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Discussion Question 2

Nurses in advanced practice roles need to be familiar with current health policy and strategies to contribute to policy development. Describe a policy issue for your selected role specialization. Synthesize knowledge for values theory, ethics, and legal regulatory statutes, and develop a personal philosophy that will map out a policy strategy that uses a high degree of political competence to address the policy issue as an advanced practice nurse.

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Assignment 1: Discussion Question

Assignment 1: Discussion Question

Evaluate how you have achieved course competencies and your plans to develop further in these areas. The course competencies for this course are as follows:

  1. Explore the historical evolution of the advance practice nurse.
  2. Differentiate the roles and scope of practice for nurses working in advanced clinical, education, administration, informatics, research, and health policy arenas.
  3. Analyze attributes of the practice arena such as access and availability, degree of consumer choice, competition, and financing that impact advanced practice nurses and their ability to effectively collaborate with other health professionals.
  4. Integrate evidence from research and theory into discussions of practice competencies, health promotion and disease prevention strategies, quality improvement, and safety standards.
  5. Identify collaborative, organizational, communication, and leadership skills in working with other professionals in healthcare facilities and/or academic institutions.
  6. Synthesize knowledge from values theory, ethics, and legal/regulatory statutes in the development of a personal philosophy for a career as an advanced practice nurse.


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Question 1 (1 point)

Which two of the following are among the major 5 actors of the NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture?

Question 1 options:

Cloud Auditor
Cloud Broker
Cloud Database

Question 2 (1 point)

What is the block (word) size used by SHA-512 algorithm?

Question 2 options:


Question 3 (1 point)

Which of the following can be utilized as traceroute tool?

Question 3 options:

TTL (Time to Live)
Path Analyzer Pro

Question 4 (1 point)

What is a network of many hacked smartphones called?

Question 4 options:


Which version of the Linux kernal does Android rely upon?

Question 5 options:


Question 6 (1 point)

The Autorun feature of Removable Disks and CD Drives can be a threat to network Security.

What is the best course of action to remove Autorun for Removable Disks and CD Drives in


Question 6 options:

Tape the USB ports
Provide Users without Administrative Rights
Use Group Policy
Remove the CD-ROM Drive from the System

Question 7 (1 point)

According to the text, the three different types of Virtualization include:

Question 7 options:

SAN Virtualization
Network Virtualization
Storage Virtualization
Server Virtualization

Question 8 (1 point)

Among all smartphones, which is most likely to be hacked? (choose all that apply)

Question 8 options:

Windows Phone

Question 9 (1 point)

Some of the Infrastructure as a service vendors include: (choose all that apply)

Question 9 options:

Windows SkyDrive
Amazon EC2
Go Grid

Question 10 (1 point)

The psexec utility can be utilized to perform which of the following actions?

Question 10 options:

Get System Information
List Processes
Launch an Interactive Command Session
Show open files

Question 11 (1 point)

Which of the following are Mobile Network Based Attacks? (choose all that apply)

Question 11 options:

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
Rogue Access Points
Packet Sniffing
SSL Strip

Question 12 (1 point)

The Management Information Base (MIB) includes which of the following?

(choose all that apply)

Question 12 options:

Scalar and Tabular Objects
File and Folder Permissions
OID Numbers
User Accounts

Question 13 (1 point)

Which of the following applies to an SSID? (choose all that apply)

Question 13 options:

Will be encrypted in WEP or WPA/WPA2 is utilized
Is part of the frame header
Is Case Sensitive
Can be up to 32 characters

Question 14 (1 point)

Which of the following are app stores? (choose all that apply)

Question 14 options:

ITunes Store
Google Play
BlackBerry App World

Question 15 (1 point)

Which Cloud Deployment model is a multi-tenant infrastructure shared among

organizations with common characteristics?

Question 15 options:

Private Cloud
Hybrid Cloud
Public Cloud
Community Cloud

Question 16 (1 point)

Question 16 options:

Disable File and Print Sharing
Block ICMP so the host cannot be detected
Use TCP Wrappers
Turn on the Windows Firewal

Question 17 (1 point)

A lack of vetting of apps can lead to which two of the following results?

Question 17 options:

Malicious apps
fake apps

According to your text, which of the following are ways to detect an Intrusion with

an (IDS)? (choose all that apply)

Choose all that apply

Question 18 options:

Anti-Virus Alerts
Anomaly Detection
Protocol Anomaly Detection
Signature Detection

Which of the following firewall architectures is designed to host servers that


public services?

Question 19 options:

Screened host
Bastion Host
Screened subnet

Question 20 (1 point)

Black hat hackers are:

Question 20 options:

Individuals who work both offensively and defensively at various times
Individuals who aim to bring down critical infrastructure for a cause

and are not worried about jail

Individuals professing hacker skills and using them for defensive

purposees, or security analysts

Individuals with extraordinary computing skills, resorting to malicious

or destructive activities

Question 21 (1 point)

Identify the Nmap Scan method that is often referred to as half open scan:

Question 21 options:

SYN Stealth
Half open
Windows Scan
ACK Scan

Question 22 (1 point)

According to the text, a major Denial of Service Attack caused major

problems for ___.

Question 22 options:

DALnet IRC Network
The Department of Defense
780th Military Intelligence Brigade

Question 23 (1 point)

Which of the following Management Information Base (MIB) files contains

information about server services?

Question 23 options:


Question 24 (1 point)

According to the text, which of the following is a form of MITM Attack?

Question 24 options:

Packet Sniffing
Checksum Evasion
API Hooking
SSL Strip

Question 25 (1 point)

Of the following options, which are virtualization vendors? (

choose all that apply)

Question 25 options:

VMware vSphere
VMware vCloud Suite
Virtual Box

Question 26 (1 point)

Which password cracking technique will the attacker use if she gets

some information about the password to crack?

Question 26 options:

Denial of Service Attack
Distributed Network Attack (DNA)
Rule-based Attack
Syllable Attack

Question 27 (1 point)

Which of the following are signs of file system intrusion?

(choose all that apply)

Question 27 options:

Connection Requests
Double Extensions
Rogue SUID Entries
Reduced Bandwidth


Question 28 (1 point)

According to OWASP, strong encryption channels, such as which of the following should be used? (choose all that apply)

Question 28 options:


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Question 29 (1 point)

Which of the following are risks of rooting? (choose all that apply)

Question 29 options:

voiding the warranty
poor performance

Question 30 (1 point)

Buffer overflow attacks allow an attacker to modify the ___________ in order to control the process execution, .

Question 30 options:

Target process’s address space
Target remote access
Target rainbow table
Target SAM file

Question 31 (1 point)

According to the text, by 2018, what percentage of enterprises will specify Wi-Fi as the default connection?

Question 31 options:


Question 32 (1 point)

Identify the attack which forces an unsuspecting user’s browser to send malicious requests they did not intend.

Question 32 options:

SQL injection attack
LDAP Injection attack
Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

Question 33 (1 point)

Which of the following is an antenna based on the principal of a satellite dish and can pick up Wi-Fi signals from 10 miles away?

Question 33 options:

Omni Directional

Question 34 (1 point)

You should place your Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in this location on the network (choose all that apply):

Question 34 options:

Outside the Firewall
At the ISP Location
Inside the Firewall

Question 35 (1 point)

Permutation Scanning involves which of the following?

Question 35 options:

Using a psudorandom function
Looking for new vulnerable machines on the local subnet
Collecting a list of possibly vulnerable machines
Using information from infected machines

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Question 36 (1 point)

What are some of the limitations of Cloud Computing services? (choose all that apply)

Question 36 options:

Storage Limits
Control Limits

Question 37 (1 point)

Which wireless standard has bandwidth up to 54 Mbps and signals in a regulated frequency spectrum around 5 GHz?

Question 37 options:


Question 38 (1 point)

It was well publicized that BlackShades Net was used as an attack tool against:

Question 38 options:

Syrain Political Activists
Sony Pictures

Question 39 (1 point)

Which Cloud Consumer model includes storage, service management, and content delivery?

Question 39 options:


Question 40 (1 point)

What were the two dominant attack strategies identified in Symantec’s Threat Report?

Question 40 options:

Advanced Persistent Threats
Broader Strokes
Focused Attack
Distributed Denial of Service

Question 41 (1 point)

SYN flooding takes advantage of which of the following? (choose all that apply)

Question 41 options:

A flaw in how the three-way handshake can be implemented
A flaw in some firewalls which do not restrict ICMP traffic by default
Not replying to SYN/ACKs
Holding the incomplete connection for a period up to one second

Question 42 (1 point)

Which of the following is a tool that can be used to check for modified or trojanzied files?

Question 42 options:


Question 43 (1 point)

The advantages of a using a Community Cloud Deployment include which of the following? (choose all that apply)

Question 43 options:

High Security
Clear Legal Entity
Compliance to Regulations
Shared Resources

Question 44 (1 point)

Which of the following sentences is true about a proxy?

Question 44 options:

Cannot be used to filter out unwanted content
Allows attacker to view the desktop of users system
Protects the local network from outside access
Does not allow the connection of a number of computers to the Internet when having

only one IP


Question 45 (1 point)

Which of the following Windows Utilities can be utilized to enumerate hosts?

Question 45 options:

net stop
net view
net Use
net start

Question 46 (1 point)

Which of the following is the 3D Graphics Library of Android?

Question 46 options:

Media Framework

Question 47 (1 point)

Which of the following applies to an Intrusion Detection System (IDS)? (choose all that apply)

Question 47 options:

Monitors outbound traffic
Monitors inbound traffic
Will perform actions to stop the attacker in their tracks
Signals an alarm

Question 48 (1 point)

What is the size of WEP initialization vector (IV)?

Question 48 options:


Question 49 (1 point)

low? (choose all that apply)

Question 49 options:

removing bloatware
Low level access to hardware
deleting system files

Question 50 (1 point)

If you want to mask (or spoof) your IP Address, what type of scan should you use?

Question 50 options:

ACK Flag Probe Scan
Stealth Scan
UDP Scan

Question 51 (1 point)

An organization can implement this Cloud Deployment model within the corporate firewall.

Question 51 options:

Public Cloud
Hybrid Cloud
Community Cloud
Private Cloud

Question 52 (1 point)

Which of the following is true about the 802.11i standard?

Question 52 options:

It operates at both 2.4 GHZ and 5 GHZ
It defines WPA-2 Enterprise and Personal
It operates at 5 GHZ only
It operates at 2.4 GHZ only

Question 53 (1 point)

Which two of the following are included in Android Runtime?

Question 53 options:

core libraries
Dalvik Virtual Machine
Flash memory driver
Bind IPC driver

Question 54 (1 point)

Which modes on Bluetooth devices at greater risk? (choose all that apply)

Question 54 options:


Question 55 (1 point)

Which of the following is an example of a Trojan that can be utilized for Website Defacement?

Question 55 options:


Question 56 (1 point)

Which rootkit modifies the boot sequence to load themselves instead of the original virtual machine monitor?

Question 56 options:

Library level rootkits
Hypervisor level rootkit
Boot loader level rootkit
Kernel level rootkit

Question 57 (1 point)

Central Source propagation commonly utilized what two protocols?

Question 57 options:


Question 58 (1 point)

What happens when the CAM table is full?

Question 58 options:

It does not affect the switch functioning
Additional ARP request traffic will not be forwarded to any port on the switch
Additional ARP request traffic will flood every port on the switch
The switch will stop functioning and get disconnected from network

Question 59 (1 point)

Which of the following companies offer Cloud Computing services? (choose all that apply)

Question 59 options:


Question 60 (1 point)

Which of the following evasion techniques rely on Time-to-Live (TTL) fields of a TCP/IP packet?

Question 60 options:

Denial-of-Service Attack
Insertion Attack
Unicode Evasion

Question 61 (1 point)

Which of the following conditions shows the presence of a honeypot?

Question 61 options:

Ports show a particular service running and allow a three-way handshake connection
Ports show a particular service running but deny a three-way handshake connection
Scan shows that no scanned port is live on the network
Ports do not show any particular service running

Question 62 (1 point)

What virus modifies the directory table entries so they point to the virus code instead of the actual program?

Question 62 options:

Boot Sector Viruses
Macro Viruses
Cluster Viruses
Encryption Viruses

Question 63 (1 point)

Identify the statement which is true for RC6 algorithm:

Question 63 options:

Is a 64 bit block cipher that uses a key length that can vary between 32 and 448 bits
Is a parameterized algorithm with a variable block size, key size, and a variable number

of rounds

Includes integer multiplication and the use of four 4-bit working registers
Is a variable key-size stream cipher with byte-oriented operations and is based on random


Question 64 (1 point)

ARP Spoofing involves constructing a large number of forged ARP request and reply packets to overload:

Question 64 options:


Question 65 (1 point)

Packet filtering firewall works at which of these layers of the OSI model?

Question 65 options:

Physical layer
Application layer
Session layer
Network layer

Question 66 (1 point)

All of the following are true about an SSID except which of the following?

Question 66 options:

Is Case Sensitive
Can be up to 32 characters
Is part of the frame header
Will be encrypted in WEP or WPA/WPA2 is utilized

Question 67 (1 point)

According to your text, which of the following are Cloud Deployment Models? (choose all that apply)

Question 67 options:

Community Cloud
Public Cloud
Hybrid Cloud
Private Cloud

Question 68 (1 point)

Which of the following is true about active stack fingerprinting?

Question 68 options:

Uses sniffing techniques instead of the scanning techniques
Uses password crackers to escalate system privileges
TCP connect scan
Is based on the differential implantation of the stack and the various ways an OS responds

to it

Is based on the fact that various vendors of OS implement the TCP stack differently

Question 69 (1 point)

Which of the following are characteristics of Cloud Computing services? (choose all that apply)

Question 69 options:

Distributed Storage
Virtualization Technology
Measured Services
Resource Pooling

Question 70 (1 point)

According to OWASP, the top ten mobile risks include which two of the following?

Question 70 options:

Insecure Data Storage
Client Side Injection
WEP and WPA1

Question 71 (1 point)

According to your text, examples of malware include which of the following? (choose all that apply)

Question 71 options:


Question 72 (1 point)

BlackShades Net can best be described as a:

Question 72 options:

DDoS Tool

Question 73 (1 point)

With Cross Site Scripting, attackers can inject malicious ____. (choose all that apply)

Question 73 options:


Question 74 (1 point)

With this Cloud Deployment model, the provider makes services such as applications, servers, and data storage available.

Question 74 options:

Hybrid Cloud
Community Cloud
Public Cloud
Private Cloud

Question 75 (1 point)

When an attacker is performing a denial of service and a SYN attack is initiated which of the following occurs? (choose all that apply)

Question 75 options:

Sends a large number of ACK packets to the target
Uses a fake source address
Sends a large number SYN requests to the target
Uses the actual source address

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Question 76 (1 point)

Which scanning technique will bypass firewall rules, logging mechanism, and hide themselves?

Question 76 options:

TCP connect scanning technique
Xmas scanning technique
Stealth scanning technique
Maintaining Access
FIN scanning technique

Question 77 (1 point)

Which of the following characteristics applies to the Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP)? (choose all that apply)

Question 77 options:

Can be vulnerable to denial of service
Not work behind a firewall
Controls Communication for the Universal Plug and Play Service
Uses multicast addresses

Question 78 (1 point)

Of the following, which two are purposes of malware?

Question 78 options:

Making a Computer Useless
Obtaining Passwords
Remove the Default LAN Route
Disable Networking Functions

Question 79 (1 point)

Which of the following techniques is used to simulate an attack from someone who is unfamiliar with the system?

Question 79 options:

White box pen testing
Grey box pen testing
Maintaining Access
Announced pen testing
Black box pen testing

Question 80 (1 point)

Which version of Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) uses a 104-bit key size?

Question 80 options:

152 bit WEP
64 bit WEP
128 bit WEP
256 bit WEP

Question 81 (1 point)

Which of the following are Mobile Physical Based Attacks? (choose all that apply)

Question 81 options:

Carrier Loaded Software
No passcode

Question 82 (1 point)

Which of the following uses direct client to client (DCC)?

Question 82 options:

Internet Relay Chat
Internet Browser
File Sharing with Mapped Drives
Email Clients such as Outlook Express

Question 83 (1 point)

Which device in a wireless local area network determines the next network to which a packet should be forwarded?

Question 83 options:

Wireless modem
Mobile station
Wireless router

Question 84 (1 point)

Mobile Devices are replacing which of the following devices? (choose all that apply)

Question 84 options:


Question 85 (1 point)

Which of the following are some of the main functions of an Intrusion Detection System (IDS)? (choose all that apply)

Question 85 options:

Performs packet sniffing
Blocks rule-based traffic
Performs packet analysis
Gathers and analyses information from a network

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Question 86 (1 point)

Which of the following scans only works if the operating systems TCP/IP implementation is based on RFC 793?

Question 86 options:

Maintaining Access
IDLE scan
TCP connect scan
NULL scan
FTP bounce scan

Question 87 (1 point)

Which of the following is one of the most reliable forms of TCP scanning?

Question 87 options:

Half-open Scan
Connect Scan
Inverse TCP Flag Scan

Question 88 (1 point)

Fake Defender deleted apk files from which two of the following locations?

Question 88 options:


Question 89 (1 point)

Which of the following 802.11 standards uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing? (choose all that apply)

Question 89 options:


Question 90 (1 point)

Passive sniffing refers to:

Question 90 options:

Sniffing through a hub
Sniffing through a switch
Sniffing through a bridge
Sniffing through a router

Question 91 (1 point)

Which of the following are methods to connect smartphones to a network? (choose all that apply)

Question 91 options:

Wired Connection

Question 92 (1 point)

Which of the following are disadvantages of signature detection? (choose all that apply)

Question 92 options:

False Alerts
Signature Detection
False Positives
Administrative Alerts

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Question 93 (1 point)

Which of the following protocols are susceptible to sniffing?

Question 93 options:


Question 94 (1 point)

Which of the following are SPAM? (choose all that apply)

Question 94 options:


Question 95 (1 point)

Which of the following factors contribute to a successful session hijacking attack?

Question 95 options:

Definite session expiration time
No clear text transmission
Weak session ID generation algorithm
Account lockout for invalid session IDs

Question 96 (1 point)

Which of the following ports does NTP use as its primary means of communication?

Question 96 options:

UDP port 161
UDP port 113
UDP port 320
UDP port 123

Question 97 (1 point)

Which of the following viruses evades the anti-virus software by intercepting its requests to the operating system?

Question 97 options:

Cluster virus
System or boot sector virus
Macro virus
Stealth/Tunneling virus

Question 98 (1 point)

Which of the following Wi-Fi chalking methods refers to drawing symbols in public places to advertise open Wi-Fi?

Question 98 options:


Question 99 (1 point)

According to your text, what are the 3 types of cloud services?

Question 99 options:

Platform as a Service
Infrastructure as a Service
Virtualization as a Service
Software as a Service

Question 100 (1 point)

Which of the following is transmission method of digital data that uses a pseudo random noise spreading code?

Question 100 options:


Question 101 (1 point)

Which of the following steganography techniques embeds a secret message in the frequency domain of a signal?

Question 101 options:

Transform domain techniques
Cover generation techniques
Domain distortion techniques
Spread spectrum techniques

Question 102 (1 point)

Which of the following commands can be used in a UNIX environment to enumerate the shared directories?

Question 102 options:


Question 103 (1 point)

Which of the following are Network Time Protocol (NTP) enumeration commands? (choose all that apply)

Question 103 options:

Net time

Question 104 (1 point)

The SMTP Protocol provides 3 built in commands, including which of the following?

Question 104 options:


Question 105 (1 point)

Temporal keys are changed for every ___________.

Question 105 options:

1,000 packets
5,000 packets
10,000 packets
15,000 packets

Question 106 (1 point)

The MAC Address of an access point is referred to as the ___.

Question 106 options:


Question 107 (1 point)

According to your text, components of a Cloud Broker include which of the following? (choose all that apply)

Question 107 options:

Service Arbitration
Service Negotiation
Service Intermediation
Service Aggregation

Question 108 (1 point)

Which of the following is a symptom of a DoS attack?

Question 108 options:

Decrease in the amount of spam emails received
Automatic increase in network performance
Automatic increase in network bandwidth
Unavailability of a particular website

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Question 109 (1 point)

Which of the following are LDAP enumeration tools? (choose all that apply)

Question 109 options:

Active Directory Explorer

Question 110 (1 point)

Identify the correct statement for a software firewall.

Question 110 options:

Software firewall is placed between the router and the networking components of the

operating system

Software firewall is placed between the desktop and the software components of the

operating system

Software firewall is placed between the normal application and the networking component

s of the operating system

Software firewall is placed between the anti-virus application and the IDS components of

the operating system

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Question 111 (1 point)

Which of the following is an antenna used in wireless base stations and provides a 360 degree horizontal radiation pattern?

Question 111 options:

Omnidirectional antenna
Parabolic grid antenna
Yagi antenna
Dipole antenna

Question 112 (1 point)

Signs of Intrusions include which of the following? (choose all that apply)

Question 112 options:

Strange Processes
Slow Performance
System Crashes
Missing Logs

Question 113 (1 point)

According to the text, which of the following will protect by limiting the ability to access resources?

Question 113 options:

Jail Breaking
Android Rooting
app sandboxing
Jail break detection

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Question 114 (1 point)

Sophos mobile security features include (choose all that apply)

Question 114 options:

Spam Protection
Loss and Theft Protection
antivirus anti-malware
Privacy Protection and security

Question 115 (1 point)

According to OWASP, which of the following should be applied to transport channels? (choose all that apply)

Question 115 options:

WPA2 with AES

Question 116 (1 point)

According to the text, characteristics of Virtualization in cloud computing technology include which of the following? (choose all that apply)

Question 116 options:

Wireless Capable

Question 117 (1 point)

What does SSL Strip do? (choose all that apply)

Question 117 options:

Remove HTTPS
Force HTTP
Exploit the Server
Exploit the Client Connection

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Question 118 (1 point)

Which two of the following are signs of network intrusion? (choose all that apply)

Question 118 options:

Sudden Influx of Data
File Size Modifications
Repeated Service Probes
Missing Files

Question 119 (1 point)

Which of the following below accurately describes Transmission Control Protocol? (choose all that apply)

Question 119 options:

Can terminate a connection
Provides acknowledgment
Supports Retransmission of lost Data
Connection-less oriented protocol

Question 120 (1 point)

Footprining tools will help gather the following information about a target. (choose all that apply)

Question 120 options:

IP Addresses
Host Names
Process Lists
DNS Records

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Question 121 (1 point)

Which of the following are types of database attacks? (choose all that apply)

Question 121 options:

HOS Command Execution
Privilege Escalation
Data Dumping
SQL Injection

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Question 122 (1 point)

Which of the following techniques practiced by an attacker exploits human behavior to make attacks?

Question 122 options:

Denial of Service
SQL injection
Social Engineering
Buffer overflow

Question 123 (1 point)

Identify the denial-of-service attack that is carried out using a method known as “bricking a system.”

Question 123 options:

Bandwidth Attacks
Application Level Flood Attacks
ICMP Flood Attack

Question 124 (1 point)

Which of the following enumeration techniques does an attacker use to obtain list of computers that belongs to a domain?

Question 124 options:

Netbios enumeration
SNMP enumeration
SMTP enumeration
NTP enumeration

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Question 125 (1 point)

Which is the best location to place keyloggers?

Question 125 options:

UPS and keyboard
Monitor and keyboard software
Keyboard hardware and the operating system
Operating system and UPS

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Assignment (AMA)


Q3: Two opposite corners are removed from an 8-by-8 checkerboard. Prove that it is impossible to cover the remaining 65 squares with 31 dominoes, such that each domino covers two adjacent squares?




Q3: Through A Write an algorithm to construct the indicated graph operation, using only the primary graph operations of additions and deletions of vertices and edges. Test your algorithm on the pair ( P4, W5 ) and on the pair ( K4 – K2, C4 ):

  • Cartesian product of two graphs (psedocode)?


Q4: Through A,B either draw the required graph or explain why no such graph exists:

  • An 8-vertex, 2-component, simple graph with exactly 10 edges and three cycles?
  • An 11-vertex, simple, connected graph with exactly 14 edges that contains five edge-disjoint cycles?


Q5: Prove or disprove: If a simple graph G has no cut-edge, then every vertex pf G has even degree?


Q6: Prove that if a graph has exactly two vertices of odd degree, then there must be a path between them?


Q7: Show that any nontrivial simple graph contains at least two vertices that are not cut-vertices?


Q8: Through A Draw the specified tree(s) or explain why on such a tree(s) can exist?

  • A 14-vertex binary tree of height 3.


Q9: Prove that a directed tree that has more than one vertex with in degree 0 cannot be a rooted tree?

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Need Help-MSE 250 HW 4 Reading: Callister Ch. 7 and Ch. 8

Need Help-MSE 250  HW 4 Reading: Callister Ch. 7 and Ch. 8

MSE 250  HW 4

Reading: Callister Ch. 7 and Ch. 8.


Academic Integrity:  Students are encouraged to study with a partner or small group, but each student should complete their homework by themselves (no copying allowed). The data table and plots referred to are given at the end of the homework.


Please write clearly, show all work in an organized fashion, and circle answers.


1)  Using the data shown in Figures 6.14 (at 25oC) and 6.21, combine both curves onto one plot, being careful to correctly plot the modulus, yield strength, tensile (ultimate) strength, and ductility.  Discuss how the modulus, yield strength, and ductility compare for pure iron (figure 6.14) vs. the alloy steel.


2)  The equation for the effect of grain size on yield strength is given by:

sy = sI +kD-0.5

where sy is the yield stress, sI is the intrinsic resistance of the lattice to dislocation motion, k is the “blocking parameter” which measures the effectiveness of grain boundaries in blocking dislocation motion, and D is the grain diameter.

Use this equation to determine the change in yield strength of a typical steel when the grain size is increased from 10micron to 50 micron (1 micron = 10-6 m), due to grain growth.  .  sI = 150 MN/m2 and k = 0.70 MN/m1.5 .


3)  Using the data shown in Callister Figure 7.19, draw an approximate stress-strain curve for the 1040 steel at 0% cold work and at 30% cold work, clearly indicating the yield strength, ductility, and tensile strength of the steel before and after cold-working (Young’s modulus of steel E = 250 MPa).


4)  A fatigue test is carried out on a steel having an ultimate strength of 289 MPa.  The number of cycles required to break the specimen at different stresses are given below:


Stress Amplitude                  Fatigue Life

(MPa)                                     (cycles)

223                                         4.5 x 104

209                                         2.4 x 105

192                                         8.0 x 105

178                                         1.5 x 106

175                                         2.7 x 106

168                                         7.8 x 106

168                                         >1.0 x 107 (did not break)

165                                         >2.6 x 107

162                                         >2.2 x 107


  1. a) Plot the data on linear-log scale, preferably with a computerized figure-plotting program.
  2. b) Determine the average fatigue strength at 106 cycles (hint: use curve-fitting software to fit the line).
  3. c) What is the ratio of the fatigue strength at 106 cycles to the ultimate strength?
  4. e) If you plan to use this material for 108 cycles, what is the maximum fatigue strength you would recommend (assuming 20% fluctuations in stress amplitude).


Callister Homework Problems:  7.22, 8.4, 8.12 (see next page)



Need Help-MSE 250  HW 4 Reading: Callister Ch. 7 and Ch. 8




































Need Help-ENGL 250, F16 Assignment 1

Need Help-ENGL 250, F16 Assignment 1 

In this assignment, you will apply the pyramid structure to memo writing, integrate content (by paraphrasing, summarizing or quoting) from professional publications, and use APA style documentation (in-text citations and reference list).

This assignment must be completed individually. It is worth 5%, and it is due at the start of class in week 4. Please submit an electronic version of the assignment to the drop box on eCentennial AND a hard copy of the assignment in class. Due Date: Friday, September 30, 2016.

Assignment learning outcomes:

  • Format and write memos
  • Keep an accurate and reliable record of research findings
  • Read and comprehend articles in scientific and professional publications


Your Task

  • Select a topic. Your topic should be an emerging technology, new finding or breakthrough, current trend, or recent news items related to your field of study at Centennial College.
  • Conduct research on your topic. Your goal is to find professional and / or scientific sources on your chosen topic. You may access these resources through Centennial College’s library OR Google Scholar. You must use a minimum of two sources for this assignment.
  • Write a memo to inform your instructor about your chosen topic. Write a concise, one -page (single spaced) informative memo report to your ENGL 250 instructor about this topic. In your report you should use the pyramid structure and address the following questions:
    • What is your field of study at Centennial?
    • What did you learn about your chosen topic? You should paraphrase, summarize and / or quote content from your sources to address this question.
    • Why is your chosen topic important to your field of study?
  • Use your own words. Your report will be submitted to Turnitin. Content that is copied and pasted from your sources is considered plagiarism and is not acceptable.
  • Acknowledge your sources. In your report, include
    • correctly formatted in-text citations (APA) and
    • a correctly formatted reference page (APA).
  • Use an appropriate tone, technical writing style and correct format. Your writing in this course should be clear, concise, correct, courteous, complete, and concrete. Where possible, you should use active voice. Ensure that you proofread your work for grammatical and formatting errors.

To successfully complete this assignment, you must refer to the Centennial College APA Style Examples of In-text Citations & References, 6th ed. (2010), which can be found on the Centennial College library website at http://library.centennialcollege.ca/research/apa (it is also posted on our eCentennial site) OR another credible source on APA Style.

 Need Help-ENGL 250, F16 Assignment 1  


Tommy Smith
Due date: Sec001
This project milestone will require students to practice the following SolidWorks skills
Extrudes (boss and cut), Shell,
Sketch Relations, Convert Entities, Linear Feature
Patterns, Equations, and Global Variables.
Students must create a 6×2
block similar to LEGO part number
(see last page of
your LEGO kit documentation). The block must be created according to
the following, and in
this order
Save your
original SolidWorks part file
to your project folder on the W drive, called
The file type should be SLDPRT (*.prt; *.sldprt).
Create global variables “Length” and “Width” and set Length=6 and Widt
Create the base extrude feature, based on a sketch where the length and width are defined
using an equation referencing the two global variables already defined in Step #1 and
multiplying by 8mm to calculate the total width and length of the block.
Place your sketch
on the “top” plane for this base feature and be sure to extrude “up”. Extrude the sketch to
Create one circular knob feature, with diameter of 5mm and height of 1.8 mm. Locate the
center of the boss 4mm each direction from the co
rner of the base feature.
Tommy Smith
Create a linear feature pattern in two dimensions, using the edges of the base feature to
define the direction. Set the spacing to 8mm and set the number of instances in each
direction by using equations to reference the two global variables already define
d in Step
On the bottom of the base feature, use the shell command to create a shell feature with a
thickness value of 1.5 mm.
Adjust the depth of the hollow under the LEGO by doing another extrude cut that is 0.1 mm
deep. This makes the depth 1.8 m
m instead of 1.7mm (so the LEGO blocks would fit
together properly)
Create a sketch on the underside (same face you just adjusted in step 6). Use “convert
entities” to bring the four circular edges of the bosses into your sketch. Select the four
in your sketch and make them construction geometry (dashed lines). Now create an
annulus (circle inside a circle, concentric) such that the outside circle is tangent to the
dashed circles (only need three tangencies to define) and the inside circle has a
diameter of
Notice that you don’t have enough of the annulus bosses on the underside. Fix this by
creating another linear feature pattern in two directions, using an equation to link it to the
“Length” and “Width”. Hint: Remember that you need to use
an “n
1” approach…there are
always one less ring underneath in each direction compared to the number of knobs on top.
Try redefining “Length” and “Width” to be other values. Note that your patterns work well so
long as there is more than one new instance
of the feature. For instance, if you set Length=2
and Width=2 you will get an error because the pattern for the ring underneath no longer has
any new instances. The solution to this problem is to “suppress” the pattern when it is not
being used (“suppress
” is available when you right
click a feature in the tree).

HVAC DUCT Design Project Grading

HVAC DUCT Design Project Grading


  1. Geometry creation 15 pts.
  2. Grid generation 5 pts.
  3. CFD results and post processing 15 pts.
  4. Design changes if needed for providing required flow
  5. Presentation of results 15 pts.


  1. Presentation of HW Results:
  2. Problem description,
  3. Preliminary Analysis, your design philosophy
  4. Duct design geometry presentation (make sure reader can understand the duct design geometry). All Figures in HW must have a title and you must refer to them in your discussions.
  5. Presentation of Mesh
  6. Presentation of Sample CFD results
  7. Report mass flux output from each outlet in tabulated form (and from CFD code in the appendix. Output numbers directly from CFD code in the Appendix).  Also report static pressure loss (needed to select a fan for this HVAC duct.)
  8. Design changes if needed to provide required flow rate
  9. Appendix: CFD input/output



Additional Work for Graduate Students (20 points):

Report proposed modification to the ducting systems to obtain the required flow rates.

Clearly identify modifications and see number 6 above


heat exchanger design to accommodate temperature output required.

Report proposed heat exchanger design to accommodate temperature output required.

Location of heat exchangers, How they affect required flow rate and static pressure?

How you incorporate heat exchanger into CFD results

ME 4033-6033 Lab Assignment #5 – Duct Design Project

ME 4033-6033

Lab Assignment #5 – Duct Design Project

(Undergraduates: 50 HW points.  Graduates: 70 HW points).


All.  Use CFD to design air conditioning ducting to provide air from a special A/C unit Outlet (36”x36”) to Outlets #1,2 and 3, shown in Figure 1, serving several spaces in a hospital building.  For Outlet #1, the required flow rate is 2000 cfm, Outlet #2 requires 1500 cfm and Outlet #3 requires 1000 cfm.  Size the ducting to provide air to various outlet locations.  From the CFD results determine the A/C fan static pressure that is required for this application.  The elevation view is shown in Figure 2.  The outlet ducts must run to an elevation of 1” above the suspended ceiling to allow A/C outlet to be installed.

Graduate Students Additionally Do #1 or #2 below.

#1.  Assume the A/C unit outlet temperature is 40 F, use CFD and add

(a) heat flux to the ducting walls or

(b) add hot air to each branch from a furnace

to provide a temperature of 55 F in Outlet #1, and 80 F in Outlets #2 and #3.  Determine

(a) the required heat flux at the boundaries or

(b) how/where you can provide the hot air (what is the quantity and temp of hot air required) and also determine if this will cause a change in the outlet flow rate of the A/C unit and the required static pressure of the A/C fan.

#2.  Without changing the size of your duct system design, provide internal parts/baffles to modify the flow rates so that for Outlet #1 be 1500 cfm, Outlet #2 provide 500 cfm and outlet #3 provide 2500 cfm. From the CFD results determine the A/C fan static pressure that is required for this application.



Both Undergraduates and Graduate Students:  Provide a short report summarizing your design, findings and the required information.  Discuss shortcomings of your design if any.

Figure 1.  Top View of A/C and Outlets Locations.

(Dimensions in ft)


Figure 2.  Elevation View of A/C Unit and Suspended Ceiling


HVAC DUCT Design Project Grading


  1. Geometry creation 15 pts.
  2. Grid generation 5 pts.
  3. CFD results and post processing 15 pts.
  4. Design changes if needed for providing required flow
  5. Presentation of results 15 pts.


  1. Presentation of HW Results:
  2. Problem description,
  3. Preliminary Analysis, your design philosophy
  4. Duct design geometry presentation (make sure reader can understand the duct design geometry). All Figures in HW must have a title and you must refer to them in your discussions.
  5. Presentation of Mesh
  6. Presentation of Sample CFD results
  7. Report mass flux output from each outlet in tabulated form (and from CFD code in the appendix. Output numbers directly from CFD code in the Appendix).  Also report static pressure loss (needed to select a fan for this HVAC duct.)
  8. Design changes if needed to provide required flow rate
  9. Appendix: CFD input/output



Additional Work for Graduate Students (20 points):

Report proposed modification to the ducting systems to obtain the required flow rates.

Clearly identify modifications and see number 6 above


heat exchanger design to accommodate temperature output required.

Report proposed heat exchanger design to accommodate temperature output required.

Location of heat exchangers, How they affect required flow rate and static pressure?

How you incorporate heat exchanger into CFD results

Assessment 2: Mandatory Critical Review (60%)

Assessment 2: Mandatory Critical Review (60%)

Assignment Two is a mandatory submitted discursive assessment which requires students to demonstrate that they are able to apply the processes of risk management and safety management to an organisational context

Due Date:

Submission Details: Submitted on Turn tin. Please note that you can submit the assignment on Turn tin as many times as you like providing that the file name is the same for every submission. However, please note that on the submission date you may only submit your assignment once as it will be regarded as your final submission.

Feedback Details: Feedback will be provided on Turn tin. The intention of the feedback is to apply it to the subsequent assignments to enhance these by learning from negative items of feedback as well as from positive feedback.


This assessment is intended to expose students to the knowledge and skills to undertake WH&S research, in particular how to manage risk according to the requirements of safety management principles: Owing to legislative requirements to manage risk, this knowledge generates particularly relevant workplace skills.


Based on an evidentiary base from the study package material and other sources including the literature, the Internet and, if applicable, your workplace experience:

  • Provide an introduction which provides an overview of the content of the assignment (what you intend to argue).
  • If you were called on to implement a risk management approach to managing risks and to control hazards efficiently would you use a generic model like AS/NZS ISO 31000?
  • Alternatively would you use a more focused WH&S specific method such as those discussed in Module 7?
  • You may also choose a WH&S model not included in Module 7, but talk about your choice with Don Dingsdag before you commence the assignment.
  • Demonstrate why you have chosen the approach you have selected based on what you consider its positive and negative elements. If you are not basing your assignment on AS/NZS ISO 31000 you should discuss why you have not chosen it.



You will be assessed according to the marking rubric below.


Very useful WH&S websites are: http://www.austlii.edu.au



as well as, the UWS library website e-sources for:

Google Scholar

Science Direct (in particular the journal Safety Science)


European Agency for Safety and Health at Work at https://osha.europa.eu/en

United States Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) at


Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCWH&S) at http://www.ccWH&S.ca UK Health and Safety Executive at http://www.hse.gov.ukWestern


Module 7 Hazard identification models


Learning  Objectives


At the end of this module, you should be able to:

  • detail the process of risk identification of selected models,
  • identify some common sources of risk,
  • apply commonly used tools to assist in hazard identification,
  • discuss how these tools are used to identify and control


Identifying hazards


Hazard identification is the step in the risk management process that aims to identify hazards so that the associated risks can be controlled. Remember that for OHS purposes a hazard is a source of potential personal harm, or for other generic purposes a situation with the potential to cause loss. Since only those hazards that are identified can be assessed for the associated risks which should be managed or controlled, it is a critical component of the overall risk management process and needs to be both a comprehensive and a systematic process. Sources of risk from hazards can be very extensive.


The hazard identification process essentially asks the following questions:

  • What can happen?
  • How can it happen?
  • What is the cause or causes?

Of course, if harm has already occurred, these questions become:

  • What has happened?
  • How did it happen?
  • What was the cause or causes?


The first set of questions is a proactive approach, which identifies hazards before any harm occurs and is mandatory for OHS purposes.  The latter set of questions is reactive, since harm has already occurred. To answer these two sets of questions various tools and techniques can be employed. The particular approach depends on the nature of the activities under investigation.


Below the module outlines a number of the more commonly employed tools and techniques. These overviews of Root Cause Analysis, Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPS), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA), Event Tree Analyis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) are adapted from various sources.


Root cause analysis


Root cause analysis (RCA) is a structured and process-focused framework whose aim is to identify the most basic, or root cause of a problem or variation in performance. RCA is useful in determining the cause(s) of variation so that appropriate improvement action can be implemented, and improvement can be sustained over time.


Improvement action that is not focused on the root cause will not be effective. Correcting superficial causes is like treating only the ‘symptoms’. To make performance measurably better and sustain the improvement over time, the in-depth causes must be found and fixed.


Getting down to the root causes of a problem or variation in performance is difficult, and sometimes even uncomfortable for the people engaging in the exercise. Too often the analysis stops prematurely and action is taken on a superficial factor identified early on. The question ‘why’ should be asked repeatedly until a further rational answer can no longer be found: That is, the process of why questions have been exhausted.


The focus of root cause analysis is changing the system or process to prevent a reoccurrence of the problem.


A Root Cause Analysis is characterized by the following:

  • A focus on the performance of a process and/or system, not individuals
  • Advancing from identification of direct or proximate causes in a process to the root causes in an organizational process or related
  • Continues to dig deeper (asking ‘why?’ repeatedly)
  • Identifies change that could be made to a system or process that would improve performance or solve the problem


Definition: Proximate Causes

Proximate causes are events that occurred, or conditions that existed, immediately before the undesired outcome and which directly resulted in its occurrence and, if eliminated or modified, would have prevented the undesired outcome. Proximate causes are  also known as direct causes.


The principal steps in conducting a Root Cause Analysis are:

  1. Assign a Include staff from all levels—those who ‘do’ the work and those with decision-making authority.
  2. Establish a method to report the progress and findings to the organisation’s senior
  3. Develop a work plan with objectives and target
  4. Clearly define the problem and the team’s task and make sure all team members have a clear understanding of the problem and what needs to be
  5. Identify all possible contributing Focus on processes, not people. Continue to ask ‘why’ at each conjuncture.
  6. Sort and analyse possible contributing
  7. Determine which process or system each possible cause is a part
  8. Plan actions focused on the most basic causes-the answers to the ‘why’
  9. Design and implement c Don’t wait until the evaluation is complete to take action if the problem is a sentinel event and/or has serious consequences.
  10. Periodically assess progress after action is Decide what should be measured, by whom and how often.
  11. Repeat the previous steps as Although it may take intermediate action along the way, don’t stop analysis until the true root cause is identified and improvement action is taken. Redesign systems and processes to eliminate the root cause!
  12. Make sure improvement is Continue to track and report progress!




From the Book of Readings read: Reading 15: Appendix IV: How to Conduct a Root Cause Analysis, General Project Specification For Project Safety Requirements GPS- 008, Esso Exploration & Production Chad Inc., Chad Development Project.






The Root Cause Analysis process has a heavy emphasis on teamwork and focuses on process or the system rather than on individuals when investigating an incident. In your view is it always the system which is at fault or in your opinion can humans interacting with the workplace environment also have contributory role when an incident occurs.


How useful is asking why repeatedly until the ‘root cause has been discovered. Will the question ultimately provide the required answer?



Hazard and operability studies (HAZOPS)


[Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines.

Source: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/08/v3-08- cont.htm ]


Summary of Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Analysis


The HAZOP analysis technique uses a systematic process to (1) identify possible deviations from normal operations and (2) ensures that appropriate safeguards are in place to help prevent accidents. The HAZOP technique uses special adjectives (such as ‘more,’ ‘less,’ ‘no,’ etc.) combined with process conditions (such as speed, flow, pressure, etc.) to systematically consider all credible deviations from normal conditions. The adjectives, called guidewords, are a unique feature of HAZOP analysis.


Some of you may have heard of HAZID which undertakes a similar process. The commercially available HaziD pack;


presents an ordered sequence of Primary and Secondary Hazard questions, the purpose of which is to enable the proper identification of hazard conditions on the job.

The program first asks the user to enter the site details and then provides a structured sequence of questions that will assist the user to correctly identify workplace hazards. In every case, the program will pass through a list of Primary Hazard headings, where, for every “YES” response that is made, the program will provide a detailed list of Secondary Hazard questions.


This process enables the user to focus attention to the broadest possible cross section of hazard conditions. A simple yes or no response to the Secondary Hazard prompts is all that is required from the user. For every Secondary Hazard question that is confirmed with a “Yes” response the computer will generate a list of pre-set (linked) safe working and exposure avoidance controls. The control lists are further enhanced by prompts for permitting requirements and equipment /machinery pre- start procedures for the work to be undertaken and are included on the printed report (Source: www.hazidpack.com/content_files/concept_summary.pdf)





Figure 7.1: HAZOP analysis process

(Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines:




Brief summary of HAZOP Analysis characteristics


  • HAZOP analysis is a systematic, highly structured assessment relying on HAZOP guide words and team brainstorming to generate a comprehensive review and ensure that appropriate safeguards against accidents are in place
  • It is typically performed by a multidisciplinary
  • It is applicable to any system or procedure.
  • It is used most as a system-level risk assessment
  • It generates primarily qualitative results, although some basic quantification is possible.



Most common uses


Used primarily for identifying safety hazards and operability problems of continuous process systems, especially fluid and thermal systems. It is also used to review procedures and sequential operations



Figure 7.2: Example HAZOP documentation

(Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines.

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/08/v3-08-cont.htm )







In your view beyond continuous process systems, how practical is the HAZOP approach as an application to identify potential ‘deviations.’ Is the reliance on ‘qualitative’ descriptors a barrier to its application. Do quantitative descriptors always produce more accurate potential risk exposures?




Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)


HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards. Some definitions directly reference food safety, reflecting the predominant use to date of the HACCP approach in the food sector. Other definitions are more generic: A step-by-step approach to the identification and assessment of hazards and risks associated with the manufacture, distribution and use of products. Hazard refers to any part of a production chain or a product that has the potential to cause a safety problem (including OHS). Analysis is the identification and assessment of the seriousness and likelihood of occurrence of a hazard. A Critical Control Point is a point, step, or procedure at which control can be exercised to prevent, eliminate, or minimize a hazard. In other words, HACCP uses the same proactive hazard identification processes as those used for OHS purposes. HACCP is a proprietary system which has ‘plug in’ OHS modules. HACCP has been increasingly applied to industries other than food, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals for example. HACCP, which in effect seeks to proactively eliminate unsafe practices based on science, differs from traditional quality control methods that are not designed to prevent hazards from occurring and identifies them at the end of the production process.


HACCP has its roots in the U.S. aerospace industry and was developed by the Pillsbury Company in 1959 to ensure the safety of food in the new U.S. space program in collaboration with NASA to enable to get astronauts on the moon. Because the lives of astronauts, who, if they developed food poisoning in space, would be in serious danger, NASA requested the creation of a preventive process to guarantee the quality and purity of food.


There are seven principal steps in the HACCP approach:

  1. Conduct a hazard analysis, preparing a list of steps in a process where significant hazards occur and identifying preventive
  2. Identify critical control points – steps at which controls can be applied to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels a safety
  3. Establish critical limits for preventive measures associated with each identified critical control
  4. Establish monitoring requirements for each critical control point, and procedures to monitor results to adjust the process and maintain
  5. Establish corrective actions to be taken when a critical limit deviation
  6. Establish procedures to verify on an ongoing basis that the HACCP system is working
  7. Establish record-keeping procedures to document the HACCP

Figure 2.3 shows a simple illustration of the HACCP method applied to preparation of an infant formula for feeding.




Figure 7.3: Simple HACCP illustration. A food flow diagram for preparation of infant formula from milk, water, and sugar

(Source: Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, figure 1. p. 8; Available online from: http://www.milbank.org/reports/Proactive/020925Proactive.html)




Title: Three pillars of ISO 31000 and HACCP for OHS



From the book of Readings read: Reading 16 International Life Sciences Institute, 1997, A Simple guide to understanding and applying the hazard analysis critical control point concept, ILSI, Belgium.







From Reading 16 and this module do you think that HACCP is a good fit with OHS procedures in controlling hazards?



Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)


FMEA is a tool used to identify and evaluate potential failures and their causes. The tool is then used to prioritize potential failures according to their risk, pointing to actions to eliminate or reduce the likelihood of occurrence. FMEA provides a methodology to document the analysis for future use and for continuous process improvement. It is used in combination with other problem-solving tools to eliminate or reduce risk.


The FMEA process was developed by the U.S. military in 1949 as a reliability evaluation technique to determine the effect of system and equipment failures. Failures were classified according to their impact on mission success and personnel/equipment safety. FMEA was adapted for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1960s for the Apollo space program to facilitate the process of predicting failures, planning preventive measure, estimating the cost of failures, and planning redundant systems or system responses to failures.


The principal steps in the FMEA process are to:

  • identify potential failures in processes (failure mode);
  • identify the possible effects of those failure modes;
  • identify the criticality of each failure mode (a combination of the probability of the failure mode occurring, the effect resulting when the failure mode occurs, and the severity of the effect);
  • prioritize the failure modes based on their criticality;
  • identify possible causes of the priority failure modes;
  • redesign the process to prevent the failure mode and/or put in place process controls to detect the failure mode before the effect occurs;
  • implement and test the new design or control process;


FMEA is a tool widely used in industries such as aviation, chemicals, nuclear power and aerospace. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) pioneered the adaptation of FMEA to patient safety in health care systems producing the Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (HFMEA). In 1998, the VHA established the National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS). The NCPS in collaboration with quality and risk managers, as well as others, developed a patient safety handbook to provide direct problem-based learning to front-line personnel of all VHA facilities.


The five key steps involved in conducting an HFMEA analysis are:

•        Define the HFMEA topic.

This should include a clear definition of the process to be studied.

•        Assemble the HFMEA team.

The personnel should be multidisciplinary and include subject matter experts and an adviser.

Graphically describe the process.

Develop a flow diagram; number each process step; identify the area of the process to focus on; identify all sub-processes; create a flow diagram of the sub-process.

•        Conduct a failure analysis.

List all possible failure modes under the key sub-process; determine the severity and probability of each potential failure mode; use a Decision Tree to determine if the failure mode warrants further action; list all failure mode causes where the decision has been made to proceed;

•        Evaluate actions and outcome measures.

Determine whether to;

  • eliminate, control, or accept each failure mode cause;
  • identify a description of action for each failure mode to be controlled or eliminated;
  • identify outcome measures to test the redesigned process;
  • identify an individual responsible for completing the action;
  • indicate whether senior management concurs with the recommended action;


From the Book of Readings read: Reading 17 Kusler-Jensen, J. & Weinfurter, A. 2003, FMEA—An idea whose time has come’, Surgical Services Management, vol. 9, no. 3, June, pp. 30–37.


Reading 18 Common Errors in Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA®)


Reading 19 McDonough, J.E. 2002, Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, Milbank Memorial Fund.






Whereas FMEA is a tool widely used in high risk industries such as aviation, chemicals, nuclear power and aerospace, in your view is it too complex and time consuming to provide efficient and timely advice on the control of hazards?


Comparison between HFMEA and HACCP


HFMEA and HACCP differ in significant ways in operation, but the similarities are significant.


Table 7.1 shows the basic steps in performing an HFMEA analysis and in undertaking a HACCP process. The five HFMEA steps are the core elements described in materials


produced by the VHA National Center for Patient Safety. The HACCP procedure is slightly modified from a full 14 step process to enableeasy comparison


Table 7.1: HFMEA and HACCP steps

(Source: Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, Table 1, p. 11;

http://www.Milbank.org/reports/Proactive/020925Proactive.html )


Event Tree Analysis (ETA)


Summary of Event Tree Analysis


Event tree analysis (ETA) is a technique that logically develops visual models of the possible outcomes of an initiating event. Event tree analysis uses decision trees to create the models. The models explore how safeguards and external influences, called lines of assurance, affect the path of accident chains.




Figure 2.4: Chart of Event Tree Analysis process[Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines. Source:

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/00/v3-00.htm ]


Event tree terminology


The following terms are commonly used in an event tree analysis:


Initiating event.


The occurrence of some failure with the potential to produce an undesired consequence. An initiating event is sometimes called an incident.


Line of assurance (LOA)


A protective system or human action that may respond to the initiating event.

Branch point


Graphical illustration of (usually) two potential outcomes when a line of assurance is challenged; physical phenomena, such as ignition, may also be represented as branch points.


Accident sequence or scenario


One specific pathway through the event tree from the initiating event to an undesired consequence.


Brief summary of Event Tree Analysis characteristics


  • Models the range of possible accidents resulting from an initiating event or category of initiating
  • A risk identification technique that effectively accounts for timing, dependence, and domino effects among various accident contributors that are cumbersome to model in fault
  • Performed primarily by an individual working with subject matter experts through interviews and field
  • An analysis technique that generates the following:
  • qualitative descriptions of potential problems as combinations of events producing various types of problems (range of outcomes) from initiating
  • quantitative estimates of event frequencies or likelihoods and relative importance of various failure sequences and contributing
  • lists of recommendations for reducing
  • quantitative evaluations of recommendation


Most common uses


Generally applicable for almost any type of risk assessment application, but used most effectively to model accidents where multiple safeguards are in place as protective features.

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)


Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an analysis technique that visually models how logical relationships between equipment failures, human errors, and external events can combine to cause specific accidents.


Figure 2.5 Example of a Fault Tree Analysis


The fault tree presented in the figure above illustrates how combinations of equipment failures and human errors can lead to a specific type of accident. The procedure for performing a Fault Tree Analysis is outlined in the US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines, and consists of the following eight steps:


Procedure for Fault Tree Analysis


  • Define the system of Specify and clearly define the boundaries and initial conditions of the system for which failure information is needed.
  • Define the TOP event for the Specify the problem of interest that the analysis will address. This may be a specific quality problem, shutdown, safety issue, etc.
  • Define the treetop Determine the events and conditions (i.e., intermediate events) that most directly lead to the TOP event.
  • Explore each branch in successive levels of Determine the events and conditions that most directly lead to each intermediate event. Repeat the process at each successive level of the tree until the fault tree model is complete


  • Solve the fault tree for the combinations of events contributing to the TOP Examine the fault tree model to identify all the possible combinations of events and conditions that can cause the TOP event of interest. A combination of events and conditions sufficient and necessary to cause the TOP event is called a minimal cut set. For example, a minimal cut set for over pressurizing a tank might have two events:

(1) pressure controller fails and (2) relief valve fails.

  • Identify important dependent failure potentials and adjust the model Study the fault tree model and the list of minimal cut sets to identify potentially important dependencies among events. Dependencies are single occurrences that may cause multiple events or conditions to occur at the same time. This step is a qualitative common cause failure analysis.
  • Perform quantitative analysis (if necessary). Use statistical characterizations regarding the failure and repair of specific events and conditions in the fault tree model to predict future performance for the
  • Use the results in decision Use results of the analysis to identify the most significant vulnerabilities in the system and to make effective recommendations for reducing the risks associated with those vulnerabilities.

Source ‘Fault Tree Analysis’ in Chapter 9, vol. 3 of the US Coast Guard’s Risk-based Decision-making Guidelines :



Environmental hazard identification


The Australian/New Zealand guide: HB 203:2000, Environmental risk management – Principles and process, provides an excellent overview of the entire risk management process as it relates to the environment.


Environmental risk may arise from the relationship between humans and human activity and the environment. Ecological risk management, a subset of environmental risk management, deals with risks associated with past, present and future human activities on flora, fauna, and ecosystem.


Environmental risk may be divided into two categories:

  • Risks to the environment
  • Risks to an organization from environment-related


Risks to the environment are those activities of an organization that can cause some form of environmental change and can relate to flora and fauna; human health and wellbeing; human social and cultural welfare; earth, air and water resources; energy and climate.


Risks to an organization from environmental-related issues include the risk of not complying with existing (or future) legislation and criteria. Other risks of this type include business losses an organization may suffer resulting from poor management such


as loss of reputation, fines, cost of litigation, and from failure to secure and maintain permission for development and operational activities.




HB 436:2004, Risk Management Guidelines – Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.


HB 203:2000, Environmental risk management –Principles and process, Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.







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