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Need help-Accounting Theory Questions

Need help-Accounting Theory Questions

Positive accounting theory and agency theory make certain central assumptions about what influences people’s decisions.


What are these assumptions?  (3) Discuss whether you believe these are realistic of stakeholder behaviour?  (5) How does this differ from the perspective embraced within normative research? (5) Does the current conceptual framework embrace a wide group of stakeholders? (2) Do you think that this framework is more aligned to the assumptions underlying a positive view by virtue of the stakeholders identified to be relevant?  Discuss. (5)


Some information of how the question should be handled?


PAT (reference to self-interest, opportunistic behaviour, focus on wealth), Normative (reference to Legitimacy Theory – acceptability of actions to a community) (reference to ‘ethical’ dimension of stakeholder theory – addressing stakeholder ‘needs’)


Difference(s) – PAT descriptive and prescriptive – looks at what is, and therefore what is expected; Normative – looks at what should be – should be in terms of societal expectation, or the intrinsic needs of stakeholders.


Discussions of assumptions


Explain to a positive theorist – discuss in the context of an appeal to the assumptions underlying PAT – that is, when CSR reporting can be demonstrated to be important to generating wealth.


Note:  use of examples to exemplify discussion is important.


Economics-based theories such as Positive Accounting Theory and Agency Theory make assumptions about what motivates human actions (for example, a quest to maximise personal wealth), and such motivations are attributed to all individuals.


By contrast, normative research studies consider what ‘should be’ and this may be explored empirically (legitimacy and stakeholder studies for example).  These studies may explore individuals as groups or/and individuals’ actions and choices such as motivations to report information.  They typically do not make broad-based assumptions about how all individuals behave, or about what motivates them to behave in a particular way (although there could be an acceptance that many individuals will tend to adopt specific strategies or biases when making decisions).

Stakeholder Engagement

There has been an increasing trend since the 1990’s to broaden the concept of reporting to stakeholders.  Prior to this time, the focus was on financial reporting of monetary amounts, and a strong focus on meeting compliance requirements.  Since that time, financial and compliance requirements have increased significantly, but so has a trend to report on environmental and social activities, and more recently corporate governance matters.  This has been an interesting change in terms of the expectations of what is required to report to stakeholders.  Arguments have also moved to discussion that perhaps there are alternative reporting methods to monetary amounts, that in some cases monetary amounts may not be the most appropriate approach to reporting. This has implications for accountants who have had the main responsibility for both guiding reporting and offering assurance in regard to these reports.


Discuss this change in focus, ensuring you make clear the difference between integrated, sustainability and traditional financial reports. (14) In your response, you may like to consider whether this achievable in the historical cost framework?  (6)


Some Information of how the Question should be handled


  • What do you understand by traditional financial reporting (historic cost/variations on ‘true’ historic cost/reporting on past events??/basis to understand the future??). Traditional financial reporting focuses on recognising the financial effects of an entity’s transactions. It follows generally accepted accounting principles and accounting standards and is audited by an external auditor. The financial report is limited to transactions that have a financial impact.  Sustainability reporting however goes beyond this. It includes reporting on the environmental activities and of the entity as well as its social impacts. These are combined with financial information.


  • The following benefits can be gained from preparing sustainability reports:
  • Embedding sound corporate governance and ethics systems throughout the organisation
  • Improved management of risk through enhanced management systems and performance monitoring
  • Formalising and enhancing communication with key stakeholders
  • Attracting and retaining competent staff
  • Ability to benchmark performance with other entities. Explain what is meant by sustainability reporting (the 3 dimensions/forward thinking)


  • Differences between the two:
  • Economic financial compared to eco/soc and env
  • Report on past performance /future performance
  • Historic cost/intergenerational equity
  • Eco efficiency/eco-justice


  • Resolution??
  • Need to change the outlook of accounting – the underlying process is based on historic cost and the past??




  • How does the HCA model seek to achieve this? By recording actual business events/transaction in monetary form.    A contract where a good/service is exchanged for $.


  • However, this is a fiction:


  • The HCA model operates as a mixed method model. There are judgements made relating to what is included making the model to a greater or lesser degree subjective, not totally reliable nor necessarily faithfully representative of events without bias. [1]
  • Choice within accounting standards (Depreciation method, stock valuation, independent revaluations, impairment, fair value)
  • Professional judgement in choices made
  • Value systems of the accountant
  • Approach where there not an accounting standard/regulation
  • Implications of the additivity problem/changing prices


Need help-Accounting Theory Questions



Work type: Research proposal
Academic level: College (3-4 years: Junior, Senior)
Subject or discipline: Physics
Title: Writer’s choice
Number of sources: 0
Provide digital sources used: No
Paper format: APA
# of pages: 3
Spacing: Double spaced
# of words: 825
# of slides: ppt icon 0
# of charts: 0
Paper details:
I don’t need Cover sheet & Presentation Style that is mentioned in “LABORATORY LAB REPORT FORMAT AND GRADING GUIDELINES” for this order. Thank you.

1. Cover Sheet & Presentation Style (10 pts) Title of the experiment, not just the experiment number. The title should also appear on your data sheet. Your name and your lab partner(s) name.  It should be apparent who the author is and who the lab partner(s) is/are.  The same names should appear on your data sheet. Presentation is neat and legible, use of professional writing style, correct grammar and spelling.
2. Abstract (10 pts) 2-4 sentences. What is the reason for doing the lab?  What is determined or tested? Write a concise statement of the principle result that is described in this report. This should include what you were trying to measure (or do) and  whether your measurement (or tinkering) managed to agree with the expectations.
3. Introduction  (15 pts) 1-2 paragraphs. Start with the   statement of the experiment objective:   what main principle(s) of physics you were attempting to test/verify with this experiment. Include equations and other principle things the reader would need to know in order to understand the experiment. Keep it short!
4. Experimental procedure (10 pts) (a) Step by step record of procedure followed. Not a recap of the manual: what the team actually did.
(b) What equipment was used.You needn’t describe calculations.  Your procedure should be written in complete sentences and in the past tense. Do not include relatively trivial things like turning on a switch. On the other hand, you should include descriptions of how you determine things that are necessary to the anticipated results. This should be very short as well. Mention the particular pitfalls in data taking that you discovered and managed to maneuver around. You may need to recreate the experiment diagram or draw the apparatus in order to refer to it later during discussion. 5. Raw data (10 pts) Present the raw data you took here. It is important to note that “raw data” are the exact measurements that you took. Each item should be clearly labeled with a written description (ex: The mass of the metal cylinder) and units. This may be your data sheet if it is well written (clear). Don’t divide/multiply or add/subtract something off in your head before writing any numbers down – write whatever is on the measuring device and then perform analysis. This is important in order to find mistakes (yes, they happen!) later on. Data   should be easy to follow, in tabular form. Poor data recording skills lead to poor writeups.   6. Calculations (15 pts) (a) Always show a sample calculation for each type of calculation. Include the original formula used.  Show the substitution of the data into the formula, including units. Give the calculated value with the proper number of significant figures (regardless of what the lab manual says), units, and a written description.
(b) Graphs:  All graphs must be done on 8.5″-11″ graph paper. All graphs should have a written title which is specific, labeled axis (with units) and an appropriate scale. The scale should be chosen so that the data graphed fills at least ½ of the page horizontally and vertically so that plotting accuracy is increased. As a result of the above criteria, only one graph may be done on each sheet. Include smooth best fit lines (or trend lines, as it’s called in Excel) through experimental data points, and slope calculations. Each graph should convey a complete message and be fully understandable without referring to any other section in the report. When calculating a slope of a line on a graph, make sure to choose grid points that are at the front and end of the line, respectively, in order to have a large difference in x and y values. Draw a triangle or otherwise connect the two points. Label ∆x and ∆y, and calculate the slope right there on the graph. If you use a spreadsheet program (e.g. Excel) to plot your data and fit a line use Scatter Graph option and be sure that the equation for the fitting line is displayed on the graph as well as the line itself.

(c) Questions: Questions asked in the calculation section of each lab should be answered with complete sentences and followed by (Answer to Q1).  7. Results (10 pts) This section should be a concise, tabulated summary of your results. This is a very important section of the lab! It is here that it becomes clear whether your data agree with the accepted value(s) or are self-consistent. Calculate final experimental results, standard or accepted values, if they exist, and percent errors and/or percent differences. As a rule of thumb, ±3% error is considered reasonable for experimental results. However, don’t always expect to get accuracy this good. In some experiments an 80% error might be reasonable because of component tolerances. The nature of the experiment has a bearing on the expected accuracy.
8. Discussion/Conclusion  (15 pts) This section should not be a rehash of your results. (a) Begin with a statement of the lab’s objectives.   (b) Discuss how your results demonstrate basic principles of physics.  For each result, make certain your words agree with the graphics.  A clear, concise statement of each experimental result and associated uncertainties, percent differences should be included for comparative results. Conclude whether your data agree with the accepted value(s). (c) Identify and discuss random and systematic error/ accuracy and precision. (d) Identify and discuss each source of error. Discuss propagation of error through numerical propagation, show calculations. Personal observations, suggestions, and any other comments you feel are pertinent. (Hint: In discussing errors, think carefully about the limits of the measuring apparatus.)
All reports will be turned in at the beginning of the next lab. (a) 5 points/ 30 minute period will be deducted for reports turned in after the start of the lab period. For a maximum of 20 points by the end of the 2 hours. These points are subtracted from the overall lab report score.
(b) An additional 10 points will be deducted for each day the report is late.

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