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Inferential Research and Statistics Project


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 University of Phoenix Material

Inferential Research and Statistics Project

Part 1

Select one of the following scenarios based on your particular field of interest in psychology:

 

  • General Psychology:
    • Clinicians at a small clinic have been introduced to a new method to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their clients for veterans. Research indicates that virtual reality (VR) is a highly effective treatment option for patients with PTSD. Currently, the clinic uses only cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with their patients suffering from PTSD. The clinicians would like to find out whether VR therapy has different results from CPT therapy. The measure used by the clinic to measure PTSD symptoms is the Combat Exposure Scale. Both therapies need to be applied for a minimum of 12 weeks to be effective.

 

Write a 525- to 750-word paper that addresses the following for your chosen scenario:

 

  • Clearly define the problem or issue you are addressing. Provide a brief background of any research you have found that might affect your research hypothesis.
  • Create a research hypothesis based on the information provided in each scenario. You have been given a data set (Excel document) with two sets of interval data (just the numbers, as you must decide what they represent, such as method A results or method B results). This means you are going to test one thing against another, such as which method works best (step 1 of the steps to hypothesis testing). State the null and research hypotheses. Explain whether these hypotheses require a one-tailed test or two-tailed test, and explain your rationale.
  • Describe the sample you will use. Sample size will be 30 for each group, which are provided in your data set. Explain what type of sampling you selected.
  • Do you think you would also collect some descriptive data, such as gender, age, or shift? Why do you think it makes sense to collect descriptive data?

 

Format your paper according to APA guidelines.

 

Example

 

You have a hypothesis that two drugs have different effects on lowering anxiety. You would have anxiety scores for drug A and anxiety scores for drug B (all after 4 weeks of treatment) to run inferential analysis for after 4 weeks.

 

  • Null hypothesis is H0: drug A = drug B
  • Research hypothesis is H1: drug A ≠ drug B
  • Dependent variable: Anxiety score changed after treatment.
  • Independent variable: drug treatment

 

Because you did not state a direction in your hypotheses (better than or worse than), this will be a two-tailed test. You are looking for differences in either direction. You would set your alpha level of .05 and have a sample for each group of 30 people that were volunteers for the study.

 

 

  • Provide the main finding of the study. What did you prove or fail to prove?
  • Provide recommendations based on your findings.

 

Format any citations in your presentation according to APA guidelines.

 

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Sports Nutrition Tips and the Nutrition Plan for Athletes


Sports Nutrition Tips and the Nutrition Plan for Athletes

Sometimes someone can ask you what your talent is and at some point when you were growing, you did not have any idea what talent is, right? Then you have grown now and am sure some of you here still don’t know their talents. For the lucky ones who have sports talent, and went to schools which considered co-curricular activities as a great deal, I know they realized what they are good in when it comes to sports. So today am here to discuss about athletes, sports nutrition tips for athletes especially the nutrition plan for athletes.

Many of you might be wondering why it is necessary to have a nutrition plan for athletes and I can assure you that there are numerous reasons behind this aspect. We all need energy to perform our daily activities and tasks and the same case applies to athletes. However, for them, they have to be vigilant on what their diet contains because that is what determines how they work and for those who have taken up athletic as  a career, the foods they eat is what determines their career and how long they will stay in course. That is why the nutrition plan for athletes is a very crucial element in sports.

In order to achieve the nutrition plan for athletes, the meals each individual takes before or after have a great impact on their energy formation, performance and the subsequent trainings. These individuals require a lot of energy in order to optimize their activities hence, it is very common to find them taking more calories in their diet compared to some of us. For instance, the nutrition plan for athletes must contain carbohydrates because as we all know carbohydrate foods are very rich in energy formation and athletes need this energy to avoid instant body fatigues when they are either exercising or performing.

We cannot forget proteins and fats too. I remember when we were young we used to be told how proteins can make you grow, however when I grew up, I realized that proteins have various benefits in our bodies. I will talk about the function of proteins from an athletic point of view, they are a source of energy and in addition to that, proteins help in building up muscles and new tissues. For athletes to achieve their goals they have to train continuously with a lot of resilience because without that commitment and passion, you cannot survive in the sports industry. Additionally proteins are vital in repairing worn out tissues. It is very clear that proteins play a huge role in the nutrition plan for athletes. Take a minute to imagine what if proteins dint exist? You and I know how much these athletes get injuries when they are out there playing or exercising meaning if we didn’t have proteins, injuries will mark the end of their athletic era. Additionally, their muscles will wear out and as a result, they will lack enough strength to help them achieve their sports goals. Therefore we can say proteins will always play a crucial role in the nutrition plan for athletes.

Many of us when we hear about fats, our minds rush to weight gain. However, we have types of fats and the ones recommended for athletes are unsaturated fats. So what do unsaturated fats include? We have examples like nuts, avocadoes, salmon and oils such as olive oil and sunflower oil. These fats helps in forming fatty acids that are not produced directly by our bodies and they are also a major player in the production of bile that breaks other fats in the body. What does this mean? It shows that if a body lacks some fats, it may lead to accumulation of more fats in the body due to lack of bile and I know that if there are extra fats in the body, the end result will be critical health conditions like diabetes, heart attacks and weight gain. No athlete will want to undergo all the above mentioned health issues therefore a little consumption of fats is important in the diet as it also helps in formation of cell membranes and production of more energy.

Sports nutrition also advocates for supplements. The supplements may either be vitamins, minerals or even amino acids supplements. As much as our bodies have different hormones and metabolic processes, sometimes they cannot produce all the required elements in the body, some have to be taken artificially and that is where supplements come in. For instance if we look at minerals, there are a great number of tasks that they help in our bodies for example, transportation of oxygen, balancing the acidic and basic amounts in the blood, maintaining healthy bones and also activation of various enzymes in our bodies. All these processes are crucial and human beings especially the athletes cannot survive without these functions. The most important minerals that take part in these activities are mainly iron and calcium and the bodies don’t produce enough of these at times. That is where supplements come in. Dietary foods with these minerals must be included in the nutrition plan for athletes to ensure their bodies are fit and healthy for the purpose of incredible productivity.

I cannot forget to tell you about the essence of water and other energy drinks in the nutrition plan for athletes. Dehydration is very dangerous and that is why health specialists insist that we must always take a lot of water on a daily basis. Water is essential in all the metabolic process that take place in our bodies. The moment we become dehydrated, that is the point where our health is at risk. Therefore athletes also need water and other energy drinks to keep them hydrated during exercises. Energy drinks help in adding sugar to the body during exercise to avoid extreme fatigue by producing more energy to carry the athletes through the activity.

As much as all the above discussed aspects are important in the nutrition plan for athletes, the most important point here is that they should be taken in the right amounts in order to achieve the goal of keeping the athletes fit and productive.

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