Tag Archives: Engineering

Buy your Custom Essay-EG-260 Continuous Assessment 1

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 EG-260 Continuous Assessment 1

Warning: Failure to follow these instructions will result in zero mark for the entire assessment. These instructions are purposefully very detailed and highlight common mistakes that have been seen in the past. My goal is to make sure that you communicate your answers to this assessment in the correct manner so that I can assign you the correct marks. It is therefore crucial that you read, understand and follow these instructions.



  • This assessment must be solved and submitted individually. The submission deadline is:


23.59 on Thursday 9 March 2017


  • Use numerical values for the parameters corresponding to your student number from xls file available on blackboard.



  • Solve all of the questions in this assessment using the parameters that are assigned to your student number. Remember: Each answer that you will obtain WILL be a numerical value. When solving the questions, maintain highest possible decimal points. Your final answer should be rounded to 4 decimal places (done automatically in the xls file).


  • Download the empty answer file (xls) to your computer from the Blackboard page. This is the file where you will enter your answers to the questions. The only change that you should do to this file is to enter your answers and to save it! Do NOT rename this file. Do NOT change the file format, for example to .xlsx. Do NOT change the internal formatting of the file. Do NOT change or add new sheets to the file. Your task is to simply enter ONLY numerical values for your answers to this file and save it! Do not put units as they are already in the questions. Do NOT enter ANY non-numerical characters (such as “2*10^2”, “10e4”) or incomplete calculations such as “2×2” or “2*100” or “50/3 – 100”.


  • Submit the Excel file (xls) in Blackboard.


  • IN ADDITION to the xls file, you MUST submit a SINGLE file containing the supporting work. This file should show how you have solved the problems. This is the evidence that you obtained the numerical results yourself. You can type your solution in WORD or SCAN your handwritten work. Either way, submission should be a PDF file. Remember, this FILE NAME must be MySolution.pdf. Do NOT submit separate files for different parts of your solution. Avoid JPG, TIF or other image files if possible.


  • Numerical answers in both files must agree with each other. In case of any discrepancies, the answers in xls will be used for marking.


  • Unlike the final exam, no method marks is available for this assessment. You have to get correct numerical values and enter it correctly as described above. This is because, unlike the final exam, you have one full week to solve the two problems.


  • Please submit the two files ONLY once.

  • Question 1: An inverted pendulum oscillator of length L [m] and mass m [kg] is attached by springs. Two springs of stiffness values k1 and k2 [N/m] are arranged in parallel and series respectively as shown below:


Important: The values of L, m, k1 and k2 in SI units are given for your student number in the excel file CA1_Parameters.xls. Use an equivalent spring in deriving the equation of motion and consider the weight of the mass. Take gravitational acceleration constant as 9.8100 [m/s2]. All answers must be in numerical format and in SI units.


Case 1: springs in parallel                      Case 2: springs in series

  1. Calculate the equivalent spring stiffness for case 1 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                                     (5 Marks)
  2. Calculate the equivalent spring stiffness for case 2 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                                                               (5 Marks)
  3. Assuming the rotation is small, obtain the equation of motion. From this, calculate the natural frequency in rad/sec for case 1 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.              (15 Marks)
  4. From the equation of motion, calculate the natural frequency in rad/sec for case 2 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file. (15 Marks)
  5. Assuming k2 = 2k1, obtain the value of k1 (in N/m) for the system to be stable for case 1 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file. (5 Marks)
  6. Assuming k2 = 2k1, obtain the value of k1 (in N/m) for the system to be stable for case 2 and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.      (5 Marks)




Question 2: A vibrating system consisting of a weight of W [N] and a spring stiffness of k [N/m] is viscously damped such that the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes is 10 to y. Determine:


  1. Log decrement () and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                        (10 Marks)
  2. Damping factor () and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                   (10 Marks)
  3. Damped natural frequency () in (rad/sec) and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.    (15 Marks)
  4. Damping constant (c) and enter the numerical value to the designated cell in the Excel file.                (15 Marks)


Hint: The values of W, k, and y in SI units are given for your student number in the Excel file CA1_Parameters.xls. Take gravitational acceleration constant as 9.8100 [m/s2]. All answers must be in numerical format and in SI units.


Reminder: Failure to follow the instructions will result in zero marks even if you obtained correct answers! For the sake of fairness, no exceptions will be allowed. Unless you are ABSOLUTELY sure that your submission is according to the instructions, please do not upload it in the blackboard.


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Help write-Lab #6, Stimulus Control: Attention

Help write-Lab #6, Stimulus Control: Attention

Lab #6             Stimulus Control: Attention

Cover page                       


 Introduces concept threads.

Please note the experiment is based on a methodology of identifying configural cues, elements, and stimulus and contextual dimensions.  By then, presenting specific stimuli with single or multiple elements we are able to infer attention.  A reference that uses this methodology will be a good tread to weave the last lab report.






*There were (15) stimuli in the pretest and 17 in the post test due to the addition of the SD and the S Δ in the second elements test.


Relevant data to be highlighted is based on concept threads and discussion.

  1. Responding during the first elements test


Color (wavelength)


Responding during the discrimination training.

Rate between and within multiple schedules of SD and SΔ


  1. Responding during the second (post-training) elements test


Color (wavelength)





Excitation & Inhibition


Color (wavelength)


Other, dimensions, elements, e.g. brightness or Gestalt


Threads woven together.




Figure Captions



Format F Procedure D Results C Data concepts B

Treads that weaves report together B A. Whole report in APA format.


Need help-Wind Turbine Investigation

Need help-Wind Turbine Investigation

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The following experiment enables you to:

  • Measure the energy in the wind.
  • Assess a commercially available wind turbine in an environmental wind tunnel.
  • Determine the power curve of a wind turbine and obtain cut-in speeds
  • Calculate the coefficient of performance of a turbine
  • Calculate the Solidity and Tip-speed ratio.
  • See how the energy is converted stored and utilised.
  • Examine the Beaufort wind scale.


The power available to a wind turbine is the kinetic energy passing per unit time in a column of air with the same cross sectional area A as the wind turbine rotor, travelling with a wind speed U0. Thus the available power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. See the figure below.


The equipment is provided by Marlec and the following information is from their web page but has been modified slightly for this labsheet.

The Rutland 913 is designed for marine use on board coastal and ocean going yachts usually over 10m in length. This unit will generate enough power to serve both domestic and engine batteries on board.
The Rutland 913 is a popular sight in marinas, thousands are in use worldwide, boat owners like it’s clean, aerodynamic lines and its quiet and continuous operation. Without doubt this latest marine model accumulates more energy than any other comparable windcharger available, you’ll always see a Rutland spinning in the lightest of breezes!

  • Low wind speed start up of less than 3m/s
  • Generates 90w @ 37m/s, 24w @ 20 m/s
  • Delivers up to 250w
  • Modern, durable materials for reliability on the high seas
  • SR200 Regulator – Shunt type voltage regulator prevents battery overcharge


During this experiment you will make use of the following equations to calculate key parameters

Key formulae

Energy in the wind E = (watts)

Swept area of rotor A=πR2


Electrical power output P=VxI (watts)


Coefficient of performance


Tip speed ratio




Solidity = blade area/swept area


R is the rotor radius (m)

ρ is air density say 1.23 kg/m3

Uo is the wind speed (m/s)

V is voltage (volts)

I is current (amps)

ω (rads/sec) is the angular velocity of the rotor found from


 where N is the rotor speed in revs/min






Step 1         Ensure that everything is setup for you and switch on the tunnel.

Step 2         Adjust the wind speed and let it stabilize

Step 3         Measure the wind speed, voltage and current

Step 4         If available measure the rotor speed with the stroboscope.

Repeat steps 2 – 4 for other wind speeds up to a maximum of 10m/s if achievable.


Gather your data by completing tables 1 and 2


Wind speed

Uo  (m/s)



Effect on land Output voltage

V (volts)

Output current

I (amps)

Rotor speed

N (revs/min)

Table 1 measured data


Calculate the following

Rotor radius use a ruler to measure from center to tip of turbine R =
Swept area A=πR2


A =
Blade area = blade area + hub area

do your best!

Solidity = blade area / swept area.   =

Table 2 measured data




Now analyse your data by completing table 3.


Energy in the wind Electrical power Coefficient of performance Tip speed ratio
E =  (watts) P = V x I




(or column 2 /column 1)

Table 3 Analyse your data


Present your data:

Now present your results in graphical format to give you a better understanding of the data you have gathered and analysed.


Use excel and the x-y scatter chart for this.


Graph 1

Plot the values Uo (x-axis) against P (y1-axis) and E (y2-axis).


Graph 2

Plot the values of Uo (x-axis) against Cp (y-axis).


What conclusions do you draw?


How efficiently are you converting the kinetic energy in the wind into electrical energy that is stored chemically in the batteries?


Write up the laboratory formally and submit to turnitin. Please ensure presentation is clear and quote fully any references.



The Beaufort Wind Speed Scale

Wind Speed at 10m height Description Wind Turbine
Effect on
Effect at
0 0.0 -0.4 Calm None Smoke rises vertically Mirror smooth
1 0.4 -1.8 Light None Smoke drifts; vanes unaffected small ripples
2 1.8 -3.6 Light None Leaves move slightly Definite waves
3 3.6 -5.8 Light Small turbines start – e.g. for pumping Leaves in motion; Flags extend Occasional breaking crest
4 5.8 -8.5 Moderate Start up for electrical generation Small branches move Larger waves; White crests common
5 8.5 -11.0 Fresh Useful power Generation at 1/3 capacity Small trees sway Extensive white crests
6 11.0 -14.0 Strong Rated power range Large branches move Larger waves; foaming crests
7 14.0 -17.0 Strong Full capacity Trees in motion Foam breaks from crests
8 17.0 -21.0 Gale Shut down initiated Walking difficult Blown foam
9 21.0 -25.0 Gale All machines shut down Slight structural damage Extensive blown foam
10 25.0 -29.0 Strong gale Design criteria against damage Trees uprooted; much structural damage Large waves with long breaking crests
11 29.0 -34.0 Strong gale Widespread damage
12 >34.0 Hurricane Serious damage Disaster conditions Ships hidden in wave troughs

Supplementary Theory

The power available to a wind turbine is the kinetic energy passing per unit time in a column of air with the same cross sectional area A as the wind turbine rotor, travelling with a wind speed u0. Thus the available power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed.

We can see that the power achieved is highly dependent on the wind speed. Doubling the wind speed increases the power eightfold but doubling the turbine area only doubles the power. Thus optimising the siting of wind turbines in the highest wind speed areas has significant benefit and is critical for the best economic performance. Information on power production independently of the turbine characteristics is normally expressed as a flux, i.e. power per unit area or power density in W/m2. Thus assuming a standard atmosphere with density at 1.225kg/s :

Wind speed m/s     Power W/m squared               5.0                76.6              10.0               612.5              15.0              2067.2              20.0              4900.0              25.0              9570.3

The density of the air will also have an effect on the total power available. The air is generally less dense in warmer climates and also decreases with height. The air density can range from around 0.9 kg/m3 to 1.4kg/m3. This effect is very small in comparison to the variation of wind speed.


In practice all of the kinetic energy in the wind cannot be converted to shaft power since the air must be able to flow away from the rotor area. The Betz criterion, derived using the principles of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy gives a maximum possible turbine efficiency, or power coefficient, of 59%. In practise power coefficients of 20 – 30 % are common. The section on Aerodynamics discusses these matters in detail.


Most wind turbines are designed to generate maximum power at a fixed wind speed. This is known as Rated Power and the wind speed at which it is achieved the Rated Wind Speed. The rated wind speed chosen to fit the local site wind regime, and is often about 1.5 times the site mean wind speed.

The power produced by the wind turbine increases from zero, below the cut in wind speed, (usually around 5m/s but again varies with site) to the maximum at the rated wind speed. Above the rated wind speed the wind turbine continues to produce the same rated power but at lower efficiency until shut down is initiated if the wind speed becomes dangerously high, i.e. above 25 to 30m/s (gale force). This is the cut out wind speed. The exact specifications for designing the energy capture of a turbine depend on the distribution of wind speed over the year at the site.


Performance calculations


Power coefficient Cp is the ratio of the power extracted by the rotor to the power available in the wind.

It can be shown that the maximum possible value of the power coefficient is 0.593 which is referred to as the Betz limit.


Pe is the extracted power by the rotor (W)

V¥ is the free stream wind velocity (m/s)

A is area normal to wind         (m2)

ρ is density of the air              (kg/m3)



The tip speed ratio (l) is the ratio of the speed of the blade tip to the free stream wind speed.




w is the angular velocity of the rotor (rads/sec), and

R is the tip radius (m)


This relation holds for the horizontal axis machine which is the focus of these notes.


The solidity (g) is the ratio of the blade area to the swept frontal area (face area) of the machine


Blade area = number of blades * mean chord length * radius = N.c.R


Mean chord length is the average width of the blade facing the wind.


Swept frontal area is pR2

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 Need help-Wind Turbine Investigation

















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Facet 3: Concept Development

Facet 3: Concept Development

 Brainstorming Techniques

Brainstorming was divided into 2 main groups:

  1. Group
  2. Individual

Group discussions take place during group meetings twice a week. Individual brainstorming was assigned to group members during times in between group meetings.  All attempts at brainstorming were documented in either individual notes or in minutes of group meetings.  There are many strategies for both sections of brainstorming that were used by the team and all team members during idea creation sessions.



During group brainstorming sessions, as many group members as possible needed to be present.  If too many group members were not present, individual brainstorming and research would continue until the group could convene at another time.  Brainstorming as a group usually took place in Arrowhead center room 110D.  Two strategies were used for group brainstorming; open discussion and topic introduction.  Both strategies are affective and are broken down below.












Open Discussion Strategy
Format – Group members conduct open conversation about many design topics.  The use of overhead projectors and blackboards are often implemented to help convey design ideas.  Notes are taken by at least one group member to contribute to meeting minutes.


Strategy Highlights PRO CON
Rapid fire idea production. X  
Overlooking of ideas with trump by new suggestion.   X
Interactive approach at producing ideas X  
Use of technology and other resources to help convey ideas. X  
Concentration on multiple topics, often changing topic quickly.   X
Inclusion of all group members. X  


Topic Introduction Strategy
Format – After individual brainstorming sessions, group members introduce the topics that made up their session to the team.  Discussion of individual ideas, design suggestions, and implementation consensus take place among the team concerning the topic.


Strategy Highlights PRO CON
Concentration on one topic allows for thorough investigation. X  
More detailed sketches and idea representations come from individual brainstorming sessions. X  
Group’s non-acceptance of idea results in wasted time.   X
Individual approach at design coupled directly with group approach. X  
Time constraints and extended discussion take away from other group member’s topic introduction.   X

The strategy that was used was determined by the previous week’s individual assignments.  If group members had individual assignments that were completed in time for a group meeting, the Topic Introduction strategy was used.  Similarly, if the design phase had reached a standstill and design ideas were quickly needed to allow individual brainstorming to continue, the Open Discussion Strategy was used.  Both strategies were affective and commonly resulted in idea development.



Two strategies were used for individual brainstorming as well.  The Idea Creation Strategy and the Research Strategy were the two most common methods for individual brainstorming.  The choice of strategy the strategy that was used resulted directly from the progress made in group brainstorming.  During group discussion, ideas that need development are assigned to individual group members for improvement or design completion.  At this point, the group member must decide what strategy would be best to complete the task assigned to him by the group collectively.  Some tasks require idea development that is original and directly fits the application, while others require research of what products currently exist or how individual components (such as hydraulics) work.  The strategies are outlined below.

Individual brainstorming is an exercise that supports group brainstorming.  Due to time constraints or stalls in development, individual brainstorming can be applied to increase the progress of an idea, or help create an idea in the first place.  Group meetings are charged by individual brainstorming and the results achieved by each group member between group meetings.  Ideas proceed most gracefully if an individual team member creates an initial idea that is then either accepted or vetoed by the whole group.  If accepted, the idea can then be improved by input from all group members during group discussions.








Idea Creation Strategy
Format – Individuals ponder and experiment with different original ideas.  Development of custom and breakthrough components often comes from individual idea development.
Strategy Highlights PRO CON
Creative individual insight that was unnoticed in group debate. X  
Specific assignment allows concentration on topic at hand. X  
“Idea block” stalls development by individual   X
Feedback from group doesn’t come until next group discussion   X
Ideas can come very quickly, or very slowly   X
Coupled with other strategies can be very affective. X  


Research Strategy
Format – Research is conducted on a particular task in order to support development of an idea.  Examples of an idea, existing patents and designs, and basic theory of components can be researched to promote or rule out design ideas.
Strategy Highlights PRO CON
Increases individual and group knowledge of design components. X  
Research results can confirm or rule out use of an idea. X  
Important information needed to support development of design is collected during individual research.  


Feedback from group doesn’t come until next group discussion   X
Specific topics are decided before research even begins, so time is used efficiently X  
Coupled with group strategies can lead to productive idea development. X  


Approach to Idea Development

In order to have a successful and creative design environment, a consistent approach to design must be developed and strictly followed by all team members.  To create a team atmosphere, certain guidelines must be set for team conduct both in and out of group discussion.  This eliminates the need for arguments or disagreements between team members because of an inappropriate approach at presenting or deciding on an idea.  Unrest between team members causes friction and setbacks in the design process.



Removal bisphenoal A by activated carbon

Work type: Capstone project
Academic level: College (3-4 years: Junior, Senior)
Subject or discipline: Engineering
Title: removal bisphenoal A by activated carbon
Number of sources: 7
Provide digital sources used: No
Paper format: APA
# of pages: 7
Spacing: Double spaced
# of words: 1925
# of slides: ppt icon 0
# of charts: 0
Paper details:
1- . need my course project to be as the guidline paper i attached on the refernce . please make sure on the prposal t clearly state that using the activatated carbon with treatment to remove BPA from the drinking water with the prposed method and support it with the evidence from the refrences that i attached .
2- in the attached file alot of ways to removal BPA fronm drinking water . so have to use at less two methods like use nanofilteration or zeolite or nano with activated carbon to make comparsion with activated carbon to removal BPA , and wirte literrature review on these methods.
3- in proposed solution have to be the best way to remov BPA from drinking water supported with reasons as it mentioned in the instructions.
4- the refrences at less 15 refrences to support what u are writing.
5- in case mention to any reference have to be accessible from myself not used from special accounts that prevent me from access on it or give me these refrnces via folder.
6- please, be careful because last time made me sad when i did my work wity u.
please, follow the instructions and support my topic with many refreces in comparsion with use another technige to removal BPA.
Thank u

Note// , if u find nano filtration with activated carbon or any technique is better than use activated carbon only to removal BPA , and u can support it with references and reasons,so u can substituted my topic with the best technique that can supported with reasons and references.

contact with me via email .
thank u

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