized material during an exam, submitting the same paper in two different courses without knowledge and consent of professors, or submitting a forged grade change slip or computer tampering. The faculty member has the authority to grant a failing grade in cases of academic misconduct as well as referring the case to Student Life.




You are expected to submit your own work and to identify any portion of work that has been borrowed from others in any form. An ignorant act of plagiarism on final versions and minor projects, such as attributing or citing inadequately, will be considered a failure to master an essential course skill and will result in an F for that assignment. A deliberate act of plagiarism, such as having someone else do your work, or submitting someone else’s work as your own (e.g., from the Internet, fraternity file, etc., including homework and in-class exercises), will at least result in an F for that assignment and could result in an F for the course.  Don’t do it!

COURSE CALENDAR/SCHEDULE:  Please refer to the Course Schedule in the Course Information link.




  1. Technology Tools:


  1. Web Access: this course is taught in asynchronous mode, using Moodle. Students will need daily access to a web-accessible computer with a minimum of 56.6k modem speed.  Weekly participation is required.
  2. Software: Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and Adobe Reader.


  1. Instructor Expectations:


  1. The instructor reserves the right to require proctoring or validation of student’s academic work at the instructor’s discretion.
  2. The instructor reserves the right to change or modify course materials or deadline in response to student feedback or unforeseen circumstances.
  3. The instructor requests that students allow 24 hours to respond to student emails or other forms of contact.
  4. The instructor will attempt to be available during weekdays; however, as balance between family and work is important in everyone’s lives, the instructor reserves the right to be unavailable on weekends.
  5. The instructor requests that the students allow the instructor one week from the date of submission, to post a grade, or provide feedback, on any assignment. (Note: the instructor will make every effort to provide faster turn around time-however, sometimes faster turn around time is not possible.)
  6. The instructor may sometimes be unavailable.  The instructor will always attempt to email and/or post an announcement to the class about any such inconveniences.


  1. Student Guidelines (Expectations):


  1. Refer to the assignment schedule, under course information, in Moodle for all due dates.
  2. Must know how to access their Trine University email account and will use this account for this course unless other arrangements have been made. Check your Trine University email periodically.
  3. Keep a copy of all assignments until the end of the course. Check your gradebook regularly for grades on assignments.
  4. Review and refer to this syllabus, assignment schedule, and the course announcements for all pertinent information.
  5. Participate on a weekly basis in this course via discussion board (optional) postings.
  6. Log in on a regular access via Internet accessible capabilities for this course.
  7. Assume more responsibility (than in a regular face-to-face course) for your learning.
  8. Understand that there are not any “lectures” in this course and students are responsible to read ALL course materials, including emails and announcements from the instructor.



  1. Students with Disabilities:

A student with a disability who plans to request academic adjustments needs to provide Trine University with documentation of his or her disability. This documentation goes to Kathie L. Wentworth, M.Ed., Director, Academic Support Services.

Documentation needs to be current and from a professional source such as a school psychologist, educational diagnostician, a licensed private psychologist, or a medical doctor. If the condition being documented is not stable, the documentation should be less than three years old.

The provision of documentation does not guarantee that the requested academic adjustments will be provided. Trine University reserves the right to select among equally effective and appropriate adjustments that will provide the student with a disability equal access to its programs.

Documentation typically includes a diagnosis of the disability—including the instruments and scores used to determine the disability and the credentials of the person providing the diagnosis, an explanation of how the condition affects the student’s ability to function in an academic setting, examples of academic adjustments that are recommended, and an explanation of how the disability relates to these adjustments. In addition to providing documentation of a disability, the student needs to request academic adjustments.

Academic adjustments implemented depend on the disability of the student. Each circumstance is considered on an individual basis. It is important for the student with a disability to understand that academic adjustments will in no way lower or waive essential requirements of an academic program.

Seven Steps to Complete to Receive Academic Adjustments for a Disability

  • Indicate the need for academic adjustments by notifying Academic Support Services.
  • Complete the Trine University Disability Support Services Application form.*
  • Sign Authorization for Release of Information on the back of the application form.*
  • Provide adequate documentation from a professional source.
  • Qualify for academic adjustments.
  • Complete a conference with Academic Support Services.
  • Schedule appointments with all professors during the first two weeks of the semester.


PH 154

College Physics

Due dates are subject to change at the discretion of the instructor!


Each test opens on Thursday  (Day 4) and closes on Sunday (Day 7).

You may have up to 1 attempt for each test.

Each test closes on Sunday by 5:00 PM (EST).

Discussion Board/ Attendance:

Please make an original post by Wednesday (Day 3).

Make a qualitative reply to a classmate by Friday (Day 5).

Day of the Week Table

Day # Day of week
1 Monday
2 Tuesday
3 Wednesday
4 Thursday
5 Friday
6 Saturday
7 Sunday

Suggested Weekly Schedule:

Day Object 1          Object 2 Object 3
1 Read Assignments Start Homework
2 Read Assignments Start Homework
3 Homework Assignments Original post on  Discussion Board Questions to Instructor
4 Homework Assign & Concept checks


Discussion Board


Test opens
5 Homework Assign & Concept checks


Discussion Board Replies Test open
6 Study more Test open
7 Study more Test closes



Multiple Choice & Exercises: these are not graded, but essential practice to pass the weekly exams, and final project.  The answers are in the back in order for you to try problems that will be similar to ones on your test and concept checks.


Learning Module Topic/Assignment Suggested Days Pts
1 I Measurements and Motion in One Dimension
Read Chapters 1 and 2 1-2
MC (Pg 26) #1-20

MC (Pg 58) #1-20

Ex: (Pg28) #3, 5, 23, 43, 45, 51

Ex:  (Pg 60) #13, 25, 33, 37, 41, 59





Concept Check #1 4-5 10
Lab:  Motion Man – Graphing 4-5 10
DB1 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Test 1 4-7 20
2 II Vectors and Motion in Two Dimension
Read Chapter 3 1-2
MC (Pg 94)  #1-13

EX: (Pg 96) # 1, 5, 17, 19, 29, 49, 53, 61




Concept Check #2 4-5 10
Lab:  Projection motion 4-5 10
DB2 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Test 2 4-7 20
3 III Force, Motion, Work, Energy
Read Chapter 4 & 5 1-2
MC (Pg 131) # 1-17

MC (Pg 172) # 1-22

Ex:  (Pg 134) # 5, 13, 33, 43, 65

Ex:  (pg174) #1, 3, 19, 37, 53, 63




Concept Check #3 4-5 10
Power Lab 4-5 10
DB3 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Test 3 4-7 20
4 IV Linear Momentum & Collisions
Read Chapter 6 1-2
MC:  (Pg 213) # 1-16

Ex: (Pg 215) # 3, 5, 19, 31, 37, 53




Concept Check #4 4-5 10
Momentum and Collision Lab 4-5 10
DB4 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Test 4 4-7 20
5 V Circular Motion & Gravity
Read Chapter 7 1-2
MC (Pg 258) #1-20

Ex: (Pg 260) # 1, 3, 19, 23, 31





Concept Check #5 4-5 10
DB5 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Test 5 4-7 20
6 VI Solids & Fluids
Read Chapters  9 1-2
MC: (Pg346) #1-20

Ex: (Pg 349) #3, 23, 25, 45, 57






Concept Check #6 4-5 10
Fluids Lab 4-5 10
DB6 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Test 6 4-7 20
7 VII Temperature & Heat
Read Chapters 10 -11 1-2
MC: (Pg 380) # 1-15

MC: (Pg 411) # 1-13

Ex: (Pg 382) # 1, 15, 23, 39

Ex:  (Pg 412) #3, 9, 17, 25





Concept Check #7 4-5 10
Calorimetry Lab 4-5 10
DB7 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Test 7 4-7 20
8 VIII Oscillations and Wave Motion
Read Chapters 13 & 14 1-2
MC: (pg 482) # 1-17

MC: (pg 522) #1-17

Ex: (Pg 484) #5, 21, 23, 49

Ex: (pg 523) #1, 25, 31, 55





Concept Check #8 4-5 10
Lab – pendulum 4-5 10
DB8 Post to Discussion Board 3-7 10
Final (including week 8) 4-7 80
    Total points   450


Physics 1 (SCIH 035 058) Center of Gravity and Rotational Inertia

Project 2

Evaluation 32

Physics 1 (SCIH 035 058)

Center of Gravity and Rotational Inertia

This project is worth 10% of your overall grade for this course. Be sure to read all the instructions and assemble all the necessary materials before you begin. You will record your data and insert your answers on this project page. When you have completed BOTH parts of this project you may submit it electronically through the online course management system. Check the instructions in the online course for more information.


Part A: Finding the Center of Gravity of a Lever

(60 points possible)

In this activity you will work with weights and a lever to find the center of gravity and torque for different configurations. You will record your findings in the spaces provided. Feel free to add more space if you need it.

Materials you will need to complete this activity include a meter stick (or the equivalent), masses (10 washers), 50 cm of pulley cord, and a metric ruler.


Step 1: Find the center of gravity of a meter stick. (If you do not have a meter stick, use the metric ruler to make an equivalent instrument by placing markings at five or ten centimeter intervals.)
Step 2: Suspend the meter stick from the center-of-gravity point using 30-50 cm of pulley cord. Put the zero centimeter end of meter stick on the left.
Step 3: Hang five washers at the 25 cm mark. Record the distance from the fulcrum (the center of gravity in this case) to the washers.


Describe what kind of torque this set of five washers gives the meter stick.









Step 4: Balance the meter stick with five washers on each end. Record the distance from the fulcrum to the washers.


Describe what kind of torque this set of five washers gives the meter stick.


What is the net torque created by these two sets of washers?



Step 5: Replace the five washers added in Step 4 with three washers. Record the distance from the fulcrum to the washers.


What is the net torque created by these two sets of washers?



Step 6: Repeat the experiment with seven washers on the left of the fulcrum at the 25 cm mark and ten washers to the right of the fulcrum at the 75 cm mark.

Be sure to record the distance from the fulcrum to the washers.


What is the net torque created by these two sets of washers?



Step 7: Repeat the experiment with six washers on the left at the 30 cm mark. Record the location on the right-hand side where four washers balance the six washers.


What is the net torque created by these two sets of washers?


Step 8: Construct a table of your data. Put positive signs on distances that create clockwise torques and negative signs on distances that create counterclockwise torques.











Step 9: Use the data in your table to calculate the torques and formulate a rule about the torques.







Step 10: Devise a procedure to find the weight of an unknown mass. Describe what you did and your results.















Part B: Can Races

(40 points possible)

This activity is designed to test your understanding of rotational inertia by doing something fun!

For this activity you will need a ramp (a board with books as the support for one end will work just fine), 1 large and 1 small can with solid or non-sloshing contents (such as beans or cream-type soups), 1 can with liquid or sloshing contents (like chicken noodle soup), and 1 small empty can with both ends cut out to use as a cylinder.

Step 1: Make a ramp using a board with books as the support. Use an angle of approximately 10°.
Step 2: Assemble the required materials. Construct a table of the types of cans you use along with their contents and weights or sizes. Include any other information about your cans that you think might be relevant.






Test your understanding of rotational inertia by holding can races. Feel free to include pictures or illustrations of your can races.

Step 3: Run a trial to see if the small can of solid contents will beat the can with liquid contents down the ramp you have just made. First, write down your hypothesis:



Now do the trial and record the results of the race.



Explain your results.





Step 4: Run a trial to see if a large can of solids will beat a small can of solids down the ramp.

Write down your hypothesis:



Now do the trial and record the results of the race.


Explain your results.




Step 5: Run trials using the cylinder and the large can of solids; the cylinder and the small can of solids; and the cylinder and the can of liquids. Create a table in which you record your hypothesis for each trial, record the results of each trial, and explain the results of each trial.















Project Submission and Grading

This project will be graded according to the following rubric:

Objective Exceeds minimum project expectations Meets minimum project expectations Approaches course expectations Does not meet course expectations
Materials Materials assembled meet all specifications. Materials assembled meet most of the specifications. Materials assembled meet most of the specifications. Materials assembled do not meet the specifications.
Test Data Data is compiled and provided as directed and clearly reported. Most of the data is compiled and provided as directed. Most of the data is compiled and provided as directed but the data is not complete. Data is not complete. Data is not compiled and provided as directed.
Effort Project demonstrates thoughtful approach. Questions are answered thoroughly and with evident self -reflection. Student has provided pictures or illustrations of their experiments. Project was completed and questions were answered but could have shown more thoughtfulness or self reflection. Project is completed to minimal specifications. Questions are answered but are not thoughtful. Student does not demonstrate self reflection. Project is not completed to minimal specifications.
Possible Grade (in percentage points) 90-100 80-90 70-80 69 or below


This project can be submitted electronically. Check the Project page under “My Work” in the ISHS online course management system or your enrollment information with your print materials for more detailed instructions.


Assignment 6 on UA 232 DC-10 accident of July 19, 1989 in Sioux City, Iowa and the DHL Airbus-300 shoot of November 22, 2003 in Baghdad

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Assignment 6 on UA 232 DC-10 accident  ofJuly 19, 1989 in Sioux City, Iowa and the DHL Airbus-300 shoot of November 22, 2003 in Baghdad


For this assignment, research the Internet for information on the UA 232 DC-10 accident that occurred on July 19, 1989 in Sioux City, Iowa and the DHL Airbus-300 shoot-down incident that occurred on November 22, 2003 in Baghdad. Then write a one or two paragraph analysis (approximately 100 to 150 words) comparing and contrasting these two cases. There are many articles on the Internet related to these cases. Please do not include any direct quotes in your analysis. Use your own words. Be sure to cite and reference all of your sources as applicable.


Your discussion and analysis should focus on the topic of this Module, which is stability and control and the associated flight dynamics (e.g. phugoid mode, lateral & directional control & stability, and coupled effects) along with the influence of aircraft design characteristics (e.g. engine position) and configuration (e.g. landing gear).


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Exercise 7: Maneuvering & High Speed Flight

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Exercise 7: Maneuvering & High Speed Flight

For this week’s assignment you will research a historic or current fighter type aircraft of your choice (options for historic fighter jets include, but are not limited to: Me262, P-59, MiG-15, F-86, Hawker Hunter, Saab 29, F-8, Mirage III, MiG-21, MiG-23, Su-7, Electric Lightning, Electric Canberra, F-104, F-105, F-4, F-5, A-6, A-7, Saab Draken, Super Etendard, MiG-25, Saab Viggen, F-14, and many more)


As previously mentioned and in contrast to formal research for other work in your academic program at ERAU, Wikipedia may be used as a starting point for this assignment. However, DO NOT USE PROPRIETARY OR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION even if you happen to have access in your line of work.


Notice also that NASA has some great additional information at:


  1. Selected Aircraft:


  1. Aircraft Gross Weight [lbs]:


  1. Aircraft Wing Area [ft2]:


  1. Positive Limit Load Factor (LLF – i.e. the max positive G) for your aircraft:


  1. Negative LLF (i.e. the max negative G) for your aircraft:


  1. Maximum Speed [kts] of your aircraft. If given as Mach number, convert by using Eq. 17.2 relationships with a sea level speed of sound of 661 kts.



For simplification, assume the CLmax for your aircraft was 1.5 (unless you can find a different CLmax in your research).



  1. Find the Stall Speed [kts] at 1G under sea level standard conditions for your aircraft (similar to all of our previous stall speed work, simply apply the lift equation in its stall speed form from page 44 to the above data):



  1. Find the corresponding Stall Speeds for 2G, 3G, 4G, and so on for your selected aircraft (up to the positive load limit from 4. above), using the relationship of Eq. 14.5. You can use the table below to track your results.



  1. Add the corresponding Stall Speeds for -1G, -2G, and so on for your selected aircraft (up to the negative load limit from 5. above) to your table. Assume that your fighter wing has symmetrical airfoil characteristics, i.e. that the negative maximum CL value is equal but opposite to the positive one. (Feel free to use specific airfoil data for your aircraft, but please make sure to use the correct maximum positive and negative Lift Coefficients in the correct places, i.e. CLmax in the positive part and highest negative CL in the negative part of the table and curve, and indicate your changes to the given example.)


Explanation: Making the assumption of symmetry simplifies your work, since the stall curve in the negative part of the V-G diagram becomes a mirror image of the positive side. Notice also that the simplified form of Eq. 14.5 won’t work with negative values; however, if using the G-dependent stall equation in the middle of page 222, it becomes obvious that negative signs cancel out between the negative G and the negative CLmax, and Stall Speeds can actually be calculated in the same way as for positive G, reducing your workload on the negative side to only one calculation of the stall speed at the negative LLF, if not a whole number.)



  1. Track your results in the V-G diagram below by properly labeling speeds at intercept points. Add also horizontal lines for positive and negative load limits on top and bottom and a vertical line on the right for the upper speed limit of your aircraft at sea level from 6. above. (Essentially you are re-constructing the V-G diagram by appropriately labeling it for your aircraft. Notice that the shape of the diagram and the G-dependent curve relationship is essentially universal and just the applicable speeds will change from aircraft to aircraft. Make sure to reference book Fig. 14.8 for comparison.)


G VS(kts)







  1. Find the Ultimate Load Factor (ULF) based on your aircraft’s Positive Limiting Load Factor (LLF). (For the relationship between LLF and ULF, see book discussion p. 226 and Fig. 14.9):



  1. Find the Positive Ultimate Limit Load [lbs] based on the ULF in E. above and the Gross Weight from 2.?



  1. Explain how limit load factors change with changes in aircraft weight. Support your answer with formula work and/or calculation example.



  1. What is the Maneuvering Speed [kts] for your aircraft?



  1. At the Maneuvering Speed and associated load factor, find the Turn Radius ‘r’ [ft]and the Rate of Turn (ROT) [deg/s].


  1. I) Use Eq. 14.3 to find bank angle ‘f’ for that load factor (i.e. G). (Remember to check that your calculator is in the proper trigonometric mode when building the arccos).



  1. II) With bank angle from I) above and maneuvering speed from H., use Eq. 14.15 to find turn radius ‘r’.



III) With bank angle from I) above and maneuvering speed from H., use Eq. 14.16 to find            ROT. (Make sure to use the formula that already utilizes speed in kts and gives results in            degree per second).



  1. For your selected aircraft, describe the different features that are incorporated into the design to allow high-speed and/or supersonic flight. Explain how those design features enhance the high-speed performance, and name additional features not incorporated in your aircraft, but available to designers of supersonic aircraft.



  1. Using Fig. 14.10 from Flight Theory and Aerodynamics, find the Bank Angle for a standard rate (3 deg/s) turn at your aircraft’s maneuvering speed. (This last assignment is again designed to review some of the diagram reading skills required for your final exam; therefor, please make sure to fully understand how to extract the correct information and review book, lecture, and/or tutorials as necessary. You can use the below diagram copy to visualize your solution path by adding the appropriate lines, either via electronic means, e.g. insert line feature in Word or Acrobat, or through printout, drawing, and scanning methods.)


From: Dole, C. E. & Lewis, J. E. (2000). Flight Theory and Aerodynamics. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.


Layden jar lab report

Layden jar lab report

This a guide line for the data I will use in the report, I just made it. Please make add what you can do and make my points more professional. Also put down numbers from the table to proof our words. Also add short conclusion if you can. The analysis shouldn’t be in bullet points I just made it in hurry. Thanks for help.

Results and discussions:

The manufacturer’s provided value for the uncertainty of the capacitance meter was given as ± 0.5% for the dial range up to 200pF. A ruler was used to measure the size of the containers. Data recorded by experimenters is shown in table 1, 2, 3. the new capacitance was recorded for 3 trails (attached in appindex).


copper foil Capacitance1 Avg.  (200 pF) Capacitance2 Avg.  (200 pF) Capacitance final3 (200 pF) Avg (200 pF) stDev
nothing 30.4 30.3 28.3 29.66 1.18462371
water 93.8 92.7 93.3 93.2666 0.550757055
salt water 97.9 94.5 107.3 99.9 6.630233782
alcohol 110.2 107.8 108.7 108.9 1.212435565
Aluminum foil
nothing 45 46.4 52.1 47.833 3.760762334
water 89.5 93.2 91.5 91.4 1.852025918
salt water 93.5 92.91 91.6 92.67 0.972471079
alcohol 116.5 118.8 117.5 117.6 1.153256259


In the table above we tested the capacitance for different liquid dielectric

  • We know that theoretically the dielectric constant for the water is higher than alcohol. And we know So the higher  dielectric constant the higher capacitance we should get. Adding salt to the water increases its dielectricity. Our result shows that alcohol has capacitance higher than water (error). Error acquired because the quantity of alcohol is more than water and human error. Also copper (foil) should have higher result than aluminum, error may resulted by the quantity we have used (aluminum more than copper) and human error.


Nothing Water Salt Water Alcohol
Glass container 45.5333 103.833 84.5333 89.433
plastic container 45 89.5 93.5 116.5


In the above table we measured capacitance with different jar dielectric (galss and plastic).

  • The Glass jar have less than the half of the volume of the plastic jar gives higher result. The container volume is 5(3/4) cm^3 : APPROXIMATE Length 6 cm, Width 6 cm, Height 5 cm. Glass has diameter of ~4 cm and length of 5.5 cm.
  • Theoretically the glass has higher dielectric constant So our result was reasonable


Capacitor1 (200 pF) Capacitor2 (200 pF) Series (200 pF) theo. Series (200 pF)  Parallel (200 pF) theo. Parallel (200 pF)
167.6 100.5 60 62.82 255 268.1


In the above table we measured the capacitance for two capacitors placed in parallel and series. Also we calculated the theoretical value for each

  • Our experimental values (for series and parallel) close to the theoretical value
  • =


Collected data (attached)

Sample Calculation:

Average Capacitance :(47.2+45.4+44)/3 = 45.5333

Capacitors in parallel:  = 167.6+100.5= 268.1

Capacitors in Series:



Can you construct a Leyden Jar that shows adequate precision for repeated measurements?
This experiment tests capacitance at different types of solution and material for conductor
The container volume is 5(3/4) cm^3 :  APPROXIMATE Length 6 cm, Width 6 cm, Height 5 cm,
zero (200 pF) capacitance capitance final
0.1 30.5 30.4
0.2 30.5 30.3
0.2 28.5 28.3
avg 29.66667
zero (200 pF) capacitance capitance final
0.2 94 93.8
0.3 93 92.7
0.4 93.7 93.3
avg 93.26667
Salt Water
zero (200 pF) Capacitance
0 97.9 97.9
0 94.5 94.5
0 107.3 107.3
avg 99.9
zero (200 pF) Capacitance
0 110.2 110.2
0 107.8 107.8
-0.2 108.5 108.7
avg 108.9
Aluminum Foil
zero (200 pF) capacitance capitance final
0 45 45
0 46.4 46.4
0 52.1 52.1
avg 47.83333
zero (200 pF) capacitance capitance final
0 89.5 89.5
0.2 93.4 93.2
0.2 91.7 91.5
avg 91.4
Salt Water
zero (200 pF) Capacitance
0 93.5 93.5
0.09 93.0 92.91
0 91.6 91.6
avg 92.67
zero (200 pF) Capacitance
0 116.5 116.5
0 118.8 118.8
0 117.5 117.5
avg 117.6
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