Need help-ENGLIT 0300
Part of this writing-intensive course involves substantially revising work you’ve already written. By this point in the semester, you’ve composed three short papers based on online posts—one of which you’ll expand and revise for your final assignment by including the work of another author from our syllabus in your analysis. Here are your objectives for the essay:
- Choose an essay whose argument can accommodate an additional literary text and be taken to greater lengths without breaking
- Find an author’s work that fits comfortably alongside the original text you analyzed and helps to further illuminate your essay’s thesis
- Rework your original essay’s structure and argument to make room for this additional author’s work (you can’t simply leave the original version intact and attach new pages to the end of it)
- Create a balanced analysis of both authors’ work, making sure to talk about and quote from them to an equal extent in your essay’s body
- Cite at least two relevant secondary sources whose ideas about your primary texts and authors will give credence to your own
- Make revisions to the original essay at both a local level (spelling, grammar, punctuation, etc.) and most importantly global level (sentence/paragraph structure, thesis clarity, textual evidence, flow, etc.), while applying those improved notions to your writing about the newly-added text
CHOOSING AN ESSAY AND ADDING ANOTHER AUTHOR
Let’s say that for your first essay, you wrote about Perks of Being a Wallflower, focusing on the role played by substances like alcohol and drugs in the lives of Charlie and his friends. When writing that essay, you highlighted specific moments when these substances were relied upon the most by certain characters, but you didn’t consider the larger meaning of using one substance versus another (drinking beer versus wine, or smoking pot versus dropping acid). By addressing that angle of your argument, and including other good substance-abuse examples in the narrative as added ammunition, this essay could easily and sensibly be expanded. While reading Eighty Days of Sunlight, you noticed how Jason is also shaped by his experiences with alcohol and soft drugs, with his brother Tommy succumbing to harder drugs. Your original argument about Perks, then, finds a home in Eighty as well. You would find revealing passages in Eighty that clearly compare to the ones you’ve already found in Perks, noting the extent to which they reflect one another.
SYNTHESIZING AND STRUCTURING YOUR NEW ANALYSIS
Of course, it won’t be enough to simply graft the pages on Eighty to the end of your Perks essay; instead, you have to find a way to interweave the Perks and Eighty portions so there’s not a big gap in the middle of your essay separating them. It’s important for your reader to see throughout your essay how these two authors’ texts intersect, rather than wait until the final paragraph to discover that answer. You could go back and forth between each author over the course of your paper: devoting one or two paragraphs to one author which focus one of your main ideas, then examine the same idea in the other author for one or two paragraphs, etc. Additionally, you could talk about each author separately while making sure, when discussing the second author’s work, to refer back to important and related points you raised about the first author’s work earlier in your paper. Since this is a longer essay than the others, you can spend more than one paragraph at the beginning to establish your adjusted thesis. Finally, because you’re dealing with two authors in the same essay, you need to discuss them to an equal extent; spending twice as much time on Perks as you do on Eighty creates an imbalanced paper.
In addition to including a second author’s literature as a primary text alongside your original primary text, you must incorporate at least two secondary sources into your argument which help to support it. For the purposes of this assignment, secondary sources are works of non-fiction that discuss your specific primary texts and/or authors, address your essay’s larger theme, or provide some kind of relevant context (historical, literary, etc.). These sources can be a book-length monograph (written by one person), an article from an academic journal, or a chapter from a book that’s a collection of essays written by different people; no general-reference sources like encyclopedias or dictionaries are allowed. For the hypothetical Perks/Eighty essay, a journal article or essay chapter about Perks would be useful (Eighty is probably too new to have been written about analytically); in addition, a source discussing substance abuse in teens (either real or fictional) would help to give your analysis of the books more context. Regardless of what kind of secondary sources you cite, each one must be credible and directly relevant to your thesis; tell your reader some significant information about a source (the writer’s expertise or the source’s title, for example) when you first cite it. Don’t confine all your secondary sources to the same paragraph or the very end of your essay; spread them out and cite them more than once if you can. In addition, don’t spend as much time discussing your secondary sources as you do your primary sources; the latter literary texts should be your main concern. These secondary sources, along with your primary literary sources, should be listed on a separate Works Cited page in proper MLA format at the end of your essay.
To give you a fuller perspective on your work, you will get feedback on your draft not just from me but from your colleagues as well. I will assign each of you group members with whom you’ll conduct peer reviews of your essay drafts. Here’s the timeline you will follow:
The week of November 28: we will watch the film version of The Piano Lesson
Monday December 5: by 1:00 PM that day, you will email copies of your draft to me and your group members. This draft should be the required length (10-12 pages, plus Works Cited page) so that your readers can get a full sense of how you plan to combine the two authors’ works in your analysis. All drafts are inevitably imperfect, so no one should expect a finished product from you (or you from them). Each student will have two or three drafts to read over and write responses to (I will give you a guide of things to pay attention to in the draft).
December 5 and 7: no classes will be held these days; instead, I will hold one-on-one meetings with students in my office (CL439) to go over your work in progress. I expect you to work on your peer reviews during these days too.
December 9: you will come to class to meet with your group and discuss your notes on each other’s work, exchanging ideas that help to generate deeper thinking about your chosen texts. I will come around to address further questions and give further feedback. Over the next five days, take into consideration your colleagues’ suggestions (and mine as well) as you rework your draft and enhance its qualities.
December 14: The completed version of your paper, ten to twelve pages long with a Works Cited page at the end, is due by noon; drop it in my campus mailbox in CL501 along with the original version of the essay with my comments on it, so I can see the extent to which you revised/expanded it.
Need help-Accounting Theory Questions
Positive accounting theory and agency theory make certain central assumptions about what influences people’s decisions.
What are these assumptions? (3) Discuss whether you believe these are realistic of stakeholder behaviour? (5) How does this differ from the perspective embraced within normative research? (5) Does the current conceptual framework embrace a wide group of stakeholders? (2) Do you think that this framework is more aligned to the assumptions underlying a positive view by virtue of the stakeholders identified to be relevant? Discuss. (5)
Some information of how the question should be handled?
PAT (reference to self-interest, opportunistic behaviour, focus on wealth), Normative (reference to Legitimacy Theory – acceptability of actions to a community) (reference to ‘ethical’ dimension of stakeholder theory – addressing stakeholder ‘needs’)
Difference(s) – PAT descriptive and prescriptive – looks at what is, and therefore what is expected; Normative – looks at what should be – should be in terms of societal expectation, or the intrinsic needs of stakeholders.
Discussions of assumptions
Explain to a positive theorist – discuss in the context of an appeal to the assumptions underlying PAT – that is, when CSR reporting can be demonstrated to be important to generating wealth.
Note: use of examples to exemplify discussion is important.
Economics-based theories such as Positive Accounting Theory and Agency Theory make assumptions about what motivates human actions (for example, a quest to maximise personal wealth), and such motivations are attributed to all individuals.
By contrast, normative research studies consider what ‘should be’ and this may be explored empirically (legitimacy and stakeholder studies for example). These studies may explore individuals as groups or/and individuals’ actions and choices such as motivations to report information. They typically do not make broad-based assumptions about how all individuals behave, or about what motivates them to behave in a particular way (although there could be an acceptance that many individuals will tend to adopt specific strategies or biases when making decisions).
There has been an increasing trend since the 1990’s to broaden the concept of reporting to stakeholders. Prior to this time, the focus was on financial reporting of monetary amounts, and a strong focus on meeting compliance requirements. Since that time, financial and compliance requirements have increased significantly, but so has a trend to report on environmental and social activities, and more recently corporate governance matters. This has been an interesting change in terms of the expectations of what is required to report to stakeholders. Arguments have also moved to discussion that perhaps there are alternative reporting methods to monetary amounts, that in some cases monetary amounts may not be the most appropriate approach to reporting. This has implications for accountants who have had the main responsibility for both guiding reporting and offering assurance in regard to these reports.
Discuss this change in focus, ensuring you make clear the difference between integrated, sustainability and traditional financial reports. (14) In your response, you may like to consider whether this achievable in the historical cost framework? (6)
Some Information of how the Question should be handled
- What do you understand by traditional financial reporting (historic cost/variations on ‘true’ historic cost/reporting on past events??/basis to understand the future??). Traditional financial reporting focuses on recognising the financial effects of an entity’s transactions. It follows generally accepted accounting principles and accounting standards and is audited by an external auditor. The financial report is limited to transactions that have a financial impact. Sustainability reporting however goes beyond this. It includes reporting on the environmental activities and of the entity as well as its social impacts. These are combined with financial information.
- The following benefits can be gained from preparing sustainability reports:
- Embedding sound corporate governance and ethics systems throughout the organisation
- Improved management of risk through enhanced management systems and performance monitoring
- Formalising and enhancing communication with key stakeholders
- Attracting and retaining competent staff
- Ability to benchmark performance with other entities. Explain what is meant by sustainability reporting (the 3 dimensions/forward thinking)
- Differences between the two:
- Economic financial compared to eco/soc and env
- Report on past performance /future performance
- Historic cost/intergenerational equity
- Eco efficiency/eco-justice
- Need to change the outlook of accounting – the underlying process is based on historic cost and the past??
- How does the HCA model seek to achieve this? By recording actual business events/transaction in monetary form. A contract where a good/service is exchanged for $.
- However, this is a fiction:
- The HCA model operates as a mixed method model. There are judgements made relating to what is included making the model to a greater or lesser degree subjective, not totally reliable nor necessarily faithfully representative of events without bias. 
- Choice within accounting standards (Depreciation method, stock valuation, independent revaluations, impairment, fair value)
- Professional judgement in choices made
- Value systems of the accountant
- Approach where there not an accounting standard/regulation
- Implications of the additivity problem/changing prices
Need help-Accounting Theory Questions
Need Help-“Dulce et Decorum Est”
Read “Dulce et Decorum Est” by Wilfred Owen and write a 300-word explanation of the theme. Include specific examples from the poem (quotations).
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Essay 1: Critical Analysis of a Short Story
Worth: 100 points
Due Date: Friday, July 1, 2016
Steps to Follow:
- Read Chapter 40 in your textbook “Writing About a Story” pages 1315-1337, including the sample student essays which provide examples of the various ways to approach this type of essay: Explication, Analysis, Comparison/contrast, and Response paper.
This reading will give you important background information on how to begin and write these types of essays.
- See pages 1338: TOPICS FOR WRITING MORE EXTENDED PAPERS (600-1000 WORDS). Choose one of the topics from #’s 1-6 for doing your essay.
- Choose a short story (or short stories) from those found in Chapter 11: Stories for Further Reading in your Literature textbook, pages 338-445.
Things to Keep in Mind:
- You must type this essay in MLA format, which means including a Works Cited page that correctly lists the story/stories you refer to in your writing.
- See Rules for Writers textbook MLA section and MLA Info tab on the main menu of the Blackboard site for this course for more on this.
- In the 8th edition of Rules for Writers, there is general information on how to do a Works Cited page on p. 470-471.
- In the 8th edition of Rules for Writers, see p. 491, #35 for how to list one selection from an anthology or a collection.
- If you have another edition of Rules for Writers, these sections are in those editions too but you’ll have to see the index for page numbers.
- Do NOT use outside sources for this analysis: I want to read what your analysis, interpretation, and thoughts are on this story, not what others have said.
- Do not plagiarize. Here are ways to avoid plagiarism:
- Do not look on the internet or elsewhere for what others have had to say about the story you chose as your focus for this essay. I know it is tempting—but Don’t Do It!
- Have confidence in your ability to find meaning in the story, to express those thoughts in your own words, and to back up what you think. Focus on making a reasonable and logical argument for your interpretation.
- Know the rules for MLA formatting an academic essay correctly.
- Know the rules for MLA in-text citations including how to cite a direct quote, summary, or paraphrase of the story you are writing about.
- If you are finding it difficult to come up with something to say about the story, then choose another story. Find one that is easy for you to understand, has a theme you can relate to, or one that you find memorable.
See the next page for how this essay will be Graded.
How this Essay will be evaluated:
|Thesis: all essays require a thesis.
|Development & Support for the thesis and other major claims:
|Use of Standard English:
|TOTAL POINTS POSSIBLE = 100|
PLAGIARISM: If plagiarism is suspected, this paper will not be graded or scored until that issue is resolved.
Please Note: Your paper will receive “0” points if MLA formatting and citation is NOT done correctly because this is a form of plagiarism. Contact the instructor if you need help with this. You will be asked to revise with corrections and resubmit in order to earn points.
Approximate Grading Scale:
90-100 pts ~A 80-89 pts~B 70-79 pts~C 60-69 pts~D Below 60~F
English 122—Brian Holcomb
Lesson 6: Introduction to Poetry (it rocks!) and Introduction to Critical Theory (sometimes dry but incredibly important and useful to you)
There are several parts to this lesson and lots of reading – read carefully
Assignment Due Date For future assignments in this class you will be required to formally use literary criticism to help you support your arguments in your essays. Literary criticism/critical theory is different than interviews or reviews of books or plays found in publications like Time or USA Today. Instead, literary criticism is published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals (some of which have web sites). Read the chapter on “Critical Strategies for Reading” in The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature. (This is chapter 48 in the 10th edition, pages 1441-1464). This is a very important chapter. ***You do NOT need to memorize all of these critical approaches to literature. The idea here is to discover that there are various ways to read, and how/why one might do that. You will be given directions about specific ones to focus on later*** In addition, explore the link called “Introduction to Modern Literary Theory” found in the External Links module. (Here is the web address if the link doesn’t work: http://www.kristisiegel.com/theory.htm). This website is an introduction to Literary Criticism and Theory. You should also review the document called “Intro to Critical Theory” located in the Course Documents module for additional, general information. Post a message to the discussion board topic “Critical Theory” that addresses/answers the following: 1. Explain the differences between the older critical approaches called Formalist Strategies and the more recent approach called New Historicism. 2. Why did literary criticism “evolve” past “New Criticism”? 3. And what about New Historicism makes it a more complex approach to literature than New Criticism? Then please respond to two (2) of your peers commenting on/connecting through differences and similarities in your definitions. Friday, June 26 (assignments are usually due on Thursdays, but I wanted to give you time after finishing your Short Fiction Essay to read the material.) In the Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature, look at the list of “Elements of Poetry” on page 543. Each of these elements has a short (usually one or two page) explanation/introduction, and you should read all of them. The sections on rhythm, poetic form, and open form are less important for what we will be doing, but it can be helpful information. The sections numbered 19-25 (Reading Poetry, Writing About Poetry, Word Choice, Figures of Speech, Symbol, and Sounds) are especially important, and you should look at each of these. Make sure you read the first section, Reading Poetry, pages 545-550. You do not necessarily need to read the poems it includes as examples, but they can be helpful. Go to the next page for your assignment… Read the following poems in the Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature, all of which deal with women, or with relationships between men and women (or both): Herrick, “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time” p. 599 Marvell, “To His Coy Mistress” p. 601 Lauinger, “Marvell Noir” p. 602 Olds, “Last Night” p. 604 Song, “Youngest Daughter” p. 611 Smith, “What It’s Like to Be a Black Girl (for Those of You Who Aren’t)” p. 634 Croft, “Home-Baked Bread” p. 636 McCabe, “Paperboy” p. 640 On the discussion board topic “Poetry: Men and Women – feminist/gender criticism” post a 250 word response analyzing one of the poems you read using the specialized approach to literary criticism you have read about. Make clear references to what you have READ about Feminist Theory…don’t simply make comments about what you THINK Feminism is…Feminism (in a larger cultural/political/social context) is not the same thing as Feminist Literary Criticism. They have some very large similarities, but also differences…so make sure you know what you’re talking about. Be sure to use correct MLA format for in-text citing of poems – see p. 1504 in the Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature. Respond to two other posts making sure you respond to posts on poems OTHER than the one you posted on, and that you specifically continue the discussion connected to gender theory. Monday, June 29