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BSc Environmental Economics

Minor assessment Academic Year 2016/2017, term 2

Percentage of Module Grade: 40%

Course: UG6013 Environmental Economics

Paper due: March 5th

Word count: 2.500 words +/- 10%

Assessment type: Individual Project Percentage of final grade given: 40% of final grade

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this project is to assess the student’s critical thinking, diagnostic capabilities, and decision‐making attitudes through a deeper analysis of some concepts from environmental economi cs supported by good practices. In particular, the project aims to evaluate student’s capacity to analyse the possible use of environm ental economics theory and tools in business and other organizations’ practices and decision making processes. Furthermore, it aims to measure their ability to recognize and analyse links between con crete experiences and strategies and the general principles of environmental economics and sustaina ble development covered in the course. PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Many of the concepts, mechanisms and techniques developed by environmental economics are used in real policies and measures to make public choices. Choose one of the assignments reported below, and write an essay in which the candidates have to make sure they: 1. clarify the economic rationale for the instruments that either are, or need to be, adopted (e.g. taxes, charges, fees, thresholds, etc.); 2. provide real figures from case studies available in the international literature from countries, regions or cities wherein economic instruments have been adopted; 3. draw some conclusions on the efficiency and/or effectiveness of the instruments discussed in the essay, and draw some recommendations (based on fact checking) for improving the quality of the results achieved so far. Assignments: 1. Pollution control is still a central aspect in most of the world countries and especially in the developing and transition ones. Significant issues persist concerning the availability of a comprehensive legislation on emissions’ control in different sectors (e.g. wastewater, air pollution, CO2 emissions, etc.). Discuss how the problem has been addressed in at least two different countries highlighting the difference between the theory of the determination of the tax rate and the practice adopted. If figures are available analyse the trend of tax revenues over at least a 5-years period. (Possible sources of data and case studies: OECD Environmental Country Review (ECR) Programme http://www.oecd.org/environment/country-reviews/ , UNECE EPR Programme https://www.unece.org/env/epr.html , UNEP: http://web.unep.org/greeneconomy/sites/unep.org.greeneconomy/files/1_ian_parry_environmental_t axes.pdf , IMF: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2012/wp12180.pdf, national governmental and EU reports, e.g. https://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/sites/taxation/files/resources/documents/taxation/gen_info/ec onomic_analysis/tax_papers/taxation_paper_19.pdf ) 2. Public goods are notoriously undersupplied in our societies which often means that too few financial resources are allocated to them. Natural Parks and Protected Areas are telling examples of environmental public goods presenting significant problems in their financing and management. Starting from the theory of public environmental goods, define the exact type of good a protected area or park represents, explain on the basis of economic theory why a problem of undersupply persists on the supply of nature protection and – also on the basis of your knowledge of economic instruments – provide some suggestions on how a protected area could be funded. You are encouraged to use examples and figures from literature and case-studies. (Some possible sources of data and case studies are reported below, that candidates are encouraged to widen: https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/2f7eca80498391708494d6336b93d75f/VP_National%2BPar ks.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=2f7eca80498391708494d6336b93d75f , http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00HV6Z.pdf , https://www.iucn.org/content/sustainable-financingprotected-areas , https://www.cbd.int/financial/finplanning/p-planfinancing-iucn.pdf, https://www.cbd.int/financial/privatesector/g-privatthird.pdf ) STRUCTURE AND FORMAT OF THE PROJECT: FORMAT OF THE PROJECT: This is a written individual project. The written project should be presented as a neatly typed Word document, according to following criteria: o Length: 2.500 words +/-10% o Font: Times New Roman or Arial o Spacing: 1.5 o Referencing and bibliography should follow the Harvard Style Structure of the Project: The written work should be framed as follows (different titles can be used for the project sections): 1) Introduction 2) Presentation of the theory used for the performed analysis and of the chosen issue (e.g. emissions control, provision of public goods, etc.) 3) Description of the instruments analysed (in light of theory) to address the chosen assignment 4) List of policies and/or instruments used to address the issue at stake (meaning, expectations, targets, results) 5) Case-study/ies and figures (e.g. tables, graphs, charts, etc.) 6) Conclusions and Recommendations 7) References Make sure the writing is precise and to the point. The paper should not exceed 2000 words per student, excluding appendices and references. Format of the Project: This is a written individual project. 1. The report should display a coherent structure: title page should include student name, module name, lecturer name, date and school name followed by contents page, introduction, executive summary, methodology, findings, analysis, conclusions, recommendations, referencing and appendices. 2. The project should be prepared as a neatly typed Word document (Times New Roman 12 points), with double spacing and page numbering. 3. Tables or work/data taken from other sources may be included in an appendix. 4. All sources must be referenced in the text and a full bibliography must be provided (including visited websites) in the Harvard style referencing system. Paraphrasing or direct quotes taken from other sources must be clearly indicated with citations. No footnoting! 5. Students are reminded that depth, relevance and variety are the crucial elements of quality research. (Wikipedia is not considered to be a relevant source of information; any students referencing Wikipedia will be deducted marks! Alternatively if you find information on Wikipedia use the original sources listed at the bottom of the article) 6. Students are reminded to use valid and peer-reviewed references to support their work. Websites should only be used if they represent an established source and only for facts and figures. Students should make the most of academic and practitioner books and articles. Submission deadline: March 5th 2017 (by midnight) Submission should be completed on Turnitin.com by the deadline, March 5th 2017 and should include a hard copy to the lecturer and an electronic copy to your academic coordinator. Late submissions will incur a 5% per day reduction to be calculated on the assignment grade. After 5 days, the student will receive a 0 grade and will have to re-sit the project. All work must conform to University regulations on Cheating, Collusion and Plagiarism’ as described in your program handbook. You are advised to use the Harvard referencing style and avoid plagiarism. Please see ESE Student Portal for submission details and Turnitin codes GENERAL MARKING CRITERIA (UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES) Excellent work: 70% Above satisfactory work: 60% – 69% Satisfactory: 50 – 59% Below satisfactory work: 40% – 49% Failure: Below 40% Relevance Excellent knowledge Very good use of Competent use of Some use of Little or no sign and understanding of course material and course materials appropriate course of relevance material and an other information; and other materials and imaginative sense of well-chosen to information to experience to support its relevance across a support arguments support most arguments; capacity to range of issues, and relevant to question arguments identify relevance, but context or policy may be rather situation; excellent narrowly use of course material focused and miss out and other relevant important areas information to support argument Content Independent and Good knowledge Reasonable Adequate Very limited creative, and and understanding knowledge of the understanding and knowledge and demonstrates clear of the material, material and ability use of course and understanding thinking; ability to across a broad to draw upon more other relevant and the issues analyse and critically spectrum, combined than one source material; mostly involved evaluate material with an ability to for ideas; uses key descriptive, but with evaluate, analyse themes well. some grasp of key and reflect on key course themes and issues issues and a capacity to discuss these in context Depth A sensitive Well organised use Capacity to Some attempt to Lack of awareness of of most of the major grapple with address the conflicting awareness of conflicting arguments and ideas and of their provenance. Clear grasp ofimplications. points with an ability to draw upon them creatively and critically; awareness of conflicting conflicting arguments and ideas; beginning to draw together and synthesise ideas arguments and ideas from the course, some signs of an attempt to take an evaluative, conflicting arguments and ides arguments and and perspectives analytical and critical ideas and attempt to from a range of stance; some address them in theory appropriate use of context concepts, but with only limited evidence of independent thinking Structure Excellent Good, clear Sensible use of Framework is Little or no organisation of framework and major points apparent with an evidence of material; clear, logical reasoned argument integrated into the introduction, argument planned flow of argument; with evidence of answer; logical and conclusion, but structure and good sign-posting careful thought flow of ideas is the logical flow and organisation throughout apparent coherence is not always consistent and may be difficult to follow

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Module 2 Homework Assignment

  • 459 randomly selected light bulbs were tested in a laboratory, 291 lasted more than 500 hours.  Find a point estimate of the true proportion of all light bulbs that last more than 500 hours.




Instructor Comments:


  • Find the critical value for zα/2 that corresponds to a degree of confidence of 98%.




Instructor Comments:


  • Find the critical value for tα/2 corresponding to n = 12 and 95% confidence level.




Instructor Comments:


  • Use the confidence level and sample data to find the margin of error E.

College students’ annual earnings:

99% confidence, n = 74,  = $3967, s = $874





Instructor Comments:


  • Construct the confidence interval for question 4 above.




Instructor Comments:


  • Write a statement that correctly interprets the confidence interval found in question 5.




Instructor Comments:


  • Find the critical value corresponding to a sample size of 19 and a confidence level of 99% if the test is two-tailed.




Instructor Comments:


  • Find the critical value corresponding to a sample size of 19 and a confidence level of 99% if the test is two-tailed.




Instructor Comments:


  • The values listed below are the waiting times (in minutes) of customers at the Bank of Providence, where customers enter any one of three different lines that have formed at three teller windows. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the population standard deviation  and write a statement that correctly interprets the results.


4.2          5.4          5.8          6.2          6.7          7.7          8.5          9.3          10.0





Instructor Comments:


  • You want to estimate s for the population of waiting times at a fast-food restaurant’s drive-up windows, and you want to be 95% confident that the sample standard deviation is within 20% of s. Find the minimum sample size needed. Is this sample size practical?




Instructor Comments:

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Buy Assessment 2_MBA-FP6008

Buy Assessment 2 – MBA-FP6008 – W
inter 2017 – Section 02

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Growth: Economic Analysis 2
In 3–4 pages, analyze economic growth and its impact on a nation, the concepts of gross investment and
net investment, economic discrepancies between countries, and the factors that can result in recession and
economic expansion.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course
competencies and assessment criteria:
Competency 1: Analyze the economic environment and the role of the federal government in establishing
fiscal and monetary policies.
Analyze the economic discrepancies between countries.
Explain how a financial crisis can lead to a recession.
Explain how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion.
Competency 2: Analyze the impact of macroeconomic principles, theories, policies, and tools in real world
business situations.
Analyze the impact of a high rate of growth on a nation.
Use the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences in specific economies.
Explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero.
Competency Map
Check Your Progress
Use this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is one measurement of the well­being of a nation, but it is not the only one.
GDP consists of what consumers buy, what businesses buy, what the government buys, and what is either
imported or exported. On the other side, everything a nation produces must be paid for, which represents
the national income—wages for labor, rents for land owners, and interest or return for capital owners.
Business cycles are the ups and downs of an economy, both nationally and globally. For example, we
recently experienced something called the Great Recession. Many jobs were lost. This followed a period of
economic growth. Global business leaders need to understand the factors that contribute to business
cycles, along with how the federal government manages business cycles through the use of taxes, debt,
and spending.
Questions to Consider
As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen
your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and
discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional
community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to
be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.
Attempt 1
Assessment 2 – MBA-FP6008 – W
inter 2017 – Section 02
Why do you think macroeconomics focus on just a few key statistics when trying to understand the health and
trajectory of an economy? Would it be better to try and examine all possible data?
Suggested Resources
The resources provided here are optional. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this
assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The
FP6008 – Global Economic Environment
can help direct your research, and the Supplemental Resources
and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional
resources to help support you.
Internet Resources
Explainity. (2014).
Economic growth easily explained
[Video] |
. Retrieved from
Romer, P. M. (2008).
Economic growth
Library of Economics and Liberty: The Concise Encyclopedia of
Global Finance School. (n.d.).
Gross investment and net investment
. Retrieved from
Bookstore Resources
These resources are available from the
Capella University Bookstore
. When searching the bookstore, select
“FlexPath” in the School category, and then select this course from the list.
McConnell, C., Flynn, S., & Brue, S. (2015).
(20th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw­Hill
Chapter 6, “An Introduction to Macroeconomics,” pages 135–147.
Chapter 7, “Measuring Domestic Output and National Income,” pages 150–168.
Chapter 8, “Economic Growth,” pages 172–192.
Chapter 9, “Business Cycles, Unemployment, and Inflation,” pages 195–214.
Assessment Instructions
This assessment examines national economics, economic growth, and financial crisis. The ability to analyze
these topics allows global business leaders to make sound economic decisions.
There are four parts to this assessment. Be sure you have completed all four parts before submitting.
Part 1
Consider a nation in which the volume of goods and services is growing by 5% per year:
Analyze the impact of the high rate of growth on the nation.
Explain how the high rate of growth is likely to affect the power and influence of the nation’s government
relative to other nations experiencing slower rates of growth.
Explain how the 5% growth is likely to affect the nation’s living standards.
How does economic growth affect population growth?
Will living standards necessarily grow by 5%, given population growth?
Part 2
Use the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain the differences between an economy that has a
rising stock of capital and one that has a falling stock of capital.
Assessment 2 – MBA-FP6008 – W
inter 2017 – Section 02
Explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero, even though net investment can be positive,
negative, or zero. What real world examples can you provide?
Part 3
Analyze the economic discrepancies between countries.
Explain why some countries today are much poorer than other countries.
Based on what you know and have learned about macroeconomic principles, are today’s poorer countries
destined to always be poorer than today’s wealthy countries?
If so, explain why.
If not, explain how today’s poorer countries can catch up to or even surpass today’s wealthy countries.
Part 4
Explain how, in general, a financial crisis can lead to a recession.
Explain how, in general, a major new invention can lead to an economic expansion.
Organize your assessment logically with appropriate headings and subheadings. Support your work with at least
3 scholarly or professional resources and follow APA guidelines for your citations and references. Be sure you
include a title page and reference page.
Additional Requirements
Include a title page and reference page.
Number of pages:
3–4, not including title page and reference page.
Number of resources:
At least 3 scholarly or professional resources.
APA format for citations and references.
Font and spacing:
Times New Roman, 12 point; double­spaced.
Assessment 2 Example
See a successful example of this assessment.
How to use example assessments
Growth: Economic Analysis 2 Scoring Guide
View Scoring Guide
Use the scoring guide to enhance your learning.
How to use the scoring guide
[U02a1] Growth: Economic Analysis 2
In 3–4 pages, analyze economic growth and its impact on a nation, the concepts of gross investment and net
investment, economic discrepancies between countries, and the factors that can result in recession and
economic expansion.
Submit Assessment
This button will take you to the next available assessment attempt tab, where you will be able to submit your
U02a1:Growth: Economic Analysis 2
U02a1:Growth: Economic Analysis 2: Revision 1
U02a1:Growth: Economic Analysis 2: Revision 2

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In week 3, the assignment is to compare and contrast two articles in Unit Three of Business Ethics. Since the authors deal with different topics, focus on their approaches, attitudes, or values. There is no expectation for you to do any research outside of the articles. Length should be approximately 3 pages.


Organizational Expectations

The paper requires the following elements:

-Title page

-2-3 page essay, including introduction and conclusion paragraphs

-Reference page if you reference any outside sources, including our Teoro text.


Technical Expectations*

-Use a 12 point Times New Roman Font, double space, and 1 inch margins.

-Include APA formatted Title and Reference pages.

-Include APA formatted page headers and page numbers.

-Write with complete sentences, paragraph structure, and formal grammar, spelling, and punctuation.


* APA formatting guidelines can be found in the APA Style Manual (6th edition), either hard copy or online.


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Unit VII Case Study

Video Case: Union-Management Relations (UPS)

Instructions: Read the video case in your textbook, titled “Union-Management Relations (UPS),” then watch the corresponding video in the Unit Study Guide. Answer Discussion Questions 15-13 and 15-16 on page 483. Be sure to restate each question in your own words before answering in essay format. Your total assignment response must be at least 400 words in length. You must use at least your textbook to complete this assignment.

All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. All references and citations used must be in APA style.

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Assignment nglish 125

Assignment English 125

Ashford 3: – Week 2 – Instructor Guidance

English 125 Week 2 Guidance

Literary elements and the short story


“No amount of reading or understanding will make you successful in life. It is the application of wise thought that counts.”

Bob Proctor

This week’s overview

Welcome to Week 2 of Introduction to Literature. As is typical in a literature class, you have a lot of reading this week. What is noteworthy about this week’s reading is that it includes many terms that will be important for you to know moving forward.

As is detailed in the information under the “Week 2” tab to the left, you are to read Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 of Journey Into Literature. When you read, I encourage you to take notes as you are presented a lot of information that you will want to reference throughout this class.

Strategies for this week’s assignments

You have two Discussion forums this week that require your participation:

  • Discussion 1: Literary techniques and their connection to conflict in literature. Be as specific as you can in this discussion prompt. Be sure to use textual evidence to support your answers to the questions in the prompt.
  • Discussion 2: Character analysis and setting. As with Discussion 1 of this week, find textual evidence to illustrate the ideas you present in your response. For those of you writing on setting for your literary analysis paper, you are encouraged to include any ideas you are already working on if they are relevant to the prompt.


Your written assignment this week is an annotated bibliography. This assignment involves you finding material to supplement your research for your literary analysis and completing a writing assignment in which you offer specific annotations on each text involved. To help you succeed in this assignment, a template AND a sample assignment are located in the instructions for the assignment. Be sure to look at them carefully. You can also visit this page from the Ashford Writing Center to learn more about an annotated bibliography.

Intellectual elaboration

You’re likely reading many new terms in your textbook reading this week. In a college course, you are expected to demonstrate your knowledge of terms by applying that knowledge to a situation or problem. In grade school or high school, you might be asked to simply repeat definitions. However, applying the knowledge shows true understanding of the concepts and requires higher levels of thinking. Your knowledge of the terms and your ability to apply that knowledge will be used throughout the remainder of this course. You will want to consider HOW a term affects the work as a whole.

Some of you might be wondering what I mean. Let’s take an example by looking at the following couple of paragraphs from the beginning of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee:

Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the court-house sagged in the square. Somehow, it was hotter then: a black dog suffered on a summer’s day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men’s stiff collars wilted by nine in the morning. Ladies bathed before noon, after their three o’clock naps, and by nightfall were like soft tea-cakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum. People moved slowly then. They ambled across the square, shuffled in and out of the stores around it, took their time about everything. A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County.

If I were simply asking you to show me that you understood a literary term, you might say that the above excerpt illustrates the setting for the novel. It describes the place of the story in detail, and we understand that this is likely a small, poor, rural town. The story also likely takes place in summer, as the excerpt makes references to heat.

This would be a fine demonstration of an understanding of the term setting, but in this class we are also asking you to apply that knowledge. What’s so significant about some of the words that the narrator uses? For example, when the courthouse “sagged in the square,” we get the feeling that even the buildings of this town are tired. The latter description of the people makes us feel that they move in slow motion with absolutely no purpose. A sense of stagnation pervades this opening; we have a town and its inhabitants stricken by near catatonia. When we know of the plot and the historical context of the story, we can then make correlations to how this opening truly ‘sets the stage’ for later action (or in this case, inaction) AND how the setting connects to the later conflict. The following video offers some information on the historical context of the novel:


Though our focus this week is on the short story genre rather than the novel, the definitions of the terms and your application of them remain the same. I hope this specific example helps you understand the difference between defining a term and applying your understanding of it. When you learn about the terms in this week’s reading, try to apply what you learn when you read the literary works included in your textbook.

Helpful links for this week’s assignments

From the Ashford Writing Center:


Bob Proctor Quotes. (2014, December 24). Retrieved August 10, 2015.

Lee, H. (1960). To Kill a Mockingbird. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

“Types of Characters” (2015, November 2). Google Images. https://www.google.com/search?q=types+of+chracters&biw. Retrieved November 2, 2015.


“Types of Conflict.” (2015, November 2). Google Images. https://www.google.com/search?q=types+of+conflict&biw. Retrieved November 2, 2015.



Need help-Project 3: Single-Transistor Amplifier

EENG 3510, Fall 2016

Need help-Project 3: Single-Transistor Amplifier

Design a single-transistor amplifier that delivers at least ten times as much power to the load as it draws from the source. In other words, the power gain must be at least 10 (10dB). The signal source has a resistance of 10kΩ and the load has a resistance of 1kΩ. Your power supply is 5V. You are allowed to use a BJT or a MOSFET, as well as any amplifier configuration of your choosing.

A SPICE template file has already been created for you and is available for download from Blackboard. It contains all the information you need besides the actual circuit. Follow the instructions given and add the rest of your circuit to make it complete. Use the instructions and analysis commands given to evaluate your amplifier.

In order to do a hand analysis with the MOSFET, you need to know the transistor parameters. The MOSFET given in the template has Vt = 1V and kn = 35.9μA/V2. I have fixed the W/L ratio at 500, giving kn = 17.9mA/V2. Do not change W or L.

If you use the BJT, assume β = 70.

In addition to the basic performance requirement above, a pool of bonus points will be awarded to the top performing designs. These bonus points will apply to your final grade in the course. The pool is for the entire class and will be divided up amongst the best performers. You can receive points from more than one category. The pool total is as follows:

  • Overall voltage gain (40 points)
  • Highest input resistance (40 points)
  • Lowest output resistance (40 points)
  • Lowest DC power consumption (40 points)

Any submission will be disqualified that changes the source resistance, load resistance, supply voltage, transistor model statements, or uses more than one transistor.



On December 6, you must turn in a printout of the 5 design parameter results, a picture or hand drawing of your circuit design and a printout of your netlist. Please include a coversheet. You will be graded solely on your circuit functioning properly. Note: If you do not turn in a printout, or you copy someone else’s design, you will get a zero for the project.

Need help-Project 3: Single-Transistor Amplifier

Help me-Final Project Walkthrough

Help me-Final Project Walkthrough

Final Project Walkthrough

  • Select a language spoken by an Immigrant Community in Southern California.
  • Do not work on your native language(Chinese), unless you are a 3rd generation immigrant and have completely lost the heritage language.
  • You can not work on English and Chinese! — Your project won’t be graded if you work on English.
  • Conducting interviews with two native speakers of the target language is MANDATORY! – Younger native speaker (2nd or 3rd Generation) – Older native speaker (1st or 2nd Generation)
  • You will ask the same set of questions to both speakers and compare their responses.
  • What questions to ask? – See section 4.
  • If you find other valuable information from the speakers, feel free to include that…


Your research (apart from the interviews):

  • If you can find studies that have been conducted on the use of the target language, then include them. • Try to find pictures and/or documents that may indicate the language use in the community. – For example, billboards, restaurant menus, DMV documents, etc.
  • Sections I, II, III will require you to find the needed information through your own research.


Useful Class Units:

  • For section IV refer to the Unit on Language Shift & Loss.
  • Refer to the unit on ‘Languages in the US’ for sections I and II.
  • Refer to unit on ‘Building Block of Language’ and ‘Languages in the World’ for section III


  • Group work is limited to conducting interviews and collecting information.
  • You will write the project report independently and each group member will submit their own project report. • At the top of your report you will include the names of all your group members.
  • Do not work in groups of more than 5 people.
  • You will include proper references for the source of your information, including webpages.
  • You can use either APA or MLA reference styles, as long as you are consistent.
  • Do NOT reveal the names of your speakers. Refer to your speakers as, e.g. Speaker # or Younger speaker/ Older speaker.
  • Use of Wikipedia should be very limited!

Help me-Final Project Walkthrough

Need Help-CYS 404 Information System Audit Project Description

Need Help-CYS 404 Information System Audit Project Description

Report Submission Deadline: 18th December 2016

Write a comprehensive report about ISSAI 100

Topic description:

ISSAI 100 – Fundamental Principles of Public-Sector Auditing (Basic Principles)


Guidelines for Report:

  1. report should contain at least 5000 words.
  2. report must have these sections:
  • abstract
  • table of contents
  • list of figures
  • introduction
  • (research material)
  • conclusion
  • bibliography
  1. report must follow IEEE template for computer society journals available at https://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/author_templates.html
  2. report must follow principles of scientific repot writing e.g. paraphrasing, in text citation, references etc.
  3. The structure, formatting, mechanics, documentation and references, reliable data from credible sources, technical content and theoretical explanation will be considered while evaluating the report.
  4. All the submissions will be checked at Turnitin plagiarism software and a maximum of 20% similarity is allowed.
  5. Add related figures and at least one table. write about them within the research to make it easy to read the research for “visual readers”.
  6. Font size = 12, font style = Times New Roman.
  7. Line spacing 1.5
  8. Please use the article attached and this website is helpful too: issai.org
  9. Please use only references that could be found online and try ro use new/up-to-date references.
  10. Feel free to use any number of resouces!

Need Help-CYS 404 Information System Audit Project Description

Need help-Accounting Theory Questions

Need help-Accounting Theory Questions

Positive accounting theory and agency theory make certain central assumptions about what influences people’s decisions.


What are these assumptions?  (3) Discuss whether you believe these are realistic of stakeholder behaviour?  (5) How does this differ from the perspective embraced within normative research? (5) Does the current conceptual framework embrace a wide group of stakeholders? (2) Do you think that this framework is more aligned to the assumptions underlying a positive view by virtue of the stakeholders identified to be relevant?  Discuss. (5)


Some information of how the question should be handled?


PAT (reference to self-interest, opportunistic behaviour, focus on wealth), Normative (reference to Legitimacy Theory – acceptability of actions to a community) (reference to ‘ethical’ dimension of stakeholder theory – addressing stakeholder ‘needs’)


Difference(s) – PAT descriptive and prescriptive – looks at what is, and therefore what is expected; Normative – looks at what should be – should be in terms of societal expectation, or the intrinsic needs of stakeholders.


Discussions of assumptions


Explain to a positive theorist – discuss in the context of an appeal to the assumptions underlying PAT – that is, when CSR reporting can be demonstrated to be important to generating wealth.


Note:  use of examples to exemplify discussion is important.


Economics-based theories such as Positive Accounting Theory and Agency Theory make assumptions about what motivates human actions (for example, a quest to maximise personal wealth), and such motivations are attributed to all individuals.


By contrast, normative research studies consider what ‘should be’ and this may be explored empirically (legitimacy and stakeholder studies for example).  These studies may explore individuals as groups or/and individuals’ actions and choices such as motivations to report information.  They typically do not make broad-based assumptions about how all individuals behave, or about what motivates them to behave in a particular way (although there could be an acceptance that many individuals will tend to adopt specific strategies or biases when making decisions).

Stakeholder Engagement

There has been an increasing trend since the 1990’s to broaden the concept of reporting to stakeholders.  Prior to this time, the focus was on financial reporting of monetary amounts, and a strong focus on meeting compliance requirements.  Since that time, financial and compliance requirements have increased significantly, but so has a trend to report on environmental and social activities, and more recently corporate governance matters.  This has been an interesting change in terms of the expectations of what is required to report to stakeholders.  Arguments have also moved to discussion that perhaps there are alternative reporting methods to monetary amounts, that in some cases monetary amounts may not be the most appropriate approach to reporting. This has implications for accountants who have had the main responsibility for both guiding reporting and offering assurance in regard to these reports.


Discuss this change in focus, ensuring you make clear the difference between integrated, sustainability and traditional financial reports. (14) In your response, you may like to consider whether this achievable in the historical cost framework?  (6)


Some Information of how the Question should be handled


  • What do you understand by traditional financial reporting (historic cost/variations on ‘true’ historic cost/reporting on past events??/basis to understand the future??). Traditional financial reporting focuses on recognising the financial effects of an entity’s transactions. It follows generally accepted accounting principles and accounting standards and is audited by an external auditor. The financial report is limited to transactions that have a financial impact.  Sustainability reporting however goes beyond this. It includes reporting on the environmental activities and of the entity as well as its social impacts. These are combined with financial information.


  • The following benefits can be gained from preparing sustainability reports:
  • Embedding sound corporate governance and ethics systems throughout the organisation
  • Improved management of risk through enhanced management systems and performance monitoring
  • Formalising and enhancing communication with key stakeholders
  • Attracting and retaining competent staff
  • Ability to benchmark performance with other entities. Explain what is meant by sustainability reporting (the 3 dimensions/forward thinking)


  • Differences between the two:
  • Economic financial compared to eco/soc and env
  • Report on past performance /future performance
  • Historic cost/intergenerational equity
  • Eco efficiency/eco-justice


  • Resolution??
  • Need to change the outlook of accounting – the underlying process is based on historic cost and the past??




  • How does the HCA model seek to achieve this? By recording actual business events/transaction in monetary form.    A contract where a good/service is exchanged for $.


  • However, this is a fiction:


  • The HCA model operates as a mixed method model. There are judgements made relating to what is included making the model to a greater or lesser degree subjective, not totally reliable nor necessarily faithfully representative of events without bias. [1]
  • Choice within accounting standards (Depreciation method, stock valuation, independent revaluations, impairment, fair value)
  • Professional judgement in choices made
  • Value systems of the accountant
  • Approach where there not an accounting standard/regulation
  • Implications of the additivity problem/changing prices


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