Tag Archives: Engineering projects


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Moderated November 2016
University of Sunderland
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Department of Computing, Engineering and Technology
Assignment 1 of 1
The following learning outcomes will be assessed:
Critical knowledge of the fundamental concepts and analytical methods in the solution of a range of problems related to thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer.
Design and analyse a variety of air standard cycles and vapour power cycles.
Important Information
You are required to submit your work within the bounds of the University Infringement of Assessment Regulations (see your Programme Guide). Plagiarism, paraphrasing and downloading large amounts of information from external sources, will not be tolerated and will be dealt with severely. Although you should make full use of any source material, which would normally be an occasional sentence and/or paragraph (referenced) followed by your own critical analysis/evaluation. You will receive no marks for work that is not your own. Your work may be subject to checks for originality which can include use of an electronic plagiarism detection service.
Where you are asked to submit an individual piece of work, the work must be entirely your own. The safety of your assessments is your responsibility. You must not permit another student access to your work.
Where referencing is required, unless otherwise stated, the Harvard referencing system must be used (see your Programme Guide).
Please ensure that you retain a duplicate of your assignment. We are required to send samples of student work to the external examiners for moderation purposes. It will also safeguard in the unlikely event of your work going astray.
Submission Date and Time
Before 4pm, Wednesday 22nd March 2017
Submission Location
SunSpace Dropbox
Page 2 of 3
Moderated November 2016
This assignment is set out in two parts, where the first part should help you build the second. You will be allocated one from each of a-e, A-E, and 1-4 (as defined below) to ensure you have an individual set of data for the assignment.
You are required to analyse a standard Rankine cycle by both hand calculation and using the simulation package CyclePad, in order to validate the software. The cycle specifications are as follows:
 Boiler pressure: (a) 40; (b) 45; (c) 50; (d) 55 bar; (e) 60 bar (as assigned).
 Boiler output temperature: (A) 450; (B) 500; (C) 525; (D) 550C; (E) 575C (as assigned).
 Condenser pressure: (1) 0.6; (2) 0.65; (3) 0.7; (4) 0.75 bar (as assigned).
Assume the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s, so that derived work and heat quantities are specific (i.e. per kg of steam). Use a summary table to compare the following:
 The specific enthalpy at each point in the cycle, determined both by hand calculation, and by CyclePad.
 The net work (Wnet).
 The heat in (Qin).
 The thermal efficiency (ηth).
*** You should perform this analysis using CyclePad only. ***
In order to improve the net work output and efficiency of the plant, you are required to investigate the implementation of a two-stage reheat Rankine cycle (as covered in class). Use the same pressures and temperature assigned in Part 1. However, you must choose a pressure for the second stage i.e. the lower pressure turbine and explain how you chose it.
For your chosen design, use another summary table to compare the quantities listed above, obtained from the CyclePad analysis of the reheat Rankine cycle.
More detailed submission requirements are summarised overleaf.
Hints on using CyclePad
(i) You can download a free copy of CyclePad from the following link. If you have any trouble obtaining it, email me and I will send you a copy.
(ii) You will find a Rankine Cycle Solved in the CyclePad library. Use this to help you get started with the first part of the assignment. It comprises four parts: heater, turbine, cooler and pump, corresponding to the boiler, turbine, condenser and feed pump, respectively.
(iii) Note that both heater and cooler are modelled as isobaric (i.e. constant pressure), and both turbine and pump are modelled as adiabatic and isentropic.
(iv) In the second part, you can use the Reheating Vapor Cycle Solved in the library as a template.
Page 3 of 3
Moderated November 2016
Submission requirements
You should keep the material to the minimum necessary to fulfil the following, in the order indicated.
Stage 1 (50%)
 A summary table, which includes your manually calculated results (as outlined above) and the CyclePad results.
 Detailed cycle hand calculations, including an annotated diagram of the cycle schematic. This can be hand written, but must be neat and legible.
 Screenshots of the CyclePad Cycle Properties window, the Assumptions Made window, and the T-s diagram generated by the software.
Stage 2 (50%)
 A summary table, showing the CyclePad specific enthalpy results for the reheat Rankine cycle.
 An annotated diagram of the cycle schematic.
 Screenshots of the CyclePad Cycle Properties window, the Assumptions Made window, and the T-s diagram generated by the software.
Untidy or illegible work will be penalised.
This assignment is worth 30% of the total module mark.

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Buy your Custom Essay-EG-260 Continuous Assessment 1

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 EG-260 Continuous Assessment 1

Warning: Failure to follow these instructions will result in zero mark for the entire assessment. These instructions are purposefully very detailed and highlight common mistakes that have been seen in the past. My goal is to make sure that you communicate your answers to this assessment in the correct manner so that I can assign you the correct marks. It is therefore crucial that you read, understand and follow these instructions.



  • This assessment must be solved and submitted individually. The submission deadline is:


23.59 on Thursday 9 March 2017


  • Use numerical values for the parameters corresponding to your student number from xls file available on blackboard.



  • Solve all of the questions in this assessment using the parameters that are assigned to your student number. Remember: Each answer that you will obtain WILL be a numerical value. When solving the questions, maintain highest possible decimal points. Your final answer should be rounded to 4 decimal places (done automatically in the xls file).


  • Download the empty answer file (xls) to your computer from the Blackboard page. This is the file where you will enter your answers to the questions. The only change that you should do to this file is to enter your answers and to save it! Do NOT rename this file. Do NOT change the file format, for example to .xlsx. Do NOT change the internal formatting of the file. Do NOT change or add new sheets to the file. Your task is to simply enter ONLY numerical values for your answers to this file and save it! Do not put units as they are already in the questions. Do NOT enter ANY non-numerical characters (such as “2*10^2”, “10e4”) or incomplete calculations such as “2×2” or “2*100” or “50/3 – 100”.


  • Submit the Excel file (xls) in Blackboard.


  • IN ADDITION to the xls file, you MUST submit a SINGLE file containing the supporting work. This file should show how you have solved the problems. This is the evidence that you obtained the numerical results yourself. You can type your solution in WORD or SCAN your handwritten work. Either way, submission should be a PDF file. Remember, this FILE NAME must be MySolution.pdf. Do NOT submit separate files for different parts of your solution. Avoid JPG, TIF or other image files if possible.


  • Numerical answers in both files must agree with each other. In case of any discrepancies, the answers in xls will be used for marking.


  • Unlike the final exam, no method marks is available for this assessment. You have to get correct numerical values and enter it correctly as described above. This is because, unlike the final exam, you have one full week to solve the two problems.


  • Please submit the two files ONLY once.

  • Question 1: An inverted pendulum oscillator of length L [m] and mass m [kg] is attached by springs. Two springs of stiffness values k1 and k2 [N/m] are arranged in parallel and series respectively as shown below:


Important: The values of L, m, k1 and k2 in SI units are given for your student number in the excel file CA1_Parameters.xls. Use an equivalent spring in deriving the equation of motion and consider the weight of the mass. Take gravitational acceleration constant as 9.8100 [m/s2]. All answers must be in numerical format and in SI units.


Case 1: springs in parallel                      Case 2: springs in series

  1. Calculate the equivalent spring stiffness for case 1 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                                     (5 Marks)
  2. Calculate the equivalent spring stiffness for case 2 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                                                               (5 Marks)
  3. Assuming the rotation is small, obtain the equation of motion. From this, calculate the natural frequency in rad/sec for case 1 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.              (15 Marks)
  4. From the equation of motion, calculate the natural frequency in rad/sec for case 2 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file. (15 Marks)
  5. Assuming k2 = 2k1, obtain the value of k1 (in N/m) for the system to be stable for case 1 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file. (5 Marks)
  6. Assuming k2 = 2k1, obtain the value of k1 (in N/m) for the system to be stable for case 2 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.      (5 Marks)




Question 2: A vibrating system consisting of a weight of W [N] and a spring stiffness of k [N/m] is viscously damped such that the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes is 10 to y. Determine:


  1. Log decrement () and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                        (10 Marks)
  2. Damping factor () and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                   (10 Marks)
  3. Damped natural frequency () in (rad/sec) and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.    (15 Marks)
  4. Damping constant (c) and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                (15 Marks)


Hint: The values of W, k, and y in SI units are given for your student number in the Excel file CA1_Parameters.xls. Take gravitational acceleration constant as 9.8100 [m/s2]. All answers must be in numerical format and in SI units.


Reminder: Failure to follow the instructions will result in zero marks even if you obtained correct answers! For the sake of fairness, no exceptions will be allowed. Unless you are ABSOLUTELY sure that your submission is according to the instructions, please do not upload it in the blackboard.


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Help write-Lab #6, Stimulus Control: Attention

Help write-Lab #6, Stimulus Control: Attention

Lab #6             Stimulus Control: Attention

Cover page                       


 Introduces concept threads.

Please note the experiment is based on a methodology of identifying configural cues, elements, and stimulus and contextual dimensions.  By then, presenting specific stimuli with single or multiple elements we are able to infer attention.  A reference that uses this methodology will be a good tread to weave the last lab report.






*There were (15) stimuli in the pretest and 17 in the post test due to the addition of the SD and the S Δ in the second elements test.


Relevant data to be highlighted is based on concept threads and discussion.

  1. Responding during the first elements test


Color (wavelength)


Responding during the discrimination training.

Rate between and within multiple schedules of SD and SΔ


  1. Responding during the second (post-training) elements test


Color (wavelength)





Excitation & Inhibition


Color (wavelength)


Other, dimensions, elements, e.g. brightness or Gestalt


Threads woven together.




Figure Captions



Format F Procedure D Results C Data concepts B

Treads that weaves report together B A. Whole report in APA format.


Need help-Wind Turbine Investigation

Need help-Wind Turbine Investigation

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The following experiment enables you to:

  • Measure the energy in the wind.
  • Assess a commercially available wind turbine in an environmental wind tunnel.
  • Determine the power curve of a wind turbine and obtain cut-in speeds
  • Calculate the coefficient of performance of a turbine
  • Calculate the Solidity and Tip-speed ratio.
  • See how the energy is converted stored and utilised.
  • Examine the Beaufort wind scale.


The power available to a wind turbine is the kinetic energy passing per unit time in a column of air with the same cross sectional area A as the wind turbine rotor, travelling with a wind speed U0. Thus the available power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. See the figure below.


The equipment is provided by Marlec and the following information is from their web page but has been modified slightly for this labsheet.

The Rutland 913 is designed for marine use on board coastal and ocean going yachts usually over 10m in length. This unit will generate enough power to serve both domestic and engine batteries on board.
The Rutland 913 is a popular sight in marinas, thousands are in use worldwide, boat owners like it’s clean, aerodynamic lines and its quiet and continuous operation. Without doubt this latest marine model accumulates more energy than any other comparable windcharger available, you’ll always see a Rutland spinning in the lightest of breezes!

  • Low wind speed start up of less than 3m/s
  • Generates 90w @ 37m/s, 24w @ 20 m/s
  • Delivers up to 250w
  • Modern, durable materials for reliability on the high seas
  • SR200 Regulator – Shunt type voltage regulator prevents battery overcharge


During this experiment you will make use of the following equations to calculate key parameters

Key formulae

Energy in the wind E = (watts)

Swept area of rotor A=πR2


Electrical power output P=VxI (watts)


Coefficient of performance


Tip speed ratio




Solidity = blade area/swept area


R is the rotor radius (m)

ρ is air density say 1.23 kg/m3

Uo is the wind speed (m/s)

V is voltage (volts)

I is current (amps)

ω (rads/sec) is the angular velocity of the rotor found from


 where N is the rotor speed in revs/min






Step 1         Ensure that everything is setup for you and switch on the tunnel.

Step 2         Adjust the wind speed and let it stabilize

Step 3         Measure the wind speed, voltage and current

Step 4         If available measure the rotor speed with the stroboscope.

Repeat steps 2 – 4 for other wind speeds up to a maximum of 10m/s if achievable.


Gather your data by completing tables 1 and 2


Wind speed

Uo  (m/s)



Effect on land Output voltage

V (volts)

Output current

I (amps)

Rotor speed

N (revs/min)

Table 1 measured data


Calculate the following

Rotor radius use a ruler to measure from center to tip of turbine R =
Swept area A=πR2


A =
Blade area = blade area + hub area

do your best!

Solidity = blade area / swept area.   =

Table 2 measured data




Now analyse your data by completing table 3.


Energy in the wind Electrical power Coefficient of performance Tip speed ratio
E =  (watts) P = V x I




(or column 2 /column 1)

Table 3 Analyse your data


Present your data:

Now present your results in graphical format to give you a better understanding of the data you have gathered and analysed.


Use excel and the x-y scatter chart for this.


Graph 1

Plot the values Uo (x-axis) against P (y1-axis) and E (y2-axis).


Graph 2

Plot the values of Uo (x-axis) against Cp (y-axis).


What conclusions do you draw?


How efficiently are you converting the kinetic energy in the wind into electrical energy that is stored chemically in the batteries?


Write up the laboratory formally and submit to turnitin. Please ensure presentation is clear and quote fully any references.



The Beaufort Wind Speed Scale

Wind Speed at 10m height Description Wind Turbine
Effect on
Effect at
0 0.0 -0.4 Calm None Smoke rises vertically Mirror smooth
1 0.4 -1.8 Light None Smoke drifts; vanes unaffected small ripples
2 1.8 -3.6 Light None Leaves move slightly Definite waves
3 3.6 -5.8 Light Small turbines start – e.g. for pumping Leaves in motion; Flags extend Occasional breaking crest
4 5.8 -8.5 Moderate Start up for electrical generation Small branches move Larger waves; White crests common
5 8.5 -11.0 Fresh Useful power Generation at 1/3 capacity Small trees sway Extensive white crests
6 11.0 -14.0 Strong Rated power range Large branches move Larger waves; foaming crests
7 14.0 -17.0 Strong Full capacity Trees in motion Foam breaks from crests
8 17.0 -21.0 Gale Shut down initiated Walking difficult Blown foam
9 21.0 -25.0 Gale All machines shut down Slight structural damage Extensive blown foam
10 25.0 -29.0 Strong gale Design criteria against damage Trees uprooted; much structural damage Large waves with long breaking crests
11 29.0 -34.0 Strong gale Widespread damage
12 >34.0 Hurricane Serious damage Disaster conditions Ships hidden in wave troughs

Supplementary Theory

The power available to a wind turbine is the kinetic energy passing per unit time in a column of air with the same cross sectional area A as the wind turbine rotor, travelling with a wind speed u0. Thus the available power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed.

We can see that the power achieved is highly dependent on the wind speed. Doubling the wind speed increases the power eightfold but doubling the turbine area only doubles the power. Thus optimising the siting of wind turbines in the highest wind speed areas has significant benefit and is critical for the best economic performance. Information on power production independently of the turbine characteristics is normally expressed as a flux, i.e. power per unit area or power density in W/m2. Thus assuming a standard atmosphere with density at 1.225kg/s :

Wind speed m/s     Power W/m squared               5.0                76.6              10.0               612.5              15.0              2067.2              20.0              4900.0              25.0              9570.3

The density of the air will also have an effect on the total power available. The air is generally less dense in warmer climates and also decreases with height. The air density can range from around 0.9 kg/m3 to 1.4kg/m3. This effect is very small in comparison to the variation of wind speed.


In practice all of the kinetic energy in the wind cannot be converted to shaft power since the air must be able to flow away from the rotor area. The Betz criterion, derived using the principles of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy gives a maximum possible turbine efficiency, or power coefficient, of 59%. In practise power coefficients of 20 – 30 % are common. The section on Aerodynamics discusses these matters in detail.


Most wind turbines are designed to generate maximum power at a fixed wind speed. This is known as Rated Power and the wind speed at which it is achieved the Rated Wind Speed. The rated wind speed chosen to fit the local site wind regime, and is often about 1.5 times the site mean wind speed.

The power produced by the wind turbine increases from zero, below the cut in wind speed, (usually around 5m/s but again varies with site) to the maximum at the rated wind speed. Above the rated wind speed the wind turbine continues to produce the same rated power but at lower efficiency until shut down is initiated if the wind speed becomes dangerously high, i.e. above 25 to 30m/s (gale force). This is the cut out wind speed. The exact specifications for designing the energy capture of a turbine depend on the distribution of wind speed over the year at the site.


Performance calculations


Power coefficient Cp is the ratio of the power extracted by the rotor to the power available in the wind.

It can be shown that the maximum possible value of the power coefficient is 0.593 which is referred to as the Betz limit.


Pe is the extracted power by the rotor (W)

V¥ is the free stream wind velocity (m/s)

A is area normal to wind         (m2)

ρ is density of the air              (kg/m3)



The tip speed ratio (l) is the ratio of the speed of the blade tip to the free stream wind speed.




w is the angular velocity of the rotor (rads/sec), and

R is the tip radius (m)


This relation holds for the horizontal axis machine which is the focus of these notes.


The solidity (g) is the ratio of the blade area to the swept frontal area (face area) of the machine


Blade area = number of blades * mean chord length * radius = N.c.R


Mean chord length is the average width of the blade facing the wind.


Swept frontal area is pR2

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Help-Project INSE 6110:Foundations of Cryptography

Help-Project INSE 6110:Foundations of Cryptography Due:Last class
1 Project paper Choose one of the pre-approved topics below,or you may suggest other topics (either as a survey or a novel contribution) but they must be approved by me.Projects are to be done individually or in groups of 2.You may suggest a group project that involves 3 or more people but it must be approved by me.All group members receive the same mark for the project. For this project,research the topic and write a paper (max 8 pages) explaining the subject,with ref- erences to the related literature,using the following template:
http://www.springer.com/computer/lncs?SGWID=0-164-6-793341-0 Your paper should summarize the subject with an introduction, explaining very clearly what the research problem is and how the subject addresses it. You should then explain the solution with technical detail. You should understand and cite at least 3 academic papers that appear at good quality venues. To find papers and understand the concepts,try:
http://scholar.google.com http://link.springer.com/referencework/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-5906-5 If the paper does not appear at a conference in the first 50 on this list,it is not likely a good quality venue:
http://academic.research.microsoft.com/RankList?entitytype=3&topdomainid=2&subdomainid= 2&last=0&orderby=1 In all cases,you can use your discretion (e.g.,papers at specialized workshops can be high quality, non-academic resources can be as well) and if you have any questions,ask me during the lecture break or during office hours. Be sure to cite all sources you use. You may do citations in a conversational way (e.g., “Boneh et allist the five essential properties of blah as follows [9].”) Under no circumstance can you use someone else’s text as your own (even if you modify the grammar).Review Concordia’s plagiarism policy and understand it:
http://www.concordia.ca/students/academic-integrity/plagiarism.html https://www.concordia.ca/content/dam/encs/docs/Expectations-of-Originality-Feb14-2012. pdf
2 Pre-approved Topics Cryptographic Primitives and Protocols • Attribute-based Encryption • Blind Signatures • Bilinear Pairings • Bitcoin • Cryptographic Accumulators • Direct Anonymous Attestation (used by TPMs) • Dining Cryptographers • Fair Exchange • Fully Homomorphic Encryption • Garbled Circuits • GCMMode of Operation • Group Signatures • Indistinguishability Obfuscation • Identity-based Cryptography • Mix Networks • Oblivious Transfer • Off-the-Record Messaging • Post-Quantum Cryptography • Ring Signatures • Timed-Release Encryption • Universal Composability Cryptanalysis and Attacks • Differential Cryptanalysis • Boomerang Attack • Biclique Cryptanalysis News-worthy Events • RC4 biases in SSL/TLS • NSAbackdoor in Dual ECDRGB

Need help-CSE423 – Individual summary report

Need help-CSE423 – Individual summary report
This report is worth 10% of your grade.  The individual report describes your personal contributions to the capstone project. Late submissions will be penalized 10%.  Use the SafeAssign link on Blackboard to submit your work.
The report is to be in your own words.  Copying content from other sources, including other team member, is not acceptable.  The report will be checked against other students’ reports to verify unique content and wording.
Use Times New Roman 12pt with 1.5 line spacing. The following outline should be used for the report. You may need to deviate slightly, depending on the nature of your project.
1. Cover Page a. Title b. Class name c. Team name d. Brief project description (maximum 20 words)  2. Table of Contents (with page numbers) 3. Description of the overall project a. Work completed b. Defining the best of the work accomplished 4. Reflection on the team a. Evaluation of the success of the work produced by the team as a whole b. How things can be improved c. Moving forward next semester (goals and plans) 5. Summary of your contributions a. Work on team presentation b. Work on reports c. Work on product d. Work on team management (meeting minutes, etc.) 6. Reflection on your work a. Evaluation of the success of the work produced by you b. How you can be improved c. Lessons learned d. Moving forward next semester (goals and plans) 7. Conclusion

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GEN 200 Engineering Economy

GEN 200  Engineering Economy

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PROJECT Instructions

  1. Please select one of the case studies given below.
  2. You can use spreadsheet solutions IF required or you are free to choose hand method instead of spreadsheet, if both solutions are possible.
  3. Prepare a 15-minutes PowerPoint presentation

Case  One


Background and Information

Harry, owner of an automobile battery distributorship in

Atlanta, Georgia, performed an economic analysis 3 years ago when he decided to place surge protectors in-line for all his major pieces of testing equipment. The estimates used and the annual worth analysis at MARR = 15% are summarized below. Two different manufacturers’ protectors were compared.

The spreadsheet in Figure 6–9 is the one Harry used to make the decision. Lloyd’s was the clear choice due to its substantially larger AW value. The Lloyd’s protectors were installed.

During a quick review this last year (year 3 of operation), it was obvious that the maintenance costs and repair savings have not followed (and will not follow) the estimates made 3 years ago. In fact, the maintenance contract cost (which includes quarterly inspection) is going from $300 to $1200 per year next year and will then increase 10% per year for the next 10 years. Also, the repair savings for the last 3 years were $35,000, $32,000, and $28,000, as best as Harry can determine. He believes savings will decrease by $2000 per year hereafter. Finally, these 3-year-old protectors are worth nothing on the market now, so the salvage in 7 years is zero, not $3000.

Case Study Exercises

  1. Plot a graph of the newly estimated maintenance costs and repair savings projections, assuming the protectors last for 7 more years.
  2. With these new estimates, what is the recalculated AW for the Lloyd’s protectors? Use the old first cost and maintenance cost estimates for the first 3 years. If these estimates had been made 3 years ago, would Lloyd’s still have been the economic choice?
  3. How has the capital recovery amount changed for the Lloyd’s protectors with these new estimates?

Case Study two



Make-to-Specs is a software system under development by ABC Corporation. It will be able to translate digital versions of three-dimensional computer models, containing a wide variety of part shapes with machined and highly finished (ultra smooth) surfaces. The product of the system is the numerically controlled (NC) machine code for the part’s manufacturing.

Additionally, Make-to-Specs will build the code for superfine finishing of surfaces with continuous control of the finishing machines.


There are two alternative computers that can provide the server function for the software interfaces and shared database updates on the manufacturing floor while Make-to- Specs is operating in parallel mode. The server first cost and estimated contribution to annual net cash flow are summarized below.


Server 1 Server 2
First cost, $ 100,000 200,000
Net cash flow, $/year 35,000 50,000 year 1, plus 5000 per years 2, 3, and 4 (gradient)

70,000 maximum for years 5 on, even if the server is replaced

Life, years 3 or 4 5 or 8

The life estimates were developed by two different individuals: a design engineer and a manufacturing manager. They have asked that, at this stage of the project, all analyses be performed using both life estimates for each system.

Case Study Exercises

Use spreadsheet analysis to determine the following:

  • If the MARR = 12%, which server should be selected? Use the PW or AW method to make the selection.
  • Use incremental ROR analysis to decide between the servers at MARR = 12%.
  • Use any method of economic analysis to display on the spreadsheet the value of the incremental ROR between server 2 with a life estimate of 5 years and a life estimate of 8 years.

Case Study 3




This case study compares benefit/cost analysis and cost effectiveness analysis on the same information about highway lighting and its role in accident reduction. Poor highway lighting may be one reason that proportionately more traffic accidents occur at night. Traffic accidents are categorized into six types by severity and value. For example, an accident with a fatality is valued at approximately $4 million, while an accident in which there is property damage (to the car and contents) is valued at $6000. One method by which the impact of lighting is measured compares day and night accident rates for lighted and unlighted highway sections with similar characteristics. Observed reductions in accidents seemingly caused by too low lighting can be translated into either monetary estimates of the benefits B of lighting or used as the effectiveness measure E of lighting.


Freeway accident data were collected in a 5-year study. The property damage category is commonly the largest based on the accident rate. The number of accidents recorded on a section of highway is presented here.


Number of Accidents Recorded
Unlighted Lighted
Accident Type Day Night Day Night
Property damage 379 199 2069 839


The ratios of night to day accidents involving property damage for the unlighted and lighted freeway sections are 199/379 = 0.525 and 839/2069 = 0.406, respectively.  These results indicate that the lighting was beneficial. To quantify the benefit, the accident rate ratio from the unlighted section will be applied to the lighted section. This will yield the number of accidents that were prevented.  Thus, there would have been  accidents instead of 839 if there had not been lights on the freeway. This is a difference of 247 accidents.

At a cost of $6000 per accident, this results in a net annual benefit of

For an effectiveness measure of number of accidents prevented, this results in E = 247.

To determine the cost of the lighting, it will be assumed that the light poles are center poles 67 meters apart with 2 bulbs each. The bulb size is 400 watts, and the installation cost is $3500 per pole. Since these data were collected over 87.8 kilometers of lighted freeway, the installed cost of the lighting is (with number of poles rounded off):

Installation cost = $3500 (87.8/ 0.067)


= $4,585,000


There are a total of 87.8/0.067=1310 poles, and electricity costs $0.10 per kWh.

Therefore, the annual power cost is:

Annual power cost

The data were collected over a 5-year period. Therefore, the annualized cost C at i = 6% per year is

Total annual cost =$4,585,000 (A/P, 6%, 5)


= $1,547,503

If a benefit/cost analysis is the basis for a decision on additional lighting, the B/C ratio is

Since B/C< 1.0, the lighting is not justified. Consideration of other categories of accidents is necessary to obtain a better basis for decisions. If a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is applied, due to a judgment that the monetary estimates for lighting’s benefit is not accurate, the C/E ratio is

This can serve as a base ratio for comparison when an incremental CEA is performed for additional accident reduction proposals.

These preliminary B/C and C/E analyses prompted the development of four lighting options:

  1. W) Implement the plan as detailed above; light poles every 67 meters at a cost of $3500 per pole.
  2. X) Install poles at twice the distance apart (134 meters). This is estimated to cause the accident prevention benefit to decrease by 40%.
  3. Y) Install cheaper poles and surrounding safety guards, plus slightly lowered lumen bulbs (350 watts) at a cost of $2500 per pole; place the poles 67 meters apart. This is estimated to reduce the benefit by 25%.
  4. Z) Install cheaper equipment for $2500 per pole with 350-watt light bulbs and place them 134 meters apart.

This plan is estimated to reduce the accident prevention measure by 50% from 247 to 124.

Case Study Exercises

Determine if a definitive decision on lighting can be determined by doing the following:

  1. Use a benefit/cost analysis to compare the four alternatives to determine if any are economically justified.
  2. Use a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the four alternatives.

From an understanding viewpoint, consider the following:

  1. How many property-damage accidents could be prevented on the unlighted portion if it were lighted?
  2. What would the lighted, night-to-day accident ratio have to be to make alternative Z economically justified by the B/C ratio?
  3. Discuss the analysis approaches of B/C and C/E. Does one seem more appropriate in this type of situation than the other? Why? Can you think of other bases that might be better for decisions for public projects such as this one?

Case Study four



Three engineers who worked for Mitchell Engineering, a company specializing in public housing development, went to lunch together several times a week. Over time they decided to work on solar energy production ideas. After a lot of weekend time over several years, they had designed and developed a prototype of a low-cost, scalable solar energy plant for use in multifamily dwellings on the low end and medium sized manufacturing facilities on the upper end. For residential applications, the collector could be mounted alongside a TV dish and be programmed to track the sun. The generator and additional equipment are installed in a closet-sized area in an apartment or on a floor for multiple-apartment supply. The system serves as a supplement to the electricity provided by the local power company. After some 6 months of testing, it was agreed that the system was ready to market and reliably state that an electricity bill in high-rises could be reduced by approximately 40% per month. This was great news for low income dwellers on government subsidy that are required to pay their own utility bills.


With a hefty bank loan and $200,000 of their own capital, they were able to install demonstration sites in three cities in the sunbelt. Net cash flow after all expenses, loan repayment, and taxes for the first 4 years was acceptable; $55,000 at the end of the first year, increasing by 5% each year thereafter. A business acquaintance introduced them to a potential buyer of the patent rights and current subscriber base with estimated $500,000 net cash out after only these 4 years of ownership. However, after serious discussion replaced the initial excitement of the sales offer, the trio decided to not sell at this time. They wanted to stay in the business for a while longer to develop some enhancement ideas and to see how much revenue may increase over the next few years.

During the next year, the fifth year of the partnership, the engineer who had received the patents upon which the collector and generator designs were based became very displeased with the partnering arrangements and left the trio to go into partnership with an international firm in the energy business. With new research and development funds and the patent rights, a competing design was soon on the market and took much of the business away from the original two developers. Net cash flow dropped to $40,000 in year 5 and continued to decrease by $5000 per year. Another offer to sell in year 8 was presented, but it was only for $100,000 net cash. This was considered too much of a loss, so the two owners did not accept. Instead, they decided to put $200,000 more of their own savings into the company to develop additional applications in the housing market.

It is now 12 years since the system was publicly launched. With increased advertising and development, net cash flow has been positive the last 4 years, starting at $5000 in year 9 and increasing by $5000 each year until now.

 Case Study Exercises

It is now 12 years after the products were developed, and the engineers invested most of their savings in an innovative idea. However, the question of “When do we sell?” is always present in these situations. To help with the analysis, determine the following:

  1. The rate of return at the end of year 4 for two situations: (a) The business is sold for the net cash amount of $500,000 and (b) No sale.
  2. The rate of return at the end of year 8 for two situations: (a) The business is sold for the net cash amount of$100,000 and (b) No sale.
  3. The rate of return now at the end of year 12.
  4. Consider the cash flow series over the 12 years. Is there any indication that multiple rates of return may be present?

If so, use the spreadsheet already developed to search for ROR values in the range _100% other than the one determined in exercise 3 above.

  1. Assume you are an investor with a large amount of ready cash, looking for an innovative solar energy product.

What amount would you be willing to offer for the business at this point (end of year 12) if you require a 12% per year return on all your investments and, if purchased, you plan to own the business for 12 additional years? To help make the decision, assume the current NCF series continues increasing at $5000 per year for the years you would own it. Explain your logic for offering this amount.

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Wheel Self Balancing robot design (Mechanical Design, Electrical/Electronics Design)

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Wheel Self Balancing robot design, Arduino UNO compatible board

Mechanical Design

Our 2-Wheel Self Balancing robot design utilizes the main frame that was given with the kit. Design of an outer casing was developed in Solidworks to connect to the existing framework, encasing all the arduino boards, wires and batteries, This design was then created into a STL file which was then utilized to print on a Lulzbot mini in PLA material.  including all theby utilizing Arduino and MPU6050. Use Arduino as the controller and sensor MPU6050 to control the balance the report. Simply include a Bluetooth module and utilize a Bluetooth Serial Controller APP for Android Phone to make the remote control. The controller is Arduino UNO. The Balanbot is an Arduino Based Self-balance Robot Kit. It utilizes acrylic structures and keeps the robot adjusted utilizing its focal point of gravity (instructables.com, 2016).

Electrical/Electronics Design

It associates with the Arduino UNO compatible board through the I2C interface. With this sensor, you can get stability when the Kalman filter is utilized. The Balance Shield used in this robot need to be coordinated with one L298P for driving engines. The L298P is a high voltage (50V), high ebb and flow (2A) double channel full-connect driver. It can drive inductive loads, for example, transfer, DC, motors, and engines (instructables.com, 2016). A serial interface can be used while connecting adapters with Bluetooth and Wi-Fi for the purpose of communication with different gadgets. Four IO pins can be used while connecting different sensors or RC recipient in order to make it as more extensible one (instructables.com, 2016).



  • Mathematical Model
  • Controller Design (Using Working Model /MATLAB/ Simulink).
  • Simulation Results
  • Experimental Results
  • Conclusion

Contribution: Clearly State Contribution of each team member to the project.


instructables.com. (2016). 2-Wheel Self Balancing Robot by using Arduino and MPU6050. Retrieved from instructables.com: http://www.instructables.com/id/2-Wheel-Self-Balancing-Robot-by-using-Arduino-and-/

sainsmart.com. (2016). Saint smart. Retrieved from sainsmart.com: http://www.sainsmart.com/

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