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Assignment Presentation Formatting Guidelines

All undergraduate written essay and research report style assignments should be formatted using the following rules:

Margins: 2.54 left, right, top and bottom (this is the pre-set default margin setting).


Font Type: ‘Times New Roman’.


Font Size: 12 point font only with no larger fonts used for headings (if used).


Line Spacing: Double line spacing should be used throughout the assignment and on the reference list with no additional spaces between paragraph, assignment ‘sections’ or listed references. New paragraphs or sections are indicated by indenting of the first line of each new paragraph (see presentation format exemplar).


Indenting: Each new paragraph should be indented 5-7 spaces (or one Tab space).


Justification: No justification of text on right hand margin. Justify the left side of text in the body of essay/report except for indents required for the first lines of each new paragraph (see presentation format exemplar).


Page Numbers: Page numbers should be inserted in the upper right-hand side of the page header flush against the margin. Page numbers should start on the Title Page (starting at 1) and should be formatted with just the page number (see presentation format exemplar).


Assignment Title: Devise a suitably descriptive assignment title to include on the title page. Examples include: Managing Norovirus in Aged Care Facilities; Annotated Bibliography for Essay Question Four; Education Plan for the Long-Term Management of Type II Diabetes.


Footer: Your student number is to be inserted into the footer of the document (to assist with identification of lost pages if submission errors occur).


Griffith University Cover Page:  Complete and include the official university cover page. Assignment template documents for both INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP assignments that have the university cover page already merged are available for download on the Griffith Health Writing & Referencing Guide website.


Title Page: Include a title page with the following information. See presentation format exemplar for example.


  • Student Name:
  • Essay/Report title:
  • Word count: (excluding title page, reference list/bibliography and appendices)



Note: Your title page will also have a page number in the header (starting at ‘1’) and your student number in the footer (see presentation format exemplar).

Word Count: Word counts will comprise ALL text material contained in the body of the written assignment. This will include in-text citations, quotations, and any headings (if used). This will also include any information presented in tables or figures which are included WITHIN the body of the assignment.


Information included outside of the main body of the assignment (e.g. university coversheet, title page, reference list, preparation table) will NOT contribute to the word count.


Please Note: You must adhere to the stipulated word count for your assignment. Assignments which go over this stated limit will be penalised, with the marker ceasing to read your paper once the word count has been reached.


Headings: Headings are generally used more in research reports than in essays. The following rules should be followed to format headings if used.


Note: In general, if you are using headings in an essay, you will format them using ‘Level 2’ heading guidelines (see table below).



Level of Heading Format
1 Centred, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading


2 Flush left, boldface, Upper and Lowercase Heading


3        Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.


4        Indented, boldface, italicised, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.


5       Indented, italicised, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.


The above table has been adapted from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012).


Note: In general, if you are using headings in an essay, you will format them using Level 2 heading guidelines. Headings in a research report will be mainly formatted as Level 1, 2, and 3 headings, however all five levels of headings can be used in research reports (depending on the size of your report and the nature of information you need to discuss in particular sections).

When using Level 1 and 2 headings, your paragraph text will commence on the next line, indented by one tab space. When using Levels 3, 4 and 5, your paragraph text will commence two spaces after the full stop at the end of the heading (i.e. continuing on the same line as the heading). See the APA Annotated Exemplars (Essay and Research Report versions) in the ‘APA Referencing Guidelines’ section of the Griffith Health Writing and Referencing Guide website for examples of how to format different levels of headings and associated paragraph text.

Important Tip: When writing research reports, do not include the heading ‘Introduction’ at the start of your report. The heading at the start of your Introduction should be the title of the report that you have included on your title page. It should be formatted as a Level 1 heading (see table above).



Serial Comma: APA conventions require the use of a comma between elements in a series of three or more items. This is known as a ‘serial comma’. For example:


Examining height, width, and depth indicated that ……..




Use of numbers in assignment text:

  • Numbers between zero and nine should be represented in words. For example:
    • There were five experimental groups in the trial.
  • Numbers ten and above should be represented in numerical format. For example:
    • A total of 47 participants took part in the pilot test.


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EC912 Quantitative Methods-Project 2: Time Series.

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EC912 Quantitative Methods.
Mini-Project 2: Time Series.
Your answer must be submitted by 23:59 on Monday 13th of March 2017.
1 Submission Details.
Projects which violate any of the following constraints will be penalized by 15 points (out of 100).
The report should be a maximum of 2 sides of one A4. In addition to this, you can separately add up to
2 sides of one A4 containing tables and graphs.
Tables should include ONLY those results which are relevant for your discussion.
The preferred way of reporting parameter estimates from regression functions is an in-line equation, with
standard errors in parenthesis, as in,
t = 0:439673
+ 1:16446
Xt: (1.1)
If you end up with a model with a very large number of terms on the right hand side, then report only
the important estimates.
The project must be word processed, using 12 point Arial font and margins of at least an inch at top,
bottom, left and right.
Do not add a cover page or a title to the report.
The project must be submitted using MyPlace.
Late submission (except in exceptional medical circumstances and with prior agreement) will be penalized
according to departmental policy which is:
1 day late 5% of the mark allocated deducted.
2 days late 10% of the mark allocated deducted
3 days late 20% of the mark allocated deducted
4 days late 40% of the mark allocated deducted
5 days late 100% of the mark allocated deducted
2 Project.
The le santanderBBVA.gtl contains the weekly prices of two shares listed in the Madrid Stock Exchange.
The shares correspond to multinational Spanish banking groups Santander Group and Banco Bilbao Vizcaya
Argentaria (BBVA). The period under consideration is 1st of March 2000 to 27th of February 2017. Using
Gretl, complete the following tasks.
1. For the BBVA series:
Evaluate whether or not the series is I(1).
Transform the series into returns. Evaluate if the transformed series is I(1).
Using a histogram study the distribution of returns, and comment on whether the distribution exhibits
thicker tails than the normal distribution.
Study whether or not the square of the series in returns exhibits persistence.
Given your previous answers, would you say that the series of BBVA in returns exhibits conditional
Fit a GARCH(1,1) and a GARCH(2,1) to the BBVA time series in returns. Your model should
include a lag of the dependent variable in the conditional mean. Use an information criteria to select
one of the two models. For the selected model plot a graph of Residuals vs BBVA in Returns. Provide
a brief description of the pattern of volatility in the series.
2. Produce a time series plot of the Santander and BBVA series in levels. On the basis of this plot alone,
would you say that the two series are cointegrated?
3. Formally test if the Santander and BBVA series are cointegrated and, in so, report the value of the
cointegration parameter. Discuss your results.

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Homework help-Econ 4400, Elementary Econometrics

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Econ 4400, Elementary Econometrics

Directions: Please follow the instructions closely. Questions 1-10 are worth 9 points each. Question 11 is worth 10 points.

Due: All problem sets have to be turned in at the beginning of the class. Due Dates: March 2

Table 1 includes regression results using the NLSY 97 data set. The omitted racial group is ”non-black/ non-Hispanic”. The omitted census region is ”West”. The omitted favorite ice cream flavor is Chocolate.

Using the regression results in Table 1 perform each of the following tests. Use 0.05 significance level for every problem unless otherwise noted. You should write both the null and alternative hypotheses, calculate the necessary statistics, find correct critical values, and make the correct conclusion

  1. Use a t-test to test if education has a statistically significant(2-sided) effect on income in column 1.
  2. Use a t-test to test the null hypothesis that black workers make more than nonblack/non-Hispanic, all else equal.
  3. Find confidence intervals for the coefficient on education in column 1 and column


  1. Use the SSR version of the F-test to test the joint significance of the regional variables. (You can ignore the e + 12)
  2. Use the R2 version of the F-test to test the joint significance of the regional variables.
  3. Why does the coefficient on education change in each regression? Why would it be so much different in columns 1 and 3?
  4. Column 4 includes favorite ice cream flavor. Use an F-test to show that they should not be included.
  5. Typically there are stars to denote p-values on regression results. If 1,2, or 3 stars were added for p-values< 0.10, < 0.05, and < 0.01 respectively. How many stars would go on the coefficient for Northeast in column 2?
  6. Interpret β2 in column 1.
  7. What additional information is needed to test if black workers and Hispanic workers earn different incomes in column 1? What regression could you run to simplify the test?
  8. This must be typed. Use the project data set to estimate the equation with all of the variables from columns 1,2,3. of the regression results table and one other regression that you may find of interest for your project. (Your data set is a subsample of this set.) ”grade” is the education variable, the census variable has the regional categories.

To create dummy variables for race type ”tab race, gen(rdum)”. This will create rdum1. rdum2, rdum3, rdum4, and rdum5, each will have the associated race in the variable label. Use the same technique for census group.

(a) Create a table similar to Table 1 with regression results. The table does not need to be identical, but all of the following must be met to receive credit:[1]

  • Include all of the listed variables.
  • Use variable labels that make sense to someone that has never used the data (ie Years of Education instead of ihigrdc).
  • Put standard errors in parentheses.
  • Denote coefficients that are statistically significant at 0.01 ***, 0.05 **, and 0.10 * significance levels.

Table 1: Regression Results For Homework 4

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
  Adult Income Adult Income Adult Income Adult Income
Education 3914.8 3934.4 2626.2 3885.8
  (226.7) (227.0) (275.9) (227.1)
Black -6886.0 -7583.6 -790.1 -7192.8
  (1597.8) (1668.6) (1716.4) (1635.8)
Hispanic -2270.6 -2144.4 2318.2 -2424.3
  (1727.4) (1809.5) (1764.7) (1731.5)
Mixed race (non-Hispanic) -1836.1 -1683.2 -2405.2 -1979.6
  (6978.8) (6982.2) (6842.2) (6979.6)
Female -15382.8 -15434.5 -14758.5 -15478.4
  (1291.0) (1291.2) (1266.8) (1294.4)
Age 1445.7 1472.3 1378.0 1478.4
  (461.1) (461.0) (452.4) (461.2)
Northeast   3267.4


North central   -195.0


South   2500.6


Armed Services Aptitude Battery     0.149


HH Income as Adolescent     0.112


Vanilla       2217.6


Strawberry       -791.6


Butter pecan       1304.7


None of these       3718.6


Constant -57155.2 -59457.3 -52242.0 -58456.2
  (14572.0) (14636.8) (14289.6) (14606.5)
Observations 1995 1995 1995 1995
ESS 3.79899e+11 3.83837e+11 4.46293e+11 3.84050e+11
RSS 1.62137e+12 1.61743e+12 1.55497e+12 1.61721e+12
R2 0.190 0.192 0.223 0.192

Standard errors in parentheses

Table 2: Project Sample

  (1) (2)
  Earnings per hour Log(Earnings Per Hour)
Highest grade completed 113.5∗∗∗ 0.0574∗∗∗
  (1.044) (0.000538)
Age 80.32∗∗∗ 0.0545∗∗∗
  (1.044) (0.000538)
Age2 -0.765∗∗∗ -0.000529∗∗∗
  (0.0122) (0.00000628)
Female -276.2 -0.168∗∗∗
  (5.429) (0.00280)
[1em] Black -180.4 -0.0963∗∗∗
  (8.843) (0.00455)
American Indian -106.1∗∗∗ -0.0495∗∗∗
  (25.20) (0.0130)
Asian -11.76 -0.0206∗∗∗
  (13.22) (0.00681)
Other Race -34.41 -0.0182
  (18.27) (0.00941)
Adjusted R2 0.211 0.255

Standard errors in parentheses

p < 0.10, ∗∗ p < 0.05, ∗∗∗ p < 0.01


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[1] All of these can be done with the esttab command. See the sample estout.do file and previous homework’s on carmen for help.

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Exchange rate determination.

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Take a look at the exchange rate history of your favorite foreign country.   Is there a pattern of movement over the last 6 months to a year?  What was the cause of the movement?  Discuss some of the issues related to this unit’s topic of exchange rate determination.

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Buy Assessment 2_MBA-FP6008

Buy Assessment 2 – MBA-FP6008 – W
inter 2017 – Section 02

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Growth: Economic Analysis 2
In 3–4 pages, analyze economic growth and its impact on a nation, the concepts of gross investment and
net investment, economic discrepancies between countries, and the factors that can result in recession and
economic expansion.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course
competencies and assessment criteria:
Competency 1: Analyze the economic environment and the role of the federal government in establishing
fiscal and monetary policies.
Analyze the economic discrepancies between countries.
Explain how a financial crisis can lead to a recession.
Explain how a major new invention can lead to economic expansion.
Competency 2: Analyze the impact of macroeconomic principles, theories, policies, and tools in real world
business situations.
Analyze the impact of a high rate of growth on a nation.
Use the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain differences in specific economies.
Explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero.
Competency Map
Check Your Progress
Use this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is one measurement of the well­being of a nation, but it is not the only one.
GDP consists of what consumers buy, what businesses buy, what the government buys, and what is either
imported or exported. On the other side, everything a nation produces must be paid for, which represents
the national income—wages for labor, rents for land owners, and interest or return for capital owners.
Business cycles are the ups and downs of an economy, both nationally and globally. For example, we
recently experienced something called the Great Recession. Many jobs were lost. This followed a period of
economic growth. Global business leaders need to understand the factors that contribute to business
cycles, along with how the federal government manages business cycles through the use of taxes, debt,
and spending.
Questions to Consider
As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen
your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and
discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional
community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to
be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.
Attempt 1
Assessment 2 – MBA-FP6008 – W
inter 2017 – Section 02
Why do you think macroeconomics focus on just a few key statistics when trying to understand the health and
trajectory of an economy? Would it be better to try and examine all possible data?
Suggested Resources
The resources provided here are optional. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this
assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The
FP6008 – Global Economic Environment
can help direct your research, and the Supplemental Resources
and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional
resources to help support you.
Internet Resources
Explainity. (2014).
Economic growth easily explained
[Video] |
. Retrieved from
Romer, P. M. (2008).
Economic growth
Library of Economics and Liberty: The Concise Encyclopedia of
Global Finance School. (n.d.).
Gross investment and net investment
. Retrieved from
Bookstore Resources
These resources are available from the
Capella University Bookstore
. When searching the bookstore, select
“FlexPath” in the School category, and then select this course from the list.
McConnell, C., Flynn, S., & Brue, S. (2015).
(20th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw­Hill
Chapter 6, “An Introduction to Macroeconomics,” pages 135–147.
Chapter 7, “Measuring Domestic Output and National Income,” pages 150–168.
Chapter 8, “Economic Growth,” pages 172–192.
Chapter 9, “Business Cycles, Unemployment, and Inflation,” pages 195–214.
Assessment Instructions
This assessment examines national economics, economic growth, and financial crisis. The ability to analyze
these topics allows global business leaders to make sound economic decisions.
There are four parts to this assessment. Be sure you have completed all four parts before submitting.
Part 1
Consider a nation in which the volume of goods and services is growing by 5% per year:
Analyze the impact of the high rate of growth on the nation.
Explain how the high rate of growth is likely to affect the power and influence of the nation’s government
relative to other nations experiencing slower rates of growth.
Explain how the 5% growth is likely to affect the nation’s living standards.
How does economic growth affect population growth?
Will living standards necessarily grow by 5%, given population growth?
Part 2
Use the concepts of gross investment and net investment to explain the differences between an economy that has a
rising stock of capital and one that has a falling stock of capital.
Assessment 2 – MBA-FP6008 – W
inter 2017 – Section 02
Explain how it is impossible for gross investment to be less than zero, even though net investment can be positive,
negative, or zero. What real world examples can you provide?
Part 3
Analyze the economic discrepancies between countries.
Explain why some countries today are much poorer than other countries.
Based on what you know and have learned about macroeconomic principles, are today’s poorer countries
destined to always be poorer than today’s wealthy countries?
If so, explain why.
If not, explain how today’s poorer countries can catch up to or even surpass today’s wealthy countries.
Part 4
Explain how, in general, a financial crisis can lead to a recession.
Explain how, in general, a major new invention can lead to an economic expansion.
Organize your assessment logically with appropriate headings and subheadings. Support your work with at least
3 scholarly or professional resources and follow APA guidelines for your citations and references. Be sure you
include a title page and reference page.
Additional Requirements
Include a title page and reference page.
Number of pages:
3–4, not including title page and reference page.
Number of resources:
At least 3 scholarly or professional resources.
APA format for citations and references.
Font and spacing:
Times New Roman, 12 point; double­spaced.
Assessment 2 Example
See a successful example of this assessment.
How to use example assessments
Growth: Economic Analysis 2 Scoring Guide
View Scoring Guide
Use the scoring guide to enhance your learning.
How to use the scoring guide
[U02a1] Growth: Economic Analysis 2
In 3–4 pages, analyze economic growth and its impact on a nation, the concepts of gross investment and net
investment, economic discrepancies between countries, and the factors that can result in recession and
economic expansion.
Submit Assessment
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U02a1:Growth: Economic Analysis 2
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Library Research Assignment (LRA) #1
LRA 1: Essential Guidelines
HIST 105, RCI, F-2016, RC Weller
40 pts (4% of overall grade)

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*Write your answers out in a separate document, numbering the questions and answers clearly as
shown/instructed. When finished, save your work in WORD document format and upload it in the Dropbox on
Bb. Be sure that you have completed the assignment properly before uploading it on Blackboard. You cannot
*Be sure to include the standard assignment heading for this and all assignments at the very top of your paper,
as follows:
HIST 105, RCI (___ am/pm), F-2016, Dr. Weller
Name of Assignment, Due Date
Your Full Name, WSU ID, WSU Email Address, Row #
Q1: List five contemporary issues in which you are interested. They should be topics or
stories which have been in the news within the past year (2015-2016). Your selected
topics/stories cannot be vague and general. (For example, “Racism in the World Today” or “Global
Warming and Climate Change.”) They must be about *specific* issues, that is, issues involving specific
political, national, ethnic, religious, cultural, racial, gender, sexual or other groups in specific places at
specific times. (For example, “The Problem of Human and Child Trafficking in India,” “The Rise of ISIS in
Middle Eastern and Global Affairs,” or “The Crisis of Melting Tundra across Alaska, Northern Canada, and
List the topics as if they were titles for a research paper (5-10 words each). Be sure to number each
answer (1A- First Topic Title; 1B- Second Topic Title; 1C- Third Topic Title; 1D- Fourth Topic Title; 1EFifth
Topic Title). Use specific facts from the State of the World Atlas and/or specific news stories from the
following world news sites to help you if needed:
Q2: Select Your Research Topic from the list above and Name the Two Course Themes with
which it most clearly, directly connects. This course employs five broad themes common to all who
live in contemporary global society and those who have lived in centuries past. They are: 1- humans and the
environment, 2- “our shrinking world” (which refers to ‘global interconnectedness’), 3- inequality (racial,
gender, sexual, and other), 4- diverse ways of thinking (between religions, cultures, civilizations, or about
politics, economic systems, etc.) and conflict (religious, cultural, ethnic, racial, political, etc.).
Library Research Assignment (LRA) #1
As above, your selected research topic cannot be vague and general. (For example, “Racism in the World
Today” or “Global Warming and Climate Change.”) It must be about a *specific* issue, that is, an issue
involving specific political, national, ethnic, religious, cultural, racial, gender, sexual or other groups in
specific places at specific times. (For example, “The Problem of Human and Child Trafficking in India,” “The
Rise of ISIS in Middle Eastern and Global Affairs,” or “The Crisis of Melting Tundra across Alaska, Northern
Canada, and Siberia.”). After stating research topic, explain briefly how at least 2 of these themes relate to/tie
into your chosen topic (30-50 words total). Clearly distinguish the two parts of this question as
2A- Research Topic (5-10 words)
2B- Connection to Two Course Themes (30-50 words total)
Q3: Locate and Cite one Newspaper Article which relates to your selected research topic to
use as a ‘Contemporary Documentary Source’ in your Final Research Paper (FRP)
Go to the WSU Library Newspapers LibGuide on the WSU Library website. (If you need help finding the
location, ask a librarian.) In the large middle column, go down to the third link and click on Lexis Nexis
Academic (the Libraries’ most comprehensive newspaper source). Search for newspaper articles by opening
the “Search the News” search box at the bottom left. Be sure to choose “source type” and limit your search
to only newspapers). [see Part I:Database Specific Video Tutorials]
Once you locate a newspaper article in the LexusNexus database which relates to your
selected research topic, in the textbox below, cite the article using the Chicago Style
bibliographic (not footnotes) citation format. Your newspaper article must be less than five
years old. (Be sure to ‘Bookmark’ this RCI Chicago-style page for quick reference. Unless otherwise directed,
use only this page and the Purdue OWL site (introduced later) for this series of research assignments.) Your
citation should include a URL and state the “date accessed” (see the Chicago-style reference page). Note that
you CANNOT simply cut and paste the URL from the browser’s address bar. From the proper URL for the
article, click on the ‘Copy Document’ icon in the upper right (looks like a clipboard with a chain). Follow the
instructions to get your URL.
Not only do you need to cite the URL correctly for this assignment, but you will need to have access to this
article in the future to complete your other LRAs and Final Research Paper (FRP). For that reason, you should
consider downloading or printing the article now, though it is not required for this particular assignment.
3A: Newspaper Article Citation (Chicago Style) Example: Fitrat, Samantha. “ISIS Goes Global.” New
York Times, Nov. 13, 2015. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/……&#8230; Date accessed: Jan 22, 2016.
Q4: Locate and then provide the correct Chicago-style bibliographic citation for two topic
relevant books (single- or co-authored volumes only; no ‘edited’ volumes). Label your
citations 4A and 4B. For Chicago-style, use ‘notes/bibliography style’, in ‘bibliographic’
form (NOT footnotes/endnotes). For help understanding the difference between a ‘single-authored
volume’ and an ‘edited volume’, see the “*Note” at the end of Q6 below.
*You must obtain (or be able to access electronically) a copy of each book.
*Under each book citation (1A and 1B), enter:
Library Research Assignment (LRA) #1
–the library location (e.g., Holland/Terrell Libraries) and call number (e.g.,
HD34 .B338) for your two books from the “Available at” information bar or under the
“Availability and Request Options” link.
–the Permalink URL for your book (Go to “Availability and Request Options” >
“Actions” > “Permalink”). For electronic books, only enter the Permalink
URL (“Access Options > “Actions” > “Permalink”).
–the “interlibrary loan request number” if you ordered your book through Summit
or ILLiad.
*Citation example in Chicago-Style (Notes & Biblio) for Books:
Smith, John. A History of Education in America, 1636-1992. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 1994.
4A- Scholarly Book (Single- or co-authored volume) Citation #1
4B- Scholarly Book (Single- or co-authored volume) Citation #2
Q5: Using JSTOR and/or Project Muse via the WSU Library website, provide the
correct Chicago-style ‘bibliographic’ citation for TWO scholarly articles published in a
history journal in the last 25 years (i.e. published after 1990) that can help you learn about
the historical roots of your contemporary issue. Label the citations 5A and 5B. For Chicagostyle,
use ‘notes/bibliography style’, in ‘bibliographic’ format (NOT footnotes/endnotes).
*Citation example in Chicago-Style (Notes & Biblio) for Journal Articles:
Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.”
American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010.
5A- Scholarly Journal Article Citation #1
5B- Scholarly Journal Article Citation #2
Q6: In order to provide world historical context for your research topic, select *one*
chapter from each of the following two books. You should select the chapters which
best relate to your research topic. Your grade for this question will be determined
based on how well your selected chapters relate to your research topic. Select only
from the chapters listed.
Bentley, Jerry, ed. The Oxford Handbook of World History. Oxford University Press, 2011. (This book is available on
reserve at Terrell-Holland Library; you can go check the book out and make a copy of your selected chapter. Or,
your selected chapter can be requested online via ILL services at https://wsu.illiad.oclc.org/illiad/PUL/illiad.dll.)
Ch 4: Matthew J. Lauzon, “Modernity.” (pp 72-88)
Ch 5: Jurgen Osterhammel, “Globalizations.” (pp 89-104)
Ch 7: David Christian, “World Environmental History.” (pp 125-142)
Ch 8: John A. Mears, “Agriculture.” (pp 143-159)
Ch 14: Kenneth Pomeranz, “Advanced Agriculture.” (pp 246-266)
Ch 10: Charles Tilley, “States, State Transformation, and War.” (pp 176-194)
Ch 11: Marnie Hughes-Warrington, “Genders.” (pp 195-209)
Library Research Assignment (LRA) #1
Ch 12: Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, “Religions and World History.” (pp 210-228)
Ch 13: Daniel R. Headrick, “Technology, Engineering, and Science.” (pp 229-245)
Ch 15: Dirk Hoerder, “Migrations.” (pp 269-287)
Ch 17: P.K. O’Brien, “Industrialization.” (pp 304-324)
Ch 18: J.R. McNeill, “Biological Exchanges in World History.” (pp 325-342)
Ch 19: Jerry H. Bentley, “Cultural Exchanges in World History.” (pp 343-360)
Ch 21: Prasenjit Duara, “Modern Imperialism.” (pp 379-395)
VanHaute, Eric. World History: An Introduction. Routledge, 2013. (This book is available free online via the WSU
library website; your selected chapter can be downloaded with the online tools provided at the book’s reading site.
Note that I have not provided chapter one because you should NOT use chapter one for your study.)
Ch 2: “A Human World: humans and humankind.” (pp 23-45)
Ch 3: “A Natural World: ecology, energy, and growth.” (pp 46-62)
Ch 4: “An Agrarian World: farmers, agriculture, and food.” (pp 63-74)
Ch 5: “A Political World: governance and rulers.” (pp 75-87)
Ch 6: “A Divine World: culture, civilizations and religions.” (pp 88-100)
Ch 7: “A Divided World: The West and The Rest.” (pp 101-121)
Ch 8: “A Global World: globalization or globalizations?” (pp 122-134)
Ch 9: “A Polarized World: development, poverty and inequality.” (pp 135-144)
Ch 10: “A Fragmented World: unity and fragmentation.” (pp 145-159)
After selecting one chapter from each book listed above, cite each selected chapter
according to the example provided below. Number your answers 6A and 6B, as shown. Note
that “xx-yy” = the page numbers for the chapter.
6A: Author Last Name, First Name, “[Selected Chapter Title].” In The Oxford Handbook of
World History, edited by Jerry H. Bentley, xx-yy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University
Press, 2011.
6B: VanHaute, Eric. “[Selected Chapter Title].” In World History: An Introduction, xx-yy.
Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2013.
*Note that in 6A the author of the chapter is different from the “editor” of the main book whereas in 6B the author of the chapter
and the book are the same because only one author wrote the entire book, therefore it is not necessary in the second case to repeat the
author’s name twice in the citation. The first book is an ‘edited volume’, where many writers each contribute a single chapter to the
volume and then only one or two of them serves as ‘editor’ to organize and introduce it, while the second book is a ‘monograph’ or
‘single-authored volume’.
Q7: Locate and cite a ‘Primary Source’ document related to your research topic. Your
Primary Source document must have been written before 1950. This can be either a
‘documentary source’ (book, journal article, newspaper article, or popular magazine article) or a
‘non-documentary source’ (diary, letter, speech transcript, interview transcript, personal papers,
etc). You can use WSU Library databases (Historical/Older Newspapers). Your citation should be
in Chicago Style bibliographic format. Since the citation format depends on the type of source
(book, journal article, newspaper article, etc.), you will need to follow the correct format for the
type of source you select. You can consult the LRA 1 or LRA 2 Essential Guidelines or, if needed,
the Chicago Style Quick Reference Guide on Blackboard in the LRA folder. Number your answer
as follows:
7A: Primary Source Citation (Chicago Style, Bibliographic format)
Library Research Assignment (LRA) #1
Q8: Formulate Two Preliminary Research Questions that you hope to answer by the end of your
research. Be sure that your questions are *historically* focused, that is, that they point you
toward a study of the *historical roots* of your selected research topic in order to find the
answers. Do not be vague and general. (For example, “What are the historical roots of my contemporary
issue?”) Be clear and specific. (For example, “When were the first signs of glacial melting observed in the
Arctic?”). Formulate two research questions and number them 3A and 3B. (Read the Part I: Writing
Research Questions and Part I: Roots Research Question Example research guides to aid you in the process
of writing your research questions.)
8A. Research Question One (7-15 words)
8B. Research Question Two (7-15 words)

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Health Promotion Program Paper

Southeastern Louisiana University
College of Nursing and Health Sciences
School of Nursing
Doctor of Nursing Practice
Fall 2016
Health Promotion Program Paper Instructions
Identify a specific vulnerable or target population in a community with a potential for either an intentional (e.g., suicide, violence) or unintentional (e.g., accidents) injury. Using an appropriate model, develop or identify an existing program addressing the injury and identify strategies to reduce the target injury. Consideration should be given to the epidemiological, cultural and environmental issues of this population.
1. Select an area of intentional or unintentional injury that is seen in a specific segment of a population.
a. Describe the specific problem/ injury
b. Identify the community and existing factors affecting the selected injury.
c. Present (epidemiological: incidence, morbidity, mortality, etc.) and behavioral data to document the problem.
2. Select a model for health promotion (e.g., PRECEDE-PROCEED Model, Social Marketing Framework, PATCH Model) to be used to assess, plan and implement a health promotion program to address the problem.
3. Design a program to change the behavior of the specific segment of the population to prevent the injury in question. Or
4. Select an existing health promotion program with documentation that it is evidence based.
5. Outline an evaluation plan which includes:
a. Desired outcomes.
b. Data collection plan
6. Data analysis plan
7. Specify benchmark data and sources for comparison.

Southeastern Louisiana University College of Nursing and Health Sciences School of Nursing Doctor of Nursing Practice, Fall 2016 NURSING 805: PREVENTIVE CARE for POPULATIONS Health Promotion Program: EVALUATION CRITERIA STUDENT: _____________________________________ SCORE: This format will be used as grading criteria for the Community Health Promotion assignment. Your work should be posted to your Assignment Page by the published due date. (Worth 30% of the course grade) CONTENT: POSSIBLE POINTS SCORE 1. Description of specific Intentional or Unintentional injury …………………………………..…………… 10 _____ 2. Community description and possible contributing factors to at risk behavior …………………………………………………………….. 05 _____ 3. Epidemiological and behavioral data provided to document the problem……………….…………………………………………….. 10 _____ 4. Outline and application of the selected model for Health Promotion ……….……………………………………………………………. 20 _____ 5. Detailed description of program (i.e., strategies, potential barriers) to change the target population’s behaviors with evidence to support its selection (Include the What , Where, Who, When, Why, and How)……………………………………………………………20 _____ 6. Program Evaluation Plan including…………………………………………. 15 _____ a. Desired Outcomes (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-frame) b. Data collection Plan c. Data analysis plan including design 7. Specify benchmark data and sources for comparison………………………05 _____ FORMAT 1. Text (citations provided from assigned readings as well as additional sources, APA format) ………………………………05 _____ 2. REFERENCES List (APA format) ……………………………………………….05 _____ 3. PROFESSIONAL WRITING STYLE ……………………………………………….05 _____ (Spelling, grammar, sentence structure, punctuation; Ideas expressed clearly and concisely, appropriate Vocabulary.) _______________________________________________________________________ (F’ 2015/ljs) POSSIBLE POINTS = 100 COMMENTS:

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The comparison of the 1st and 2nd conditionals for B2 learners.


  1. Introduction


The focus of this assignment is on conditional sentences for B2 (CEFR) learners and I have chosen to limit the scope of my assignment to the comparison of the 1st and 2nd conditionals.

Biber, Conrad and Leech (2002:375-380) point out that the correct usage of conditionals has a high surrender value, and this viewpoint is supported by the prevalence of conditionals in text books, exams, medical diagnosis and conversationally.

It is my experience that when most course books introduce the concept of 1st and 2nd conditionals at A2 level, it is introduced using a prescriptive form.  Therefore learners at B2 continue to have difficulties in identifying conditionals in use which may not follow the form previously taught.  Consequently learners rarely use any conditionals spontaneously, most specifically with regards to the concept of ‘reality/& non-reality’.


Towards the end of B2 learners are expected to be able to autonomously induce meaning/form &/or function by noticing.  However, they frequently lack confidence in their ability to identify a sentence structure, intrinsically understand and formulate an appropriate response instantaneously, in order to communicate appropriately for their level.


  1. Language Analysis



2a. Form


2a.i      General Form

The form of conditionals comprises of two clauses: namely a main clause (the result) and a subordinate clause typically beginning with “if”; an adverbial subordinator.  The subordinate clause specifying a condition or hypothesis, and the result clause or apodosis specifying what follows from that condition, one set of circumstances being dependant upon the other. (QuirkandGreenbaum1973)

The negative is formed by the adding of ‘not’ immediately after the first auxiliary of the verb phrase in either clause.

The question is formed by a change of order between the subject and the first auxiliary.

2a.ii. Comparing the 1st and 2nd conditionals

When the1st and 2nd conditionals are compared the difference lies within the tense of the sentence clauses, the grammatical construct.

Lewis (1986:50) describes a tense as a “morphological change in the base form of the verb” and goes on to say that other than present simple and past simple, linguistically all other verb forms (which require an auxiliary) are not a tense but an aspect. The aspect enables the speaker to indicate the time they are attaching to the sentence. Is it regarding a finite time, time that is over, or time which is ongoing?

Conditional sentences are further complicated as they also require modality (probability, possibility, necessity, etc), here the modal auxiliaries make the aspectual (time) forms whilst introducing modality, referred to by Lewis as the speaker’s mood “…a personal judgement about the non-factual nature…”

2a.iii. 1st conditional form


If + Present simple + modal auxiliary + bare infinitive

+          If I have enough money, I will go to Bali.

–           If you don’t hurry, you’ll miss the bus.

?          What will you do if you are late?


2a.iv. 2nd conditional form


If + Past Simple + modal auxiliary + bare infinitive

+          If I had more money, I would go to Bali

–           If I won the lottery, I wouldn’t buy a Ferrari

?          What would you say if you had lunch with Tom Cruise?



2b. Function and Meaning


1st conditional


2nd conditional


These are things which are possible, in the (near) future and it’s a very high probability, to be almost certain that they will happen. These are things which are in current time, the probability is very low, or they are impossible. An unreal current situation.




1st and 2nd conditionals are the interface between our expression of reality and non-reality. It is the speaker’s perception of likelihood of the event happening which is the determining factor.


2b.ii   Common key uses for 1st conditional include:


Possibilities                                        If we win today, we will be in the final

Superstitions                                       If you break a mirror, it’ll be 7 years bad luck

Future plans                                        If I get the job, I’ll get a new car

Warnings and threats                          If you touch that, it’ll burn you

If you don’t clean your room you won’t go out tonight

Bribing                                                If you’re good, I’ll buy you some sweets

Predicting                                            If he works hard, he’ll pass

Giving directions                                If you turn left, you’ll see the church.

Imperative in the result clause            If you see Simon, tell him I want a lift

Offers and suggestions                       If it’s sunny tomorrow, we might have

(modal in the result clause)                 a barbeque.

Be going to                                         If it’s warm tomorrow, I’m going to mow the lawn



2b.iii. Common key uses for 2nd conditional include:



Unreal situations in the present       If I were the pilot, I would fly to Thailand.

If I were an animal, I would be a cat.

Imagined events                                 If I won the lottery, I would fly first class.

I would exercise more if I had time.

Impossible present situations                        I would come for a meal, if I didn’t have to work.

If I could sing, I would serenade you.

Speculating                                        If the Greens won the next election, we would see different results

Wishing                                              If I were rich, I’d buy my parents a house

Deducing                                            If that was John’s essay, it would be types

Advising                                             If I were you, I would go to the doctors

Advising (nagging)                            If you hung up your trousers, they wouldn’t get creased.


Could for ability in either clause      If I could help him, I would

If I saw him, I could help him

Could for permission                          If he had a permit, he could get the job

Might (main clause)                           If I saw him I might help him

(usually result is possible but unlikely)

Might/could instead of would                       If you tried again, you would succeed

(certain result)

If you tried again, you might succeed

(possible result)

Idiomatic                                            If I were keys, where would I be?

(I’ve lost my keys)


Yule (1998) makes further subdivisions, but such detailed analysis is beyond the range of this limited study.


2c.       Phonology


With both ‘will’ and with ‘would’ learners have a tendency to use the whole word and not the contracted form among some higher level students, repeated usage may have  led to fossilisation.


I will   /ˈaɪ wɪl/

I’ll  /aɪl/

I would / ˈaɪ wʊd /

I’d   / aɪd  /


Additionally, weak forms – particularly with ‘was’ / wəz/ and ‘were’ / wər/ – are something that may need addressing and it would be beneficial to highlight correct pronunciation on the board, with attention drawn to grammatical intonation when used in conditional sentences (rise, fall).





If I live in the Capital , I will have lots to eat.


The auxiliary is either reduced or stressed to show the speaker’s feeling or connotation (annoyance, insistence, surprise, enthusiasm). i.e. If you hung up your trousers, they wouldn’t get creased. The speaker is showing their annoyance by using the stressed form. When reduced it can be so reduced as to be indistinct and learners may fail to identify it.


3 . Learner Problems / Teaching Issues


3a. Problems

In my experience some of the most common problems are often due to modern course books favouring a notional-functional approach. Learners being exposed to a ‘pro-active syllabus’ (Davies2007:51) in which the content and the sequence that learners are exposed to language is pre-determined. As a consequence most syllabi teach the conditionals at a later stage. The majority of learners mistakes are those of form.  Therefore when alternative structures are subsequently presented the learners lack the confidence to deviate from the traditional prescriptive forms they have previously been taught in coursebooks.  Several of my learners have demonstrated problems with comprehending alternatives to the ‘rules’.  It can therefore be argued that exposure at lower levels could be highly useful.



Problems understanding the unreality of 2nd conditional sentences especially that either or both clauses can be contrary to fact



Problems with would for unreality when they have learnt ‘I would like…’ as a polite form of discourse to mean a real statement of want or intention.



Some L1 have clearly defined ‘reality vs unreality’ areas in grammar, and this often involves the use of additional language to denote the tense.  Students often try to use a translation of their L1 structure to give an English conditional form meaning.


If I see a wallet in the street (not real, just imagine) I’ll keep it.



Problems with single clause usage with conditional sentences.  Some students are not sure if I’m being serious, unreal, or even using the 3rd conditional.



Problems with negatives. If the clauses are both unreal then the reality is the opposite to what is stated.


If I didn’t like chocolate so much, then I wouldn’t eat it every day.

(I do like chocolate a lot, and I eat it everyday)


Similarly when only one clause has a negative.


If I was having a good time, I wouldn’t catch the bus home.


(I am not there, I don’t know what kind of time I will have, but if it was good, I would deliberately miss/forget to catch the bus home, or make other arrangements)



Structure – use of a past form yet we are talking about present or future

Problems of placement of the modal auxiliary, students often get confused and place it in the ‘if…’ clause


If I will go to cinema, I’d see film Thor



3b Solutions

Concept checking is an important tool in the teachers’ repertoire, used appropriately it can reduce or negate some of the more common problems (Workman2006).  Learners are required to choose between 1st or 2nd conditional based on their own interpretation of the likelihood of the consequence to the condition happening. The form of the conditional being determined by the speakers aspect and mood. In order to confirm learners comprehend the differences CCQ’s are particularly important as ‘most [learners] are unwilling to admit lack of comprehension’ (Constantinides2010).


Use of a time line to determine the time appropriate to the content helps establish the tenses – this is useful for problems 3a(i) & (vi).


Provision of an accurate model, both written and aural is necessary to introduce and then reinforce form.  Highlighting through the use of the model sentence addresses problems with form, function and phonology through showing, telling or eliciting (Workman2006). This would be appropriate for all problems, particularly 3a(ii) & (vi).


Use of truth lines to establish the modality (probability e.g. could be, can’t be, must be, might be) – this is useful for problems 3a(i), (iii), (iv), (v) (Lewis1973).


Contrastive analysis is useful for mono-lingual classes but not for multi-lingual mixed L1 backgrounds.  An alternative could be to just teach those structures that are different (if they are known). Where the concept does not exist in the L1, CCQ’s can be part of the initial teaching process.


Extension tasks provide learners with the opportunity to work with the TL, to consolidate their learning and it is argued that classroom interaction aids SLA. (StoopsVerplatse&KellyHall2014).



  1. Suggestions for Teaching


“PPP works through the progression of three sequential stages” (Doff 1988).


  • Presentation: The teacher presents the new grammar structure.
  • Practice: Learners practice using new structures using guided practices e.g. making sentences from prompts, asking and answering questions or making a storyline based on a picture. Practice can be written or spoken.
  • Production: Freer practice where learners try to use the structures they have learnt to express themselves freely. Production can be written or spoken.


In general, a deductive approach for lower level adult learners works best.  They appreciate this model because they can learn easily through guided practice. It is a learning model with which learners are familiar, within which they work, daring to take responsibility and initiative.


Drilling is a technique used extensively in EFL. Dialogue building is good for learners at all levels using a picture to create the scene and elicit a dialogue. Disappearing texts are another alternative.  The teacher creates a text on the board which is then drilled, with the text being erased from the end/back, the aim being to get the learners students to say the whole text from memory. Gap activities are often used for controlled practice.


Role-plays, discussions, language games, collaborative writing give learners the chance to use the grammar structure more freely and to focus on fluency


Task-based learning (TBL) offers an alternative to PPP, playing a game, solving a problem or the sharing of learners’ experiences, can all be considered as appropriate tasks.  Learners who are used to a more traditional grammatical syllabus may find this approach difficult to come to terms with. Littlewood(1999) notes that one of the features of TBL that worries teachers is that it seems to have no place for the teaching of grammar.


The Test-Teach-Test approach (TTT) uses the aspects of PPP and usually incorporates TBL. The TTT approach is “useful when the teacher does not know if the learners are familiar with a particular language item” (Lindsay&Knight2006:22).

TTT is more frequently used at intermediate levels and above as a suitable alternative to PPP where learners may have specific problems with language they have already been introduced to.  Problems with a TTT approach may arise where the learners are field dependant, not very autonomous, not analytical. These learners are more interested in being shown the TL within a situational concept so they can go on to the practise stages.  Using more of a PPP approach supports their style of learning and the TL becomes means more psychologically real to them (Lantoff&Appel1994)


The Engage, Study, Activate (ESA) model of Jeremy Harmer also emerged from the criticism of the PPP model


  1. Conclusion



if a teacher caters to a student’s particular LS then said student’s learning will be enhanced. (Thornbury 2006)  Therefore a teacher should prepare a variety of approaches when introducing material in order to cater for these disparate needs.


Harmer, ‘[we] advise against pedagogical intervention based solely on any of the learning style instruments’ (Coffield et al 2004:140)


As Harmer (2001) says, using coursebooks appropriately is an art which becomes clearer with experience.  As a result of my research, I have found that, while there are differences in how coursebooks present this structure, the basic form still needs to be provided first, to give the students a scaffold, then a guided discovery approach for higher levels, as and when the more advanced forms occur, preferably through authentic texts

Need help-Accounting Theory Questions

Need help-Accounting Theory Questions

Positive accounting theory and agency theory make certain central assumptions about what influences people’s decisions.


What are these assumptions?  (3) Discuss whether you believe these are realistic of stakeholder behaviour?  (5) How does this differ from the perspective embraced within normative research? (5) Does the current conceptual framework embrace a wide group of stakeholders? (2) Do you think that this framework is more aligned to the assumptions underlying a positive view by virtue of the stakeholders identified to be relevant?  Discuss. (5)


Some information of how the question should be handled?


PAT (reference to self-interest, opportunistic behaviour, focus on wealth), Normative (reference to Legitimacy Theory – acceptability of actions to a community) (reference to ‘ethical’ dimension of stakeholder theory – addressing stakeholder ‘needs’)


Difference(s) – PAT descriptive and prescriptive – looks at what is, and therefore what is expected; Normative – looks at what should be – should be in terms of societal expectation, or the intrinsic needs of stakeholders.


Discussions of assumptions


Explain to a positive theorist – discuss in the context of an appeal to the assumptions underlying PAT – that is, when CSR reporting can be demonstrated to be important to generating wealth.


Note:  use of examples to exemplify discussion is important.


Economics-based theories such as Positive Accounting Theory and Agency Theory make assumptions about what motivates human actions (for example, a quest to maximise personal wealth), and such motivations are attributed to all individuals.


By contrast, normative research studies consider what ‘should be’ and this may be explored empirically (legitimacy and stakeholder studies for example).  These studies may explore individuals as groups or/and individuals’ actions and choices such as motivations to report information.  They typically do not make broad-based assumptions about how all individuals behave, or about what motivates them to behave in a particular way (although there could be an acceptance that many individuals will tend to adopt specific strategies or biases when making decisions).

Stakeholder Engagement

There has been an increasing trend since the 1990’s to broaden the concept of reporting to stakeholders.  Prior to this time, the focus was on financial reporting of monetary amounts, and a strong focus on meeting compliance requirements.  Since that time, financial and compliance requirements have increased significantly, but so has a trend to report on environmental and social activities, and more recently corporate governance matters.  This has been an interesting change in terms of the expectations of what is required to report to stakeholders.  Arguments have also moved to discussion that perhaps there are alternative reporting methods to monetary amounts, that in some cases monetary amounts may not be the most appropriate approach to reporting. This has implications for accountants who have had the main responsibility for both guiding reporting and offering assurance in regard to these reports.


Discuss this change in focus, ensuring you make clear the difference between integrated, sustainability and traditional financial reports. (14) In your response, you may like to consider whether this achievable in the historical cost framework?  (6)


Some Information of how the Question should be handled


  • What do you understand by traditional financial reporting (historic cost/variations on ‘true’ historic cost/reporting on past events??/basis to understand the future??). Traditional financial reporting focuses on recognising the financial effects of an entity’s transactions. It follows generally accepted accounting principles and accounting standards and is audited by an external auditor. The financial report is limited to transactions that have a financial impact.  Sustainability reporting however goes beyond this. It includes reporting on the environmental activities and of the entity as well as its social impacts. These are combined with financial information.


  • The following benefits can be gained from preparing sustainability reports:
  • Embedding sound corporate governance and ethics systems throughout the organisation
  • Improved management of risk through enhanced management systems and performance monitoring
  • Formalising and enhancing communication with key stakeholders
  • Attracting and retaining competent staff
  • Ability to benchmark performance with other entities. Explain what is meant by sustainability reporting (the 3 dimensions/forward thinking)


  • Differences between the two:
  • Economic financial compared to eco/soc and env
  • Report on past performance /future performance
  • Historic cost/intergenerational equity
  • Eco efficiency/eco-justice


  • Resolution??
  • Need to change the outlook of accounting – the underlying process is based on historic cost and the past??




  • How does the HCA model seek to achieve this? By recording actual business events/transaction in monetary form.    A contract where a good/service is exchanged for $.


  • However, this is a fiction:


  • The HCA model operates as a mixed method model. There are judgements made relating to what is included making the model to a greater or lesser degree subjective, not totally reliable nor necessarily faithfully representative of events without bias. [1]
  • Choice within accounting standards (Depreciation method, stock valuation, independent revaluations, impairment, fair value)
  • Professional judgement in choices made
  • Value systems of the accountant
  • Approach where there not an accounting standard/regulation
  • Implications of the additivity problem/changing prices


Need help-Accounting Theory Questions

Art Essay questions:

Art Essay questions:


  1. Discuss the main features of King Zoser’s (Djoser’s) mortuary complex at Saqqara, how the complex expresses the Egyptian view of the role of the Pharaoh, and how the features of Saqqara point forward to subsequent art and architecture. Please include specific details in your essay to support your descriptions and main points.


  1. Choose two of the following periods or cultures, and discuss how the content of art (subject matter) reflects the central concerns of society, and how the style and form (way that the content is conveyed) may be interpreted to express the character of the society: Cave paintings (Ice Age art), Sumerian art, Amarna period in Egypt, Minoan art.


  1. Discuss the main features of Queen Hatshepsut’s mortuary complex at Deir el-Bahri. How does the complex express the Egyptian view of the role of the Pharaoh? How does it express the Hatshepsut’s own interests? What was new and what was traditional in the design? Please include specific details in your essay to support your descriptions and main points.


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