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Need Help-MGT 497

Schroeder Family School of Business Administration

Need Help-MGT 497

Report Overview:

Over the course of the semester, you will do research (i.e. collect data) on a firm of your choice.  You will analyze the internal, external, and strategic factors of your chosen firm and write a 15 – 20 page paper discussing your findings. Format and content requirements are below.


A Note on Firm Selection: Many students do not take firm selection seriously and then struggle throughout the semester because their firm is too big, too small, data is not available, etc. In the past, most individuals that ended up with a low project grade attributed it to poor firm selection. Take firm selection seriously. Some tips on firm selection include:

  • Make sure the firm is publicly traded.
  • Make sure the firm is a member of a well-defined industry
    • g. General Electric is difficult to categorize into a single industry, so it would be challenging to identify GE’s competitors.
  • New firms and non-diversified firms are poor choices
  • Make sure that you understand the products of the firm.


I suggest that you skim chapters 8 – 11 of your textbook to get a sense of the strategic issues that are relevant for selecting an appropriate firm for this project. The issues boil down to: vertical and horizontal integration, outsourcing, diversification, mergers and acquisitions, corporate venturing, international expansion, alliances/joint ventures and corporate governance. Before you select a firm, make sure that it has encountered at least one of these strategic issues in the past, and should grapple with at least one of them in the future. You may not choose any firm that is the subject of one of the course cases.  Also, if you have trouble choosing a company, I have a list of companies that are appropriate for this assignment.


You will need to email me a listing of your top 3 choices of firms (in order of preference) to analyze along with a short paragraph on the reasons why you want to study each of these firms by September 10th at 11:59PM.  I will then assign you a company based on your choices.  Please be advised that you may not receive your top choice, and that your reasons for choosing each company will play a role in my decision of assigning companies.


The project has 3 deliverables in addition to the firm selection sheet described above:


  1. Intro and SWOT analysis (Due on October 6th at 11:59PM– upload to BB)
  2. Presentations (Due on November 29th, December 1st, and 6th in class )
  3. Final report (Due on November 29th at 9:30 AM – Upload to BB)
Format Requirements:
  • The report MUST be typed and submitted via BlackBoard. I will not accept hand written reports.
  • Times New Roman 12 pt. font with 2.0 line spacing
  • Use subheadings (sections) to enhance clarity and readability
  • Ensure that the use of concepts from the course is explicit and appropriate
  • Use only one term per concept or issue (e.g. if you use the word “company” do not interchange it throughout the paper with “firm” or “organization”)
  • Be concise – avoid passive voice and long sentences
  • Emphasize the evidence and build on it – eliminate unfounded speculation and opinion
  • Narrative form should be used. Tables can be utilized in an Appendix for necessary facts.
  • APA style should be used.
  • Remember if you paraphrase information – source it. If you are copying word for word from your source – put quotes around the section then source it.
  • PROOFREAD, PROOFREAD, PROOFREAD!!! Excessive grammatical errors will hurt your grade!


Content Requirements:

Introduction to your firm:

  • Should describe the firm size (in sales, assets, or employees), age, market share in US, and CEO. These statistics should be from 2015 or 2016.
  • Briefly discuss and summarize financials. Compare 5 year stock chart to S&P 500
  • Briefly touch on history of firm
  • Describe the mission and vision statements (use quotes and cite appropriately if quoting these statements. Also, a description should follow if quoting)
  • Describe the firm’s global position (how many countries does it operate in? in which country does it have a large presence? Etc…)

External Analysis:

  • Briefly identify and define the industry.
    • Which firms are in it? What do they do?  What are their market shares, profit figures, size, etc.? How have these figures been changing over the past decade? Be sure to provide demand statistics and industry structure. Provide a sense of the industrial setting.
  • Discuss at least two of Porter’s 5 forces. State whether the force is weak or strong, and how it is influencing industry profitability. Provide support for your arguments.
  • Discuss at least one macroenvironmental trend that is effecting industry profitability.
  • Describe your company’s opportunities and threats. USE SEPARATE SECTIONS (one for opportunities, and one for threats).
    • Remember, this is the industry analysis. I should be able to read this section without knowing which firm you are covering.


Internal Analysis:

  • Identify your firm’s resources, capabilities, and distinctive competencies.
  • Discuss one of the competitive advantage building blocks that your firm concentrates on, and how that fits into the firm’s value chain.
  • Describe your company’s strengths and weaknesses. USE SEPARATE SECTIONS (one for strengths, and one for weaknesses). Do not be one sided in your report! Weaknesses may not be obvious, so do some serious research.


Strategic Action and Corporate Level Strategy:

  • Discuss the firm’s portfolio of businesses and illustrate how the firm creates (or attempts to create) value with its corporate-level strategy.
  • Then, provide an in-depth discussion of one or two recent corporate-level strategic actions. Peruse Chapters 9-10 and focus on one or two of the strategies covered therein. Do NOT attempt to address all the topics covered in the course or all the strategic actions the firm has taken. What I am looking for is not breadth but rather depth. Provide a list of the things that the company has done, and then pick something that is typical of the methods this firm uses for expanding its portfolio of businesses. For example, you may discuss an acquisition, a joint venture, an international expansion, or restructuring.
    • Discuss the pros and cons of these actions – did they create value? Why or why not?  Provide suggestions on how these actions could have been better handled.  Conclude with your educated assessment of the appropriateness of the firm’s current corporate-level strategy.  Remember to use facts (i.e. data) in support of your arguments throughout.



Recommendations to the CEO:

  • Look to the future and offer your assessment of where the firm should go from here. In the first section, you identified the key success factors in this industry, and in the next two sections, you analyzed the firm’s current strategic positions – now extrapolate (based on appropriate facts & concepts) and suggest what future strategic actions the firm should take so that it is positioned to possess and maintain these key success factors.
  • Your recommendations should “follow” from the preceding analysis such that it should help the firm exploit the opportunities or eliminate the threats that you have identified. Your recommendations should also be in line with the firm’s strengths and weaknesses such that they should leverage the firm’s strengths or compensate for the weaknesses that you have identified previously.
    • Stay away from basic marketing suggestions, such as “Improve your reputation” or “Advertise more” or “Offer better customer service”, etc. Also, avoid discussions of minor tactical moves.  Instead, suggest strategic actions such as specific countries to expand into, specific firms to acquire, etc.  For example, if a firm repackages a product, changes prices, adds a new feature, etc., these are generally not major strategic actions.  Instead, these are considered tactical actions – smaller actions that adjust a current strategy.  While these types of adjustments are important, they’re simply not what we’re focusing on in this class.  We’re focusing on strategic moves – moves that are much larger and significant in scope.  For example, if a fast food company like Burger King sees a trend toward low-carb eating, that company may add a new item to its menu.  That’s a tactical move. What you want to focus on in your report is something more along the lines of Burger King buying the Atkins company, or forming an alliance with Atkins, or expanding into other countries without a low-carb trend.  You do NOT want to simply recommend that Burger King increase its advertising or start a new campaign to emphasize its low-carb options; sure, that’s part of it, but not our focus here.
  • Whatever your recommendations, summarize the reasoning behind each recommendation, and then explain what the effects of implementing this recommendation are likely to be. What are the risks involved with implementing your recommendations? What are some issues that may make it difficult to implement? Bolster your arguments with strategy concepts and empirical facts—this is where most students struggle.


Need Help-MGT 497


Need Help-Reading Journal for Early American History

Need Help-Reading Journal for Early American History 

Reading Journal for Early American History


In the journal you will write observations and reflections on your reading in Connecting California.  Please focus on a few documents.  When you mention a document you read, please put the title of the document in bold (or a few words from the title).  You may also comment on parts of our main textbook that you see as related.


Examine each document critically, and consider how it adds to our understanding of the history.  You may also write your own reflections on what you are learning.





Suggested Journal Prompts (these are just suggestions):


  1. What did you learn from the documents in this section? What did you find surprising?  How does the material in this chapter relate to what you learned earlier, perhaps in other classes?


  1. What events do you see here that have shaped the world we live in today?


  1. If you did a movie set in the time period of this section, what would be the key elements in your movie? Tell how you imagine the characters, and what challenges they would deal with.


  1. How might we understand the history differently from someone living in the time period?


  1. How do the documents help you understand the era? What are some important factors to consider when looking at these documents?

Need Help-Reading Journal for Early American History

HVAC DUCT Design Project Grading

HVAC DUCT Design Project Grading


  1. Geometry creation 15 pts.
  2. Grid generation 5 pts.
  3. CFD results and post processing 15 pts.
  4. Design changes if needed for providing required flow
  5. Presentation of results 15 pts.


  1. Presentation of HW Results:
  2. Problem description,
  3. Preliminary Analysis, your design philosophy
  4. Duct design geometry presentation (make sure reader can understand the duct design geometry). All Figures in HW must have a title and you must refer to them in your discussions.
  5. Presentation of Mesh
  6. Presentation of Sample CFD results
  7. Report mass flux output from each outlet in tabulated form (and from CFD code in the appendix. Output numbers directly from CFD code in the Appendix).  Also report static pressure loss (needed to select a fan for this HVAC duct.)
  8. Design changes if needed to provide required flow rate
  9. Appendix: CFD input/output



Additional Work for Graduate Students (20 points):

Report proposed modification to the ducting systems to obtain the required flow rates.

Clearly identify modifications and see number 6 above


heat exchanger design to accommodate temperature output required.

Report proposed heat exchanger design to accommodate temperature output required.

Location of heat exchangers, How they affect required flow rate and static pressure?

How you incorporate heat exchanger into CFD results

Assessment 2: Mandatory Critical Review (60%)

Assessment 2: Mandatory Critical Review (60%)

Assignment Two is a mandatory submitted discursive assessment which requires students to demonstrate that they are able to apply the processes of risk management and safety management to an organisational context

Due Date:

Submission Details: Submitted on Turn tin. Please note that you can submit the assignment on Turn tin as many times as you like providing that the file name is the same for every submission. However, please note that on the submission date you may only submit your assignment once as it will be regarded as your final submission.

Feedback Details: Feedback will be provided on Turn tin. The intention of the feedback is to apply it to the subsequent assignments to enhance these by learning from negative items of feedback as well as from positive feedback.


This assessment is intended to expose students to the knowledge and skills to undertake WH&S research, in particular how to manage risk according to the requirements of safety management principles: Owing to legislative requirements to manage risk, this knowledge generates particularly relevant workplace skills.


Based on an evidentiary base from the study package material and other sources including the literature, the Internet and, if applicable, your workplace experience:

  • Provide an introduction which provides an overview of the content of the assignment (what you intend to argue).
  • If you were called on to implement a risk management approach to managing risks and to control hazards efficiently would you use a generic model like AS/NZS ISO 31000?
  • Alternatively would you use a more focused WH&S specific method such as those discussed in Module 7?
  • You may also choose a WH&S model not included in Module 7, but talk about your choice with Don Dingsdag before you commence the assignment.
  • Demonstrate why you have chosen the approach you have selected based on what you consider its positive and negative elements. If you are not basing your assignment on AS/NZS ISO 31000 you should discuss why you have not chosen it.



You will be assessed according to the marking rubric below.


Very useful WH&S websites are: http://www.austlii.edu.au



as well as, the UWS library website e-sources for:

Google Scholar

Science Direct (in particular the journal Safety Science)


European Agency for Safety and Health at Work at https://osha.europa.eu/en

United States Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) at


Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCWH&S) at http://www.ccWH&S.ca UK Health and Safety Executive at http://www.hse.gov.ukWestern


Module 7 Hazard identification models


Learning  Objectives


At the end of this module, you should be able to:

  • detail the process of risk identification of selected models,
  • identify some common sources of risk,
  • apply commonly used tools to assist in hazard identification,
  • discuss how these tools are used to identify and control


Identifying hazards


Hazard identification is the step in the risk management process that aims to identify hazards so that the associated risks can be controlled. Remember that for OHS purposes a hazard is a source of potential personal harm, or for other generic purposes a situation with the potential to cause loss. Since only those hazards that are identified can be assessed for the associated risks which should be managed or controlled, it is a critical component of the overall risk management process and needs to be both a comprehensive and a systematic process. Sources of risk from hazards can be very extensive.


The hazard identification process essentially asks the following questions:

  • What can happen?
  • How can it happen?
  • What is the cause or causes?

Of course, if harm has already occurred, these questions become:

  • What has happened?
  • How did it happen?
  • What was the cause or causes?


The first set of questions is a proactive approach, which identifies hazards before any harm occurs and is mandatory for OHS purposes.  The latter set of questions is reactive, since harm has already occurred. To answer these two sets of questions various tools and techniques can be employed. The particular approach depends on the nature of the activities under investigation.


Below the module outlines a number of the more commonly employed tools and techniques. These overviews of Root Cause Analysis, Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPS), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA), Event Tree Analyis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) are adapted from various sources.


Root cause analysis


Root cause analysis (RCA) is a structured and process-focused framework whose aim is to identify the most basic, or root cause of a problem or variation in performance. RCA is useful in determining the cause(s) of variation so that appropriate improvement action can be implemented, and improvement can be sustained over time.


Improvement action that is not focused on the root cause will not be effective. Correcting superficial causes is like treating only the ‘symptoms’. To make performance measurably better and sustain the improvement over time, the in-depth causes must be found and fixed.


Getting down to the root causes of a problem or variation in performance is difficult, and sometimes even uncomfortable for the people engaging in the exercise. Too often the analysis stops prematurely and action is taken on a superficial factor identified early on. The question ‘why’ should be asked repeatedly until a further rational answer can no longer be found: That is, the process of why questions have been exhausted.


The focus of root cause analysis is changing the system or process to prevent a reoccurrence of the problem.


A Root Cause Analysis is characterized by the following:

  • A focus on the performance of a process and/or system, not individuals
  • Advancing from identification of direct or proximate causes in a process to the root causes in an organizational process or related
  • Continues to dig deeper (asking ‘why?’ repeatedly)
  • Identifies change that could be made to a system or process that would improve performance or solve the problem


Definition: Proximate Causes

Proximate causes are events that occurred, or conditions that existed, immediately before the undesired outcome and which directly resulted in its occurrence and, if eliminated or modified, would have prevented the undesired outcome. Proximate causes are  also known as direct causes.


The principal steps in conducting a Root Cause Analysis are:

  1. Assign a Include staff from all levels—those who ‘do’ the work and those with decision-making authority.
  2. Establish a method to report the progress and findings to the organisation’s senior
  3. Develop a work plan with objectives and target
  4. Clearly define the problem and the team’s task and make sure all team members have a clear understanding of the problem and what needs to be
  5. Identify all possible contributing Focus on processes, not people. Continue to ask ‘why’ at each conjuncture.
  6. Sort and analyse possible contributing
  7. Determine which process or system each possible cause is a part
  8. Plan actions focused on the most basic causes-the answers to the ‘why’
  9. Design and implement c Don’t wait until the evaluation is complete to take action if the problem is a sentinel event and/or has serious consequences.
  10. Periodically assess progress after action is Decide what should be measured, by whom and how often.
  11. Repeat the previous steps as Although it may take intermediate action along the way, don’t stop analysis until the true root cause is identified and improvement action is taken. Redesign systems and processes to eliminate the root cause!
  12. Make sure improvement is Continue to track and report progress!




From the Book of Readings read: Reading 15: Appendix IV: How to Conduct a Root Cause Analysis, General Project Specification For Project Safety Requirements GPS- 008, Esso Exploration & Production Chad Inc., Chad Development Project.






The Root Cause Analysis process has a heavy emphasis on teamwork and focuses on process or the system rather than on individuals when investigating an incident. In your view is it always the system which is at fault or in your opinion can humans interacting with the workplace environment also have contributory role when an incident occurs.


How useful is asking why repeatedly until the ‘root cause has been discovered. Will the question ultimately provide the required answer?



Hazard and operability studies (HAZOPS)


[Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines.

Source: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/08/v3-08- cont.htm ]


Summary of Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Analysis


The HAZOP analysis technique uses a systematic process to (1) identify possible deviations from normal operations and (2) ensures that appropriate safeguards are in place to help prevent accidents. The HAZOP technique uses special adjectives (such as ‘more,’ ‘less,’ ‘no,’ etc.) combined with process conditions (such as speed, flow, pressure, etc.) to systematically consider all credible deviations from normal conditions. The adjectives, called guidewords, are a unique feature of HAZOP analysis.


Some of you may have heard of HAZID which undertakes a similar process. The commercially available HaziD pack;


presents an ordered sequence of Primary and Secondary Hazard questions, the purpose of which is to enable the proper identification of hazard conditions on the job.

The program first asks the user to enter the site details and then provides a structured sequence of questions that will assist the user to correctly identify workplace hazards. In every case, the program will pass through a list of Primary Hazard headings, where, for every “YES” response that is made, the program will provide a detailed list of Secondary Hazard questions.


This process enables the user to focus attention to the broadest possible cross section of hazard conditions. A simple yes or no response to the Secondary Hazard prompts is all that is required from the user. For every Secondary Hazard question that is confirmed with a “Yes” response the computer will generate a list of pre-set (linked) safe working and exposure avoidance controls. The control lists are further enhanced by prompts for permitting requirements and equipment /machinery pre- start procedures for the work to be undertaken and are included on the printed report (Source: www.hazidpack.com/content_files/concept_summary.pdf)





Figure 7.1: HAZOP analysis process

(Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines:




Brief summary of HAZOP Analysis characteristics


  • HAZOP analysis is a systematic, highly structured assessment relying on HAZOP guide words and team brainstorming to generate a comprehensive review and ensure that appropriate safeguards against accidents are in place
  • It is typically performed by a multidisciplinary
  • It is applicable to any system or procedure.
  • It is used most as a system-level risk assessment
  • It generates primarily qualitative results, although some basic quantification is possible.



Most common uses


Used primarily for identifying safety hazards and operability problems of continuous process systems, especially fluid and thermal systems. It is also used to review procedures and sequential operations



Figure 7.2: Example HAZOP documentation

(Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines.

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/08/v3-08-cont.htm )







In your view beyond continuous process systems, how practical is the HAZOP approach as an application to identify potential ‘deviations.’ Is the reliance on ‘qualitative’ descriptors a barrier to its application. Do quantitative descriptors always produce more accurate potential risk exposures?




Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)


HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards. Some definitions directly reference food safety, reflecting the predominant use to date of the HACCP approach in the food sector. Other definitions are more generic: A step-by-step approach to the identification and assessment of hazards and risks associated with the manufacture, distribution and use of products. Hazard refers to any part of a production chain or a product that has the potential to cause a safety problem (including OHS). Analysis is the identification and assessment of the seriousness and likelihood of occurrence of a hazard. A Critical Control Point is a point, step, or procedure at which control can be exercised to prevent, eliminate, or minimize a hazard. In other words, HACCP uses the same proactive hazard identification processes as those used for OHS purposes. HACCP is a proprietary system which has ‘plug in’ OHS modules. HACCP has been increasingly applied to industries other than food, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals for example. HACCP, which in effect seeks to proactively eliminate unsafe practices based on science, differs from traditional quality control methods that are not designed to prevent hazards from occurring and identifies them at the end of the production process.


HACCP has its roots in the U.S. aerospace industry and was developed by the Pillsbury Company in 1959 to ensure the safety of food in the new U.S. space program in collaboration with NASA to enable to get astronauts on the moon. Because the lives of astronauts, who, if they developed food poisoning in space, would be in serious danger, NASA requested the creation of a preventive process to guarantee the quality and purity of food.


There are seven principal steps in the HACCP approach:

  1. Conduct a hazard analysis, preparing a list of steps in a process where significant hazards occur and identifying preventive
  2. Identify critical control points – steps at which controls can be applied to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels a safety
  3. Establish critical limits for preventive measures associated with each identified critical control
  4. Establish monitoring requirements for each critical control point, and procedures to monitor results to adjust the process and maintain
  5. Establish corrective actions to be taken when a critical limit deviation
  6. Establish procedures to verify on an ongoing basis that the HACCP system is working
  7. Establish record-keeping procedures to document the HACCP

Figure 2.3 shows a simple illustration of the HACCP method applied to preparation of an infant formula for feeding.




Figure 7.3: Simple HACCP illustration. A food flow diagram for preparation of infant formula from milk, water, and sugar

(Source: Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, figure 1. p. 8; Available online from: http://www.milbank.org/reports/Proactive/020925Proactive.html)




Title: Three pillars of ISO 31000 and HACCP for OHS



From the book of Readings read: Reading 16 International Life Sciences Institute, 1997, A Simple guide to understanding and applying the hazard analysis critical control point concept, ILSI, Belgium.







From Reading 16 and this module do you think that HACCP is a good fit with OHS procedures in controlling hazards?



Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)


FMEA is a tool used to identify and evaluate potential failures and their causes. The tool is then used to prioritize potential failures according to their risk, pointing to actions to eliminate or reduce the likelihood of occurrence. FMEA provides a methodology to document the analysis for future use and for continuous process improvement. It is used in combination with other problem-solving tools to eliminate or reduce risk.


The FMEA process was developed by the U.S. military in 1949 as a reliability evaluation technique to determine the effect of system and equipment failures. Failures were classified according to their impact on mission success and personnel/equipment safety. FMEA was adapted for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1960s for the Apollo space program to facilitate the process of predicting failures, planning preventive measure, estimating the cost of failures, and planning redundant systems or system responses to failures.


The principal steps in the FMEA process are to:

  • identify potential failures in processes (failure mode);
  • identify the possible effects of those failure modes;
  • identify the criticality of each failure mode (a combination of the probability of the failure mode occurring, the effect resulting when the failure mode occurs, and the severity of the effect);
  • prioritize the failure modes based on their criticality;
  • identify possible causes of the priority failure modes;
  • redesign the process to prevent the failure mode and/or put in place process controls to detect the failure mode before the effect occurs;
  • implement and test the new design or control process;


FMEA is a tool widely used in industries such as aviation, chemicals, nuclear power and aerospace. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) pioneered the adaptation of FMEA to patient safety in health care systems producing the Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (HFMEA). In 1998, the VHA established the National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS). The NCPS in collaboration with quality and risk managers, as well as others, developed a patient safety handbook to provide direct problem-based learning to front-line personnel of all VHA facilities.


The five key steps involved in conducting an HFMEA analysis are:

•        Define the HFMEA topic.

This should include a clear definition of the process to be studied.

•        Assemble the HFMEA team.

The personnel should be multidisciplinary and include subject matter experts and an adviser.

Graphically describe the process.

Develop a flow diagram; number each process step; identify the area of the process to focus on; identify all sub-processes; create a flow diagram of the sub-process.

•        Conduct a failure analysis.

List all possible failure modes under the key sub-process; determine the severity and probability of each potential failure mode; use a Decision Tree to determine if the failure mode warrants further action; list all failure mode causes where the decision has been made to proceed;

•        Evaluate actions and outcome measures.

Determine whether to;

  • eliminate, control, or accept each failure mode cause;
  • identify a description of action for each failure mode to be controlled or eliminated;
  • identify outcome measures to test the redesigned process;
  • identify an individual responsible for completing the action;
  • indicate whether senior management concurs with the recommended action;


From the Book of Readings read: Reading 17 Kusler-Jensen, J. & Weinfurter, A. 2003, FMEA—An idea whose time has come’, Surgical Services Management, vol. 9, no. 3, June, pp. 30–37.


Reading 18 Common Errors in Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA®)


Reading 19 McDonough, J.E. 2002, Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, Milbank Memorial Fund.






Whereas FMEA is a tool widely used in high risk industries such as aviation, chemicals, nuclear power and aerospace, in your view is it too complex and time consuming to provide efficient and timely advice on the control of hazards?


Comparison between HFMEA and HACCP


HFMEA and HACCP differ in significant ways in operation, but the similarities are significant.


Table 7.1 shows the basic steps in performing an HFMEA analysis and in undertaking a HACCP process. The five HFMEA steps are the core elements described in materials


produced by the VHA National Center for Patient Safety. The HACCP procedure is slightly modified from a full 14 step process to enableeasy comparison


Table 7.1: HFMEA and HACCP steps

(Source: Proactive Hazard Analysis and Health Care Policy, Table 1, p. 11;

http://www.Milbank.org/reports/Proactive/020925Proactive.html )


Event Tree Analysis (ETA)


Summary of Event Tree Analysis


Event tree analysis (ETA) is a technique that logically develops visual models of the possible outcomes of an initiating event. Event tree analysis uses decision trees to create the models. The models explore how safeguards and external influences, called lines of assurance, affect the path of accident chains.




Figure 2.4: Chart of Event Tree Analysis process[Source: US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines. Source:

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/risk/e-guidelines/RBDM/html/vol3/00/v3-00.htm ]


Event tree terminology


The following terms are commonly used in an event tree analysis:


Initiating event.


The occurrence of some failure with the potential to produce an undesired consequence. An initiating event is sometimes called an incident.


Line of assurance (LOA)


A protective system or human action that may respond to the initiating event.

Branch point


Graphical illustration of (usually) two potential outcomes when a line of assurance is challenged; physical phenomena, such as ignition, may also be represented as branch points.


Accident sequence or scenario


One specific pathway through the event tree from the initiating event to an undesired consequence.


Brief summary of Event Tree Analysis characteristics


  • Models the range of possible accidents resulting from an initiating event or category of initiating
  • A risk identification technique that effectively accounts for timing, dependence, and domino effects among various accident contributors that are cumbersome to model in fault
  • Performed primarily by an individual working with subject matter experts through interviews and field
  • An analysis technique that generates the following:
  • qualitative descriptions of potential problems as combinations of events producing various types of problems (range of outcomes) from initiating
  • quantitative estimates of event frequencies or likelihoods and relative importance of various failure sequences and contributing
  • lists of recommendations for reducing
  • quantitative evaluations of recommendation


Most common uses


Generally applicable for almost any type of risk assessment application, but used most effectively to model accidents where multiple safeguards are in place as protective features.

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)


Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an analysis technique that visually models how logical relationships between equipment failures, human errors, and external events can combine to cause specific accidents.


Figure 2.5 Example of a Fault Tree Analysis


The fault tree presented in the figure above illustrates how combinations of equipment failures and human errors can lead to a specific type of accident. The procedure for performing a Fault Tree Analysis is outlined in the US Coast Guard’s Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines, and consists of the following eight steps:


Procedure for Fault Tree Analysis


  • Define the system of Specify and clearly define the boundaries and initial conditions of the system for which failure information is needed.
  • Define the TOP event for the Specify the problem of interest that the analysis will address. This may be a specific quality problem, shutdown, safety issue, etc.
  • Define the treetop Determine the events and conditions (i.e., intermediate events) that most directly lead to the TOP event.
  • Explore each branch in successive levels of Determine the events and conditions that most directly lead to each intermediate event. Repeat the process at each successive level of the tree until the fault tree model is complete


  • Solve the fault tree for the combinations of events contributing to the TOP Examine the fault tree model to identify all the possible combinations of events and conditions that can cause the TOP event of interest. A combination of events and conditions sufficient and necessary to cause the TOP event is called a minimal cut set. For example, a minimal cut set for over pressurizing a tank might have two events:

(1) pressure controller fails and (2) relief valve fails.

  • Identify important dependent failure potentials and adjust the model Study the fault tree model and the list of minimal cut sets to identify potentially important dependencies among events. Dependencies are single occurrences that may cause multiple events or conditions to occur at the same time. This step is a qualitative common cause failure analysis.
  • Perform quantitative analysis (if necessary). Use statistical characterizations regarding the failure and repair of specific events and conditions in the fault tree model to predict future performance for the
  • Use the results in decision Use results of the analysis to identify the most significant vulnerabilities in the system and to make effective recommendations for reducing the risks associated with those vulnerabilities.

Source ‘Fault Tree Analysis’ in Chapter 9, vol. 3 of the US Coast Guard’s Risk-based Decision-making Guidelines :



Environmental hazard identification


The Australian/New Zealand guide: HB 203:2000, Environmental risk management – Principles and process, provides an excellent overview of the entire risk management process as it relates to the environment.


Environmental risk may arise from the relationship between humans and human activity and the environment. Ecological risk management, a subset of environmental risk management, deals with risks associated with past, present and future human activities on flora, fauna, and ecosystem.


Environmental risk may be divided into two categories:

  • Risks to the environment
  • Risks to an organization from environment-related


Risks to the environment are those activities of an organization that can cause some form of environmental change and can relate to flora and fauna; human health and wellbeing; human social and cultural welfare; earth, air and water resources; energy and climate.


Risks to an organization from environmental-related issues include the risk of not complying with existing (or future) legislation and criteria. Other risks of this type include business losses an organization may suffer resulting from poor management such


as loss of reputation, fines, cost of litigation, and from failure to secure and maintain permission for development and operational activities.




HB 436:2004, Risk Management Guidelines – Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.


HB 203:2000, Environmental risk management –Principles and process, Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.







Need Help-Statistics

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W4 Quiz

Question 1


Parameters are

numerical characteristics of a sample
numerical characteristics of a population
the averages taken from a sample
numerical characteristics of either a sample or a population

Question 2


Stratified random sampling is a method of selecting a sample in which

the sample is first divided into strata, and then random samples are taken from each stratum
various strata are selected from the sample
the population is first divided into strata, and then random samples are drawn from each stratum
None of these alternatives is correct.

Question 3


A theorem that allows us to use the normal probability distribution to approximate the sampling distribution of sample means and sample proportions whenever the sample size is large is known as the

approximation theorem
normal probability theorem
central limit theorem
central normality theorem

Question 4


In point estimation

data from the population is used to estimate the population parameter
data from the sample is used to estimate the population parameter
data from the sample is used to estimate the sample statistic
the mean of the population equals the mean of the sample

Question 5


The sample statistic s is the point estimator of

x ̅

Question 6


The sample mean is the point estimator of

x ̅

Question 7


The standard deviation of all possible x ̅ values is called the

standard error of proportion
standard error of the mean
mean deviation
central variation

Question 8


A sample statistic, such as a sample mean, is known as

a statistic
a parameter
the mean deviation
the central limit theorem

Question 9


The purpose of statistical inference is to provide information about the

sample based upon information contained in the population
population based upon information contained in the sample
population based upon information contained in the population
mean of the sample based upon the mean of the population

Question 10


Random samples of size 81 are taken from an infinite population whose mean and standard deviation are 200 and 18, respectively. The distribution of the population is unknown. The mean and the standard error of the mean are

200 and 18
81 and 18
9 and 2
200 and 2

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Financial Statement Analysis of Polo Ralph Lauren

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Subject Management
Topic Financial Statement Analysis of Polo Ralph Lauren

Paper details

Prepare an eight fundamental financial analysis (excluding appendices, title page, abstract, and references page) that will cover each of the following broad areas based on the financial statements of your chosen company: Provide a background of the firm, industry, economy, and outlook for the future. Analyze the short term liquidity of the firm. Analyze the operating efficiency of the firm. Analyze the capital structure of the firm. Analyze the profitability of the firm. Conclude with recommendations for the future analysis of the company (trend analysis). The paper Must be eight double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style Must include a separate title page with the following: Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use at least 7 scholarly sources

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Case Study-Medicine

Instructions to Writer:

  • Before approaching ANY of the following questions, familiarize and maximize your understanding to the clinical case in the below box. ALL questions are RELATED TO the clinical case.
  • With respect to EACH of the following questions, read carefully EACH word in the question, focus on and then answer EXACTLY the central core of the question by REVIEWING THE UPDATED LITERATURE EVIDENCE. It is absolutely important to provide a review summary based on updated literature evidence (preferably from publications within the recent 5 years in renowned nephrology journals (or other highly related journals in the field of renal disease management).
  • An EXTREMELY high-quality, concise, to-the-key-point summary of evidence from sound literature review is expected. Type the answer in paragraph in the space provided (named under “Literature Review Summary” below each Question.
  • Statements in literature review summary have to be well-referenced in APA 6th Style.
  • There is ABSOLUTELY NO need in the literature review summary to define medical terms. Do NOT restate well-known standard values in the field of nephrology. Every words must have value in presenting important evidence from literature.
  • All statistical numbers will NOT be counted as words.
  • The audience of this document are professional medical doctors with Doctor of Medicine Degree. So Professional writer is expected. Writing should be highly knowledgeable.
Clinical Case and Medical History:

Mr. Chan, a married 43-year-old male with a BMI of 32 kg/m2, is a known patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) since 2011. He has a long history of repeated admissions for recurrent glomerulonephritis precipitated by IgA nephropathy. Severely obese though, he has no diabetes mellitus, yet with hyperlipidemia for the recent 10 years, and resistant hypertension for the recent 5 years. Of note, there was a recent relapse of IgAN this year in January 2016. At that time, he was admitted for diffuse proliferative IgAN with osteomyelitis at the sixth cervical vertebra following laminoplasty to the cervical spine stenosis. Although treatment was effective with a pulse dose of methylprednisolone, oral prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and vancomycin, his renal function further declined, as evidenced by a decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from 19 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 16 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the time of discharge.

This time Mr. Chan was admitted for the management of acute mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis. Laboratory investigations (such as histopathology examination on renal biopsy samples) suggested that the primary cause of this insult was associated with class III IgA nephropathy. On admission, he was afebrile, complaining of dizziness, fatigue, oliguria for three days and decreased oral intake for two days. Lethargy and mild pedal edema were noted. His vital signs were as follows, blood pressure at 163/102 mmHg, respiration rate at 17 breaths/min and heart rate at 102 beats/min.

Owing to his moderate hyperkalemia, he was arranged to have temporary hemodialysis through placement of a temporary double lumen catheter at the right internal jugular vein. He was also asked to consider renal replacement therapy (namely haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) for his long-term management.

On admission, important laboratory results were listed as below.

24 urine collection: output: 302 ml; 3.8 g of proteinuria (i.e. nephrotic range of proteinuria)

Routine blood profile: Normal white cell and platelet level. Hemoglobin (Hb): 10 g/dl (Reference range: 13-17); Hematocrit (Hct): 31% (40-52); Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): 55 mg/dl (8-21); Serum Creatinine (Cr): 1485 μmol/L (80-115); K+: 6.7 mmol/L (3.5-5.1); Albumin: 34 g/L (34-54); Phosphate: 1.66 mmol/L (0.8-1.4); Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 14 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stage 5 of end-stage renal failure)

Studies of serum complements: complement 3 and 4 normal

Serum IgA: 599 units (78-391)

Serology testing (antinuclear antibody, anti-glomerular basement membrane and anti-neurophil cytoplasmic antibodies, hepatitis panel, rapid plasma reagin, protein electrophoresis) normal or negative

Lipid panel: LDL elevated 4.8 mmol/L (<2.59 mmol/L)

Urinalysis: Haematuria with dysmorphic erythrocytes and 4+ proteinuria


  1. Describe the pathophysiology behind “acute mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis that is precipitated by IgA nephropathy” to explain the related patient laboratory values and presenting signs and symptoms. Give a brief highlight on the definitive diagnostic criteria and the principle(s) of treatments/management.
Literature Review Summary: (130-150 words excluding references)



Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)


  1. Describe the relationship between IgA-mediated glomerulonephritis (IgAN) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (and how do they correlate in terms of probability). Compare and contrast the epidemiology, incidence rate, morbidity and mortality rate of IgAN who transit to ESRD in Hong Kong, China, and other parts of the world. Describe main predictors for determining the rate of progression from the initial diagnosis if IgAN to ESRD. Describe prognosis, risk factors for complications for the patient group who have been shown with recurrent IgA-mediated glomerulonephritis.
Literature Review Summary: (180-200 words excluding references)



Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)


  1. Describe the unique challenges and the corresponding managements of peritoneal dialysis on obese patients (in particular, risk of peritoneal dialysis inadequacy, etc). (Preferably supplemented with Hong Kong experience/ research support, if not in Asian or other parts of the world are acceptable)
Literature Review Summary: (220-250 words excluding references)




Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)




  1. Describe the perceived experience and the objective Quality of Life of obese patients who undergo peritoneal dialysis.
Literature Review Summary: (100-120 words excluding references)




Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)


  1. What are the existing modality(ies) of peritoneal dialysis (e.g. CCPD, NIPD) most effective or preferred for obese end-stage renal disease patients? How do the treatment outcomes differ across these modalities (provide controversial evidence if appropriate)? What are the advantages and disadvantages of these modalities in the management of these patients from the point of nephrology? (250 words)
Literature Review Summary: (150-180 words excluding references)




Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)


  1. Minimal residual kidney function contributes significantly to solute removal and dialysis adequacy. Compounded by the unique challenges of peritoneal dialysis in obese ESRD patients, describe how each of the risk factors (namely, resistant high blood pressure, diet control on salt intake and fluid balance, sedentary life-style, obesity, hyperlipidemia with increased low-density lipoprotein) that might lead to poor outcomes of peritoneal dialysis by accelerating the loss of residual renal function. Describe how beneficial outcomes on these patients are supported by literature by controlling these risk factors. (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided.)
Literature Review Summary: (280-300 words excluding references)




Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)




  1. Provide literature evidence to support the following assertion.

A number of inaccurate preconceptions to the renal replacement modality- peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been identified by joint discussion with the patient and his family. Patient misunderstood that peritoneal dialysis inadequacy can be resolved by setting higher dialysis goal such as adopting a PD regimen with frequent PD exchanges. To achieve a desirable Kt/V, patient’s desire to opt for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) might not be feasible, instead automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) might be needed, preferably in the form of continuous cycler peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). Considering the obesity of patient and the severe intra-abdominal pressure that might be uncomfortable, risk of catheter leak (despite technically pre-sternal catheter can be inserted rather than the traditional PD catheter on the abdomen), peritoneal dialysis inadequacy is likely.

Inadequate dialysis might lead to poor treatment outcomes such as increased morbidity, mortality, and the need to transfer back to HD. There has been a percentage of PD patients transferring back to haemodialysis (HD) due to PD inadequacy.

Literature Review Summary: (280-300 words excluding references)




Note: (Odd ratio, hazard ratio, or other statistical reporting data should be provided; any identified relations to the above case should be highlighted.)




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Before doing your Task, Read and follow the instructions mentioned in “project briefing”



Develop a charter for the RALS (Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show’) Rostering project including:

Include the project description and overview..

Part One:
MOV – Measurable Organisational Value
(This is the goal of the project and is utilised to define the value that your team project will bring to your client)
• Identify the desired area of impact – Rank the following areas in terms of importance: Strategy / Customer / Financial / Operational / Social
• With reference to your project, identify one or two of the following types of value:

  • Better – is improving quality important to your client?
  • Faster – does your client want to increase efficiency?
  • Cheaper – is cutting costs important?
  • Do more – does your client want to continue its growth?
  • Develop an appropriate metric – this sets the target and expectation of all the stakeholders. It is important to determine a quantitative target that needs to be expressed as a metric in terms of an increase or decrease of money.
    • Determine the timeframe for achieving the MOV – ask yourselves, when do we want to achieve this target metric?

(Note: the MOV should inform everyone what the project will achieve, not how it will be achieved. It should also focus on the organisation, not on the technology that will be used to build or support the information system).

Part Two:
Define Scope and produce a Scope Management Plan
Define the scope of the project and detail how the scope will be managed.
Provide a list of Resources
Identify and detail the resources for the project using MS Project where appropriate, including:
• People (and their roles), plus any extra personnel that is required for the project.
• Technology – any hardware, network and software needs to support the team and your client.
• Facilities – where will most of the teamwork be situated?
• Other – for example, travel, training etc.

Part Three:

Using MS Project, develop a schedule using a high level Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). It should include:
o Milestones for each phase and deliverable
o This will tell everyone associated with the project that the phase or deliverable was completed satisfactorily.
o Activities / Tasks
o Define a set of activities / tasks that must be completed to produce each deliverable.
o Resource Assignments
o Assign people and resources to each individual activities.
o Estimates for Each Activity / Task
o Develop a time estimate for each task or activity to be completed.

You will need to submit MS Project file as well

Part Four:

Project Risk Analysis and Plan
• Document any assumptions you have made about the project
• Using the Risk Identification Framework as a basis, identify five risks to the project – one for each of the five phases of the methodology.
• Analyse these risks, assign a risk to an appropriate member, and describe a strategy for the management of each specific risk.

Part Five:

Quality Management Plan. It should include:
• A short statement that reflects your team’s philosophy or objective for ensuring that you deliver a quality system to your client.
• Develop and describe the following that your project team could implement to ensure quality;
• A set of verification activities
• A set of validation activities


Project briefing

Congratulations!  You have been successful in gaining an appointment as an IT Project Manager consultant with Virtucon*.

Your assigned project

Please visit the Virtucon website (virtucon.uimagine.edu.au) to learn more about Virtucon, and our range of services (note: you will be prompted to enter your CSU username and password to access this site).

Once you have learned about Virtucon and our ranges of services, please access the Staff area by clicking on ‘Staff Login’ in the main menu and enter:

Username: staff101
Password: staff101

Once logged in to the staff only site, you will be able to access details of the current projects Virtucon is working on.  You have been assigned to the ‘Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show’ (RALS) project.

To access the project details, please click on ‘Current Projects -> Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show ‘

You also have access to a number of templates to be used throughout the project. To access these please click on ‘Templates’.

Your Client

Your client is Globex Corp. To learn more about Globex and their business and history, please visit the Globex website  (globex.uimagine.edu.au).  You should ensure you visit the Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show page accessed via the ‘RALS’ link in the main menu. (note: you will be prompted to enter your CSU username and password to access this site).

As a Virtucon staff member and in order to gather information for your assigned project, you have been granted temporary access to the Globex staff intranet.  Please access this by navigating to the ‘Staff’ menu option.  You will need to enter:

Username: virtucon101
Password: virtucon101

In this area you will find the current form used to collect information for potential volunteers for the Riverina Agriculture and Lifestyle Show (found under the ‘Documents’ menu option) as well as other information regarding Globex.

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Criterion Expectation
Provides an MOV and identifies the target and expectations of all stakeholders in a suitable format. The MOV illustrates the detailed consideration of the target and a thorough analysis of the expectations of all stakeholders.

The format is logical, clear and well structured

Utilising MS Project, provides a list of resources associated with the project – including reference to people, technology, and facilities. Evidence of expertly utilizing MS Project to create a comprehensive list of resources, demonstrating in-depth analysis of the project’s needs.
Produces a Scope Management Plan (SCM).  Consistent application of industry standard language and formatting.
Utilising MS Project -evidences the processes involved with a WBS.  Demonstrates high level project management skills, integrating and applying project management tools in meaningful and purposeful ways towards completion of WBS design, correctly and comprehensively addressing all project requirements.
Provides a project risk analysis and plan using the risk identification framework as a basis for discussing alternate strategies for the management of such risks. All steps in project risk analysis and alternate strategies are comprehensively discussed and presented in the context of the project, with evidence of thorough consideration of the framework to validate the alternatives.
Produces a quality management plan which includes a statement about the team’s philosophy and verification and validation activities. All required project steps are correctly identified and appropriately contextualised for the selected project.
Referencing of sources (APA 6th ed citation) to reinforce findings. All written evidence is professionally communicated using correct referencing.

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Need Help-Capital Budgeting Problem

Need Help-Capital Budgeting Problem

Financial Management

Ford Company

Capital Budgeting Problem


The market value of Fords’ equity, preferred stock and debt are $7 billion, $3 billion, and $10 billion, respectively. Ford has a beta of 1.8, the market risk premium is 7%, and the risk-free rate of interest is 4%. Ford’s preferred stock pays a dividend of $3.5 each year and trades at a price of $27 per share. Ford’s debt trades with a yield to maturity of 9.5%. What is Ford’s weighted average cost of capital if its tax rate is 30%?


Ford Company
Market Capitalization Weight
Equity (E)
Preferred (P)
Debt (D)




Ford Company
Weight Cost After-tax

Marginal Weight

Equity (E) X =
Preferred (P) X =
Debt (D) X =
Total X =


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Assignment Help-Application of Change Theory for Social Change-Poverty

Assignment Help-Application of Change Theory for Social Change-Poverty

An understanding of change theory is critical to the success of human services professionals.

A classic model of change theory consists of three phases: unfreezing, (b) movement, and (c) refreezing (Lewin, 1951).

Another model describes the differences between first- and second-order change and how first-order change may continue to perpetuate the very problems human services professionals seek to remedy (Watzlawick, Weakland, & Fisch, 1974).

As you examine issues related to the human services profession and society, you should think about how you can apply change theory and processes to guide you in addressing the issue. Along with change theory and processes, you also should consider codes of ethics to guide you in addressing these issues.

To prepare for this Assignment, review this week’s Learning Resources. Select a change theory and the related change processes (e.g., force-field analysis, SWOT analysis) that you might apply to the issue you selected in Week 1. In addition, consider the ethical challenges that you might encounter and codes of ethics you might apply to address these challenges.

Assignment Help-Application of Change Theory for Social Change-Poverty

The Assignment:
Briefly describe your professional or societal issue.
Describe a change theory and related change processes that may be applied to your professional or societal issue.
Explain how you might apply the theory and processes.
Briefly describe two ethical principles, issues, or challenges that might arise in your efforts to apply these changes.
Explain how a professional code of ethics might advise in each case. Be specific, citing elements from an applicable code of ethics.

Assignment Help-Application of Change Theory for Social Change-Poverty

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