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EAT223 – THERMOFLUIDS AND ENGINES


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Moderated November 2016
University of Sunderland
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Department of Computing, Engineering and Technology
EAT223 – THERMOFLUIDS AND ENGINES
Assignment 1 of 1
The following learning outcomes will be assessed:
Knowledge
Critical knowledge of the fundamental concepts and analytical methods in the solution of a range of problems related to thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer.
Skills
Design and analyse a variety of air standard cycles and vapour power cycles.
Important Information
You are required to submit your work within the bounds of the University Infringement of Assessment Regulations (see your Programme Guide). Plagiarism, paraphrasing and downloading large amounts of information from external sources, will not be tolerated and will be dealt with severely. Although you should make full use of any source material, which would normally be an occasional sentence and/or paragraph (referenced) followed by your own critical analysis/evaluation. You will receive no marks for work that is not your own. Your work may be subject to checks for originality which can include use of an electronic plagiarism detection service.
Where you are asked to submit an individual piece of work, the work must be entirely your own. The safety of your assessments is your responsibility. You must not permit another student access to your work.
Where referencing is required, unless otherwise stated, the Harvard referencing system must be used (see your Programme Guide).
Please ensure that you retain a duplicate of your assignment. We are required to send samples of student work to the external examiners for moderation purposes. It will also safeguard in the unlikely event of your work going astray.
Submission Date and Time
Before 4pm, Wednesday 22nd March 2017
Submission Location
SunSpace Dropbox
Page 2 of 3
Moderated November 2016
This assignment is set out in two parts, where the first part should help you build the second. You will be allocated one from each of a-e, A-E, and 1-4 (as defined below) to ensure you have an individual set of data for the assignment.
PART 1: IDEAL STANDARD RANKINE CYCLE (50% of marks)
You are required to analyse a standard Rankine cycle by both hand calculation and using the simulation package CyclePad, in order to validate the software. The cycle specifications are as follows:
 Boiler pressure: (a) 40; (b) 45; (c) 50; (d) 55 bar; (e) 60 bar (as assigned).
 Boiler output temperature: (A) 450; (B) 500; (C) 525; (D) 550C; (E) 575C (as assigned).
 Condenser pressure: (1) 0.6; (2) 0.65; (3) 0.7; (4) 0.75 bar (as assigned).
Assume the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s, so that derived work and heat quantities are specific (i.e. per kg of steam). Use a summary table to compare the following:
 The specific enthalpy at each point in the cycle, determined both by hand calculation, and by CyclePad.
 The net work (Wnet).
 The heat in (Qin).
 The thermal efficiency (ηth).
PART 2: REHEAT RANKINE CYCLE (50% of marks)
*** You should perform this analysis using CyclePad only. ***
In order to improve the net work output and efficiency of the plant, you are required to investigate the implementation of a two-stage reheat Rankine cycle (as covered in class). Use the same pressures and temperature assigned in Part 1. However, you must choose a pressure for the second stage i.e. the lower pressure turbine and explain how you chose it.
For your chosen design, use another summary table to compare the quantities listed above, obtained from the CyclePad analysis of the reheat Rankine cycle.
More detailed submission requirements are summarised overleaf.
Hints on using CyclePad
(i) You can download a free copy of CyclePad from the following link. If you have any trouble obtaining it, email me and I will send you a copy.
http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/software/cyclepad/cyclesof.htm
(ii) You will find a Rankine Cycle Solved in the CyclePad library. Use this to help you get started with the first part of the assignment. It comprises four parts: heater, turbine, cooler and pump, corresponding to the boiler, turbine, condenser and feed pump, respectively.
(iii) Note that both heater and cooler are modelled as isobaric (i.e. constant pressure), and both turbine and pump are modelled as adiabatic and isentropic.
(iv) In the second part, you can use the Reheating Vapor Cycle Solved in the library as a template.
Page 3 of 3
Moderated November 2016
Submission requirements
You should keep the material to the minimum necessary to fulfil the following, in the order indicated.
Stage 1 (50%)
 A summary table, which includes your manually calculated results (as outlined above) and the CyclePad results.
 Detailed cycle hand calculations, including an annotated diagram of the cycle schematic. This can be hand written, but must be neat and legible.
 Screenshots of the CyclePad Cycle Properties window, the Assumptions Made window, and the T-s diagram generated by the software.
Stage 2 (50%)
 A summary table, showing the CyclePad specific enthalpy results for the reheat Rankine cycle.
 An annotated diagram of the cycle schematic.
 Screenshots of the CyclePad Cycle Properties window, the Assumptions Made window, and the T-s diagram generated by the software.
Untidy or illegible work will be penalised.
This assignment is worth 30% of the total module mark.

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Need help-Wind Turbine Investigation


Need help-Wind Turbine Investigation

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The following experiment enables you to:

  • Measure the energy in the wind.
  • Assess a commercially available wind turbine in an environmental wind tunnel.
  • Determine the power curve of a wind turbine and obtain cut-in speeds
  • Calculate the coefficient of performance of a turbine
  • Calculate the Solidity and Tip-speed ratio.
  • See how the energy is converted stored and utilised.
  • Examine the Beaufort wind scale.

Introduction:

The power available to a wind turbine is the kinetic energy passing per unit time in a column of air with the same cross sectional area A as the wind turbine rotor, travelling with a wind speed U0. Thus the available power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. See the figure below.

Equipment

The equipment is provided by Marlec and the following information is from their web page but has been modified slightly for this labsheet.

The Rutland 913 is designed for marine use on board coastal and ocean going yachts usually over 10m in length. This unit will generate enough power to serve both domestic and engine batteries on board.
The Rutland 913 is a popular sight in marinas, thousands are in use worldwide, boat owners like it’s clean, aerodynamic lines and its quiet and continuous operation. Without doubt this latest marine model accumulates more energy than any other comparable windcharger available, you’ll always see a Rutland spinning in the lightest of breezes!

  • Low wind speed start up of less than 3m/s
  • Generates 90w @ 37m/s, 24w @ 20 m/s
  • Delivers up to 250w
  • Modern, durable materials for reliability on the high seas
  • SR200 Regulator – Shunt type voltage regulator prevents battery overcharge

Theory:

During this experiment you will make use of the following equations to calculate key parameters

Key formulae

Energy in the wind E = (watts)

Swept area of rotor A=πR2

 

Electrical power output P=VxI (watts)

 

Coefficient of performance

 

Tip speed ratio

 

 

 

Solidity = blade area/swept area

 

R is the rotor radius (m)

ρ is air density say 1.23 kg/m3

Uo is the wind speed (m/s)

V is voltage (volts)

I is current (amps)

ω (rads/sec) is the angular velocity of the rotor found from

 

 where N is the rotor speed in revs/min

 

 

 

Procedure:

 

Step 1         Ensure that everything is setup for you and switch on the tunnel.

Step 2         Adjust the wind speed and let it stabilize

Step 3         Measure the wind speed, voltage and current

Step 4         If available measure the rotor speed with the stroboscope.

Repeat steps 2 – 4 for other wind speeds up to a maximum of 10m/s if achievable.

 

Gather your data by completing tables 1 and 2

 

Wind speed

Uo  (m/s)

Beaufort

number

Effect on land Output voltage

V (volts)

Output current

I (amps)

Rotor speed

N (revs/min)

Table 1 measured data

 

Calculate the following

Rotor radius use a ruler to measure from center to tip of turbine R =
Swept area A=πR2

 

A =
Blade area = blade area + hub area

do your best!

  =
Solidity = blade area / swept area.   =

Table 2 measured data

 

 

 

Now analyse your data by completing table 3.

 

Energy in the wind Electrical power Coefficient of performance Tip speed ratio
E =  (watts) P = V x I

 

(watts)

P/E

(or column 2 /column 1)

Table 3 Analyse your data

 

Present your data:

Now present your results in graphical format to give you a better understanding of the data you have gathered and analysed.

 

Use excel and the x-y scatter chart for this.

 

Graph 1

Plot the values Uo (x-axis) against P (y1-axis) and E (y2-axis).

 

Graph 2

Plot the values of Uo (x-axis) against Cp (y-axis).

 

What conclusions do you draw?

 

How efficiently are you converting the kinetic energy in the wind into electrical energy that is stored chemically in the batteries?

 

Write up the laboratory formally and submit to turnitin. Please ensure presentation is clear and quote fully any references.

 

 

The Beaufort Wind Speed Scale

Beaufort
Number
Wind Speed at 10m height Description Wind Turbine
effects
Effect on
land
Effect at
Sea
  m/s          
0 0.0 -0.4 Calm None Smoke rises vertically Mirror smooth
1 0.4 -1.8 Light None Smoke drifts; vanes unaffected small ripples
2 1.8 -3.6 Light None Leaves move slightly Definite waves
3 3.6 -5.8 Light Small turbines start – e.g. for pumping Leaves in motion; Flags extend Occasional breaking crest
4 5.8 -8.5 Moderate Start up for electrical generation Small branches move Larger waves; White crests common
5 8.5 -11.0 Fresh Useful power Generation at 1/3 capacity Small trees sway Extensive white crests
6 11.0 -14.0 Strong Rated power range Large branches move Larger waves; foaming crests
7 14.0 -17.0 Strong Full capacity Trees in motion Foam breaks from crests
8 17.0 -21.0 Gale Shut down initiated Walking difficult Blown foam
9 21.0 -25.0 Gale All machines shut down Slight structural damage Extensive blown foam
10 25.0 -29.0 Strong gale Design criteria against damage Trees uprooted; much structural damage Large waves with long breaking crests
11 29.0 -34.0 Strong gale Widespread damage
12 >34.0 Hurricane Serious damage Disaster conditions Ships hidden in wave troughs

Supplementary Theory

The power available to a wind turbine is the kinetic energy passing per unit time in a column of air with the same cross sectional area A as the wind turbine rotor, travelling with a wind speed u0. Thus the available power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed.

We can see that the power achieved is highly dependent on the wind speed. Doubling the wind speed increases the power eightfold but doubling the turbine area only doubles the power. Thus optimising the siting of wind turbines in the highest wind speed areas has significant benefit and is critical for the best economic performance. Information on power production independently of the turbine characteristics is normally expressed as a flux, i.e. power per unit area or power density in W/m2. Thus assuming a standard atmosphere with density at 1.225kg/s :

Wind speed m/s     Power W/m squared               5.0                76.6              10.0               612.5              15.0              2067.2              20.0              4900.0              25.0              9570.3

The density of the air will also have an effect on the total power available. The air is generally less dense in warmer climates and also decreases with height. The air density can range from around 0.9 kg/m3 to 1.4kg/m3. This effect is very small in comparison to the variation of wind speed.

 

In practice all of the kinetic energy in the wind cannot be converted to shaft power since the air must be able to flow away from the rotor area. The Betz criterion, derived using the principles of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy gives a maximum possible turbine efficiency, or power coefficient, of 59%. In practise power coefficients of 20 – 30 % are common. The section on Aerodynamics discusses these matters in detail.

 

Most wind turbines are designed to generate maximum power at a fixed wind speed. This is known as Rated Power and the wind speed at which it is achieved the Rated Wind Speed. The rated wind speed chosen to fit the local site wind regime, and is often about 1.5 times the site mean wind speed.

The power produced by the wind turbine increases from zero, below the cut in wind speed, (usually around 5m/s but again varies with site) to the maximum at the rated wind speed. Above the rated wind speed the wind turbine continues to produce the same rated power but at lower efficiency until shut down is initiated if the wind speed becomes dangerously high, i.e. above 25 to 30m/s (gale force). This is the cut out wind speed. The exact specifications for designing the energy capture of a turbine depend on the distribution of wind speed over the year at the site.

 

Performance calculations

 

Power coefficient Cp is the ratio of the power extracted by the rotor to the power available in the wind.

It can be shown that the maximum possible value of the power coefficient is 0.593 which is referred to as the Betz limit.

where

Pe is the extracted power by the rotor (W)

V¥ is the free stream wind velocity (m/s)

A is area normal to wind         (m2)

ρ is density of the air              (kg/m3)

 

 

The tip speed ratio (l) is the ratio of the speed of the blade tip to the free stream wind speed.

 

 

where

w is the angular velocity of the rotor (rads/sec), and

R is the tip radius (m)

 

This relation holds for the horizontal axis machine which is the focus of these notes.

 

The solidity (g) is the ratio of the blade area to the swept frontal area (face area) of the machine

 

Blade area = number of blades * mean chord length * radius = N.c.R

 

Mean chord length is the average width of the blade facing the wind.

 

Swept frontal area is pR2

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Help-Project INSE 6110:Foundations of Cryptography


Help-Project INSE 6110:Foundations of Cryptography Due:Last class
1 Project paper Choose one of the pre-approved topics below,or you may suggest other topics (either as a survey or a novel contribution) but they must be approved by me.Projects are to be done individually or in groups of 2.You may suggest a group project that involves 3 or more people but it must be approved by me.All group members receive the same mark for the project. For this project,research the topic and write a paper (max 8 pages) explaining the subject,with ref- erences to the related literature,using the following template:
http://www.springer.com/computer/lncs?SGWID=0-164-6-793341-0 Your paper should summarize the subject with an introduction, explaining very clearly what the research problem is and how the subject addresses it. You should then explain the solution with technical detail. You should understand and cite at least 3 academic papers that appear at good quality venues. To find papers and understand the concepts,try:
http://scholar.google.com http://link.springer.com/referencework/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-5906-5 If the paper does not appear at a conference in the first 50 on this list,it is not likely a good quality venue:
http://academic.research.microsoft.com/RankList?entitytype=3&topdomainid=2&subdomainid= 2&last=0&orderby=1 In all cases,you can use your discretion (e.g.,papers at specialized workshops can be high quality, non-academic resources can be as well) and if you have any questions,ask me during the lecture break or during office hours. Be sure to cite all sources you use. You may do citations in a conversational way (e.g., “Boneh et allist the five essential properties of blah as follows [9].”) Under no circumstance can you use someone else’s text as your own (even if you modify the grammar).Review Concordia’s plagiarism policy and understand it:
http://www.concordia.ca/students/academic-integrity/plagiarism.html https://www.concordia.ca/content/dam/encs/docs/Expectations-of-Originality-Feb14-2012. pdf
2 Pre-approved Topics Cryptographic Primitives and Protocols • Attribute-based Encryption • Blind Signatures • Bilinear Pairings • Bitcoin • Cryptographic Accumulators • Direct Anonymous Attestation (used by TPMs) • Dining Cryptographers • Fair Exchange • Fully Homomorphic Encryption • Garbled Circuits • GCMMode of Operation • Group Signatures • Indistinguishability Obfuscation • Identity-based Cryptography • Mix Networks • Oblivious Transfer • Off-the-Record Messaging • Post-Quantum Cryptography • Ring Signatures • Timed-Release Encryption • Universal Composability Cryptanalysis and Attacks • Differential Cryptanalysis • Boomerang Attack • Biclique Cryptanalysis News-worthy Events • RC4 biases in SSL/TLS • NSAbackdoor in Dual ECDRGB
2

Need help-CSE423 – Individual summary report


Need help-CSE423 – Individual summary report
This report is worth 10% of your grade.  The individual report describes your personal contributions to the capstone project. Late submissions will be penalized 10%.  Use the SafeAssign link on Blackboard to submit your work.
The report is to be in your own words.  Copying content from other sources, including other team member, is not acceptable.  The report will be checked against other students’ reports to verify unique content and wording.
Use Times New Roman 12pt with 1.5 line spacing. The following outline should be used for the report. You may need to deviate slightly, depending on the nature of your project.
1. Cover Page a. Title b. Class name c. Team name d. Brief project description (maximum 20 words)  2. Table of Contents (with page numbers) 3. Description of the overall project a. Work completed b. Defining the best of the work accomplished 4. Reflection on the team a. Evaluation of the success of the work produced by the team as a whole b. How things can be improved c. Moving forward next semester (goals and plans) 5. Summary of your contributions a. Work on team presentation b. Work on reports c. Work on product d. Work on team management (meeting minutes, etc.) 6. Reflection on your work a. Evaluation of the success of the work produced by you b. How you can be improved c. Lessons learned d. Moving forward next semester (goals and plans) 7. Conclusion

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENERGY SYSTEMS- CHE 494-08 SPRING 2016


ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENERGY SYSTEMS- CHE 494-08                SPRING 2016

PROJECT GUIDELINES

  1. Report Elements

The project is composed of 25 pages (double spaced, 12 font size (Times New Roman) EXCLUDING references. It is due on May 8th /2016.

  1. Title Page: Title of the project in capital letters, team names, Term ( e.g Spring 2016) and course name.
  2. Executive summary. A brief summary of the project objectives and results. One page length or 300 words.
  3. Table of Contents.
  4. List of Figures and Tables.
  5. Introduction: What prompted you to choose the topic, background, scope of the work, problem description, and objectives (what you wish to achieve in this project)
  6. Literature review with creditable literature sources (includes the work done in this area).
  7. Analyses and findings.
  8. Discussion or critique.
  9. Conclusions and recommendations.
  10. References (any format but consistent)
  11. Report Evaluation Criteria

The project has a weight of 20% of the final grade. This grade is distributed among the following parts:

  1. Report writing (67 % weightage)
  2. Presentation: Communication of ideas (30 % weightage).
  3. Peer evaluation: (3% weightage)

The presentation includes coherence/clarity of argument, using supporting evidence from literature, flow of ideas, eye contact, and answering questions.

 

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